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1.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568203

RESUMO

Natural environments of living organisms are often dynamic and multifactorial, with multiple parameters fluctuating over time. To better understand how cells respond to dynamically interacting factors, we quantified the effects of dual fluctuations of osmotic stress and glucose deprivation on yeast cells using microfluidics and time-lapse microscopy. Strikingly, we observed that cell proliferation, survival, and signaling depend on the phasing of the two periodic stresses. Cells divided faster, survived longer, and showed decreased transcriptional response when fluctuations of hyperosmotic stress and glucose deprivation occurred in phase than when the two stresses occurred alternatively. Therefore, glucose availability regulates yeast responses to dynamic osmotic stress, showcasing the key role of metabolic fluctuations in cellular responses to dynamic stress. We also found that mutants with impaired osmotic stress response were better adapted to alternating stresses than wild-type cells, showing that genetic mechanisms of adaptation to a persistent stress factor can be detrimental under dynamically interacting conditions.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Proliferação de Células , Glucose
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437996

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC), a novel antimicrobial agent found in personal care products, has been extensively detected in marine environments. However, research on the toxic effects of TCC on marine organisms remains inadequate. This study delved into the subchronic toxic effects of TCC on the early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma, O. melastigma), revealing that TCC could reduce embryo heart rate and hatching rate while diminishing the survival rate of larvae. Biomarker assays indicated that TCC could inflict damage on the embryos' antioxidant and nervous systems. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that TCC could impact cell growth, reproduction, and various life processes, activating cancer signaling pathways, increasing the likelihood of cancer, and exerting toxic effects on the immune and osmoregulatory systems. To validate and enhance our understanding of TCC's unique toxic impact on the osmoregulatory system of O. melastigma, we conducted homology modeling and molecular docking analyses on the protein involved in osmoregulation. The study intuitively revealed the potential binding affinity of TCC to sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alph (ATP1A1), indicating its ability to disrupt osmotic balance in marine fish by affecting this target protein. In summary, the results of this study will further enhance our comprehension of the potential toxic effects and mechanisms of TCC on the early stages of marine fish, with a specific focus on its unique toxic effects in osmoregulation.


Assuntos
Carbanilidas , Neoplasias , Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Osmorregulação , Oryzias/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298213, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478568

RESUMO

Freshwater salinization poses global challenges for aquatic organisms inhabiting urban streams, impacting their physiology and ecology. However, current salinization research predominantly focuses on mortality endpoints in limited model species, overlooking the sublethal effects on a broader spectrum of organisms and the exploration of adaptive mechanisms and pathways under natural field conditions. To address these gaps, we conducted high-throughput sequencing transcriptomic analysis on the gill tissue of the euryhaline fish Gasterosteus aculeatus, investigating its molecular response to salinity stress in the highly urbanized river Boye, Germany. We found that in stream sections with sublethal concentrations of chloride costly osmoregulatory systems were activated, evidenced by the differential expression of genes related to osmoregulation. Our enrichment analysis revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to transmembrane transport and regulation of transport and other osmoregulation pathways, which aligns with the crucial role of these pathways in maintaining biological homeostasis. Notably, we identified candidate genes involved in increased osmoregulatory activity under salinity stress, including those responsible for moving ions across membranes: ion channels, ion pumps, and ion transporters. Particularly, genes from the solute carrier family SLC, aquaporin AQP1, chloride channel CLC7, ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCE1, and ATPases member ATAD2 exhibited prominent differential expression. These findings provide insights into the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive response of euryhaline fish to salinity stress and have implications for their conservation and management in the face of freshwater salinization.


Assuntos
Rios , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Salinidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Osmorregulação/genética , Água Doce , Peixes/genética , Smegmamorpha/genética , Brânquias/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6677, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509217

RESUMO

The hyperarid mangrove in the Middle East is characterised by the absence of rivers or freshwater inputs and is one of the most extreme settings of this ecosystem on Earth. Endemic to Qatar's hyperarid mangroves, a Palaemon shrimp is uniquely confined to a sole mangrove site in the Arabian Gulf. Within these mangrove channels, we unveiled brine groundwater sources exceeding 70 ppt salinity, contrasting the local marine standard of 42 ppt. Concurrently, a mysid species typically linked to salt pans and groundwater coexists. Stable isotopic analysis implied the existence of a predator-prey dynamic between this mysid species and the studied shrimp. Then, investigating the endemic shrimp's adaptation to extreme salinity, we conducted osmolarity experiments and phylogenetic studies. Our findings demonstrate that this shrimp transitions from hypo- to hyper-osmoregulation, tolerating salinities from 18 to 68 ppt-an unprecedented osmoregulatory capacity among caridean shrimps. This speciation pattern likely arises from the species osmolarity adaptation, as suggested for other Palaemon congeners. Phylogenetic analysis of the studied Palaemon, along with the mangrove's geological history, suggests a profound evolutionary interplay between the ecosystem and the shrimp since the Eocene. This study proposes the hyperarid mangrove enclave as an Athalassic mangrove oasis-a distinctive, isolated ecosystem within the desert landscape.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação , Palaemonidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Concentração Osmolar , Palaemonidae/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298258, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446823

RESUMO

Clonal integration of defense or stress signal induced systemic resistance in leaf of interconnected ramets. However, similar effects of stress signal in root are poorly understood within clonal network. Clonal fragments of Centella asiaticas with first-young, second-mature, third-old and fourth-oldest ramets were used to investigate transportation or sharing of stress signal among interconnected ramets suffering from low water availability. Compared with control, oxidative stress in root of the first-young, second-mature and third-old ramets was significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application to the fourth-oldest ramets as well as enhancement of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, POD, CAT and APX) activities and osmoregulation ability. Surface area and volume in root of the first-young ramets were significantly increased and total length in root of the third-old ramets was significantly decreased. POD activity in root of the fourth-oldest and third-old ramets was significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA application to the first-young ramets. Meanwhile, total length and surface area in root of the fourth-oldest and third-old ramets were significantly decreased. Ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass in the whole clonal fragments was significantly increased by exogenous ABA application to the fourth-oldest or first-young ramets. It is suggested that transportation or sharing of stress signal may induce systemic resistance in root of interconnected ramets. Specially, transportation or sharing of stress signal against phloem flow was observed in the experiment. Possible explanation is that rapid recovery of foliar photosynthesis in first-young ramets subjected to exogenous ABA application can partially reverse phloem flow within clonal network. Thus, our experiment provides insight into ecological implication on clonal integration of stress signal.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Centella , Ansiedade , Biomassa , Osmorregulação
6.
J Proteomics ; 296: 105113, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346667

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the different regulatory mechanisms of euryhaline fish under regular hyperosmotic and extreme hyperosmotic stress. The OmB (Oreochromis mossambicus brain) cells were exposed to three treatments: control, regular hyperosmotic stress and extreme hyperosmotic stress. After 12 h exposure, proteomics, metabolomics analyses and integrative analyses were explored. Both kinds of stress lead to lowering cell growth and morphology changes, while under regular hyperosmotic stress, the up-regulated processes related with compatible organic osmolytes synthesis are crucial strategy for the euryhaline fish cell line to survive; On the other hand, under extreme hyperosmotic stress, the processes related with cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are dominant. Furthermore, down-regulated pyrimidine metabolism and several ribosomal proteins partially participated in the lowered cell metabolism and increased cell death under both kinds of hyperosmotic stress. The PI3K-Akt and p53 signaling pathways were involved in the stagnant stage of cell cycles and induction of cell apoptosis under both kinds of hyperosmotic stress. However, HIF-1, FoxO, JAK-STAT and Hippo signaling pathways mainly contribute to disrupting the cell cycle, metabolism and induction of cell apoptosis under extreme hyperosmotic stress. SIGNIFICANCE: In the past, the research on fish osmoregulation mainly focused on the transcription factors and ion transporters of osmoregulation, the processes between osmotic sensing and signal transduction, and the associations between signaling pathways and regulation processes have been poorly understood. Investigating fish cell osmoregulation and potential signal transduction pathways is necessary. With the advancements in omics research, it is now feasible to investigate the relationship between environmental stress and molecular responses. In this study, we aimed to explore the signaling pathways and substance metabolism mode during hyper-osmoregulation in OmB cell line, to reveal the key factors that are critical to cell osmoregulation.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação , Tilápia , Animais , Tilápia/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Adaptação Psicológica
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307449

RESUMO

Eriocheir sinensis megalopa has a special life history of migrating from seawater to freshwater. In order to investigate how the megalopa adapt themselves to the freshwater environment, we designed an experiment to reduce the salinity of water from 30 ppt to 0 at rates of 30 ppt, 15 ppt, 10 ppt, and 5 ppt per 24 h to evaluate the effects of different degrees of hyposaline stress on the osmotic regulation ability and antioxidant system of the megalopa. Experimental results related to osmotic pressure regulation show that the gill tissue of megalopa in the treatment group of 30 ppt/24 h rapid reduction of salinity was damaged, while in the treatment group of 5 ppt/24 h it was intact. At the same time, the experiment also found that in each treatment group with different salinity reduction rates, compared with the control salinity, the NKA activity of megalopa increased significantly after the salinity was reduced to 20 ppt (p < 0.05). In addition, two genes involved in chloride ion transmembrane absorption have different expression patterns in the treatment groups with different salinity reduction rates. Among them, Clcn2 was significantly highly expressed only in the rapid salinity reduction intervals of 30 ppt/24 h and 15 ppt/24 h (p < 0.05). Slc26a6 was significantly highly expressed only in the slow salinity reduction intervals of 10 ppt/24 h and 5 ppt/24 h (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the results of antioxidant and apoptosis related experiments showed that in all treatment groups with different rates of salinity reduction, the activities of T-AOC, GSH-PX, and CAT basically increased significantly after salinity reduction compared to the control salinity. Moreover, the activities of T-AOC and CAT were significantly higher in the 10 ppt/24 h and 5 ppt/24 h treatment groups than in the 30 ppt/24 h and 15 ppt/24 h treatment groups. Finally, the experimental results related to apoptosis showed that the expression trends of Capase3 and Bax-2 were basically the same in the treatment groups with different salinity reduction rates, and their expressions were significantly higher in the 10 ppt/24 h and 5 ppt/24 h treatment groups than in the 30 ppt/24 h and 15 ppt/24 h treatment groups. In summary, the present study found that megalopa had strong hyposaline tolerance and were able to regulate osmolality at different rates of salinity reduction, but the antioxidant capacity differed significantly between treatment groups, with rapid salinity reduction leading to oxidative damage in the anterior gills and reduced antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis levels.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Osmorregulação , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Salinidade , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Apoptose , Brânquias/metabolismo
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(3): e0309723, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334386

RESUMO

The mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride is applied in agriculture as a biostimulant and biologic control agent against fungal pathogens that infest crop plants. Secondary metabolites are among the main agents determining the strength and progress of the mycoparasitic attack. However, expression of most secondary metabolism-associated genes requires specific cues, as they are silent under routine laboratory conditions due to their maintenance in an inactive heterochromatin state. Therefore, histone modifications are crucial for the regulation of secondary metabolism. Here, we functionally investigated the role of the class II histone deacetylase encoding gene hda1 of T. atroviride by targeted gene deletion, phenotypic characterization, and multi-omics approaches. Deletion of hda1 did not result in obvious phenotypic alterations but led to an enhanced inhibitory activity of secreted metabolites and reduced mycoparasitic abilities of T. atroviride against the plant-pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. The ∆hda1 mutants emitted altered amounts of four volatile organic compounds along their development, produced different metabolite profiles upon growth in liquid culture, and showed a higher susceptibility to oxidative and osmotic stress. Moreover, hda1 deletion affected the expression of several notable gene categories such as polyketide synthases, transcription factors, and genes involved in the HOG MAPK pathway.IMPORTANCEHistone deacetylases play crucial roles in regulating chromatin structure and gene transcription. To date, classical-Zn2+ dependent-fungal histone deacetylases are divided into two classes, of which each comprises orthologues of the two sub-groups Rpd3 and Hos2 and Hda1 and Hos3 of yeast, respectively. However, the role of these chromatin remodelers in mycoparasitic fungi is poorly understood. In this study, we provide evidence that Hda1, the class II histone deacetylases of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride, regulates its mycoparasitic activity, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and osmotic and oxidative stress tolerance. The function of Hda1 in regulating bioactive metabolite production and mycoparasitism reveals the importance of chromatin-dependent regulation in the ability of T. atroviride to successfully control fungal plant pathogens.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Trichoderma , Metabolismo Secundário , Osmorregulação , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica
9.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 21(1): 19, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia (SM) is characterized by the development of fluid-filled cavities, referred to as syrinxes, within the spinal cord tissue. The molecular etiology of SM post-spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well understood and only invasive surgical based treatments are available to treat SM clinically. This study builds upon our previous omics studies and in vitro cellular investigations to further understand local fluid osmoregulation in post-traumatic SM (PTSM) to highlight important pathways for future molecular interventions. METHODS: A rat PTSM model consisting of a laminectomy at the C7 to T1 level followed by a parenchymal injection of 2 µL quisqualic acid (QA) and an injection of 5 µL kaolin in the subarachnoid space was utilized 6 weeks after initial surgery, parenchymal fluid and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected, and the osmolality of fluids were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), metabolomics analysis using LC-MS, and mass spectrometry-based imaging (MSI) were performed on injured and laminectomy-only control spinal cords. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the osmolality of the local parenchymal fluid encompassing syrinxes was higher compared to control spinal cords after laminectomy, indicating a local osmotic imbalance due to SM injury. Moreover, we also found that parenchymal fluid is more hypertonic than CSF, indicating establishment of a local osmotic gradient in the PTSM injured spinal cord (syrinx site) forcing fluid into the spinal cord parenchyma to form and/or expand syrinxes. IHC results demonstrated upregulation of betaine, ions, water channels/transporters, and enzymes (BGT1, AQP1, AQP4, CHDH) at the syrinx site as compared to caudal and rostral sites to the injury, implying extensive local osmoregulation activities at the syrinx site. Further, metabolomics analysis corroborated alterations in osmolality at the syrinx site by upregulation of small molecule osmolytes including betaine, carnitine, glycerophosphocholine, arginine, creatine, guanidinoacetate, and spermidine. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PTSM results in local osmotic disturbance that propagates at 6 weeks following initial injury. This coincides with and may contribute to syrinx formation/expansion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Siringomielia , Ratos , Animais , Siringomielia/etiologia , Osmorregulação , Betaína , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2320657121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386704

RESUMO

To control net sodium (Na+) uptake, Arabidopsis plants utilize the plasma membrane (PM) Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 to achieve Na+ efflux at the root and Na+ loading into the xylem, and the channel-like HKT1;1 protein that mediates the reverse flux of Na+ unloading off the xylem. Together, these opposing transport systems govern the partition of Na+ within the plant yet they must be finely co-regulated to prevent a futile cycle of xylem loading and unloading. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis SOS3 protein acts as the molecular switch governing these Na+ fluxes by favoring the recruitment of SOS1 to the PM and its subsequent activation by the SOS2/SOS3 kinase complex under salt stress, while commanding HKT1;1 protein degradation upon acute sodic stress. SOS3 achieves this role by direct and SOS2-independent binding to previously unrecognized functional domains of SOS1 and HKT1;1. These results indicate that roots first retain moderate amounts of salts to facilitate osmoregulation, yet when sodicity exceeds a set point, SOS3-dependent HKT1;1 degradation switches the balance toward Na+ export out of the root. Thus, SOS3 functionally links and co-regulates the two major Na+ transport systems operating in vascular plants controlling plant tolerance to salinity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Transporte Proteico , Transporte Biológico , Proteólise , Osmorregulação , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(2): e0215823, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38289134

RESUMO

Drought and salinity are ubiquitous environmental factors that pose hyperosmotic threats to microorganisms and impair their efficiency in performing environmental functions. However, bacteria have developed various responses and regulatory systems to cope with these abiotic challenges. Posttranscriptional regulation plays vital roles in regulating gene expression and cellular homeostasis, as hyperosmotic stress conditions can lead to the induction of specific small RNA molecules (sRNAs) that participate in stress response regulation. Here, we report a candidate functional sRNA landscape of Sphingomonas melonis TY under hyperosmotic stress, and 18 sRNAs were found with a clear response to hyperosmotic stress. These findings will help in the comprehensive analysis of sRNA regulation in Sphingomonas species. Weighted correlation network analysis revealed a 263 nucleotide sRNA, SNC251, which was transcribed from its own promoter and showed the most significant correlation with hyperosmotic response factors. Deletion of snc251 affected biofilm formation and multiple cellular processes, including ribosome-related pathways, aromatic compound degradation, and the nicotine degradation capacity of S. melonis TY, while overexpression of SNC251 facilitated biofilm formation by TY under hyperosmotic stress. Two genes involved in the TonB system were further verified to be activated by SNC251, which also indicated that SNC251 is a trans-acting sRNA. Briefly, this research reports a landscape of sRNAs participating in the hyperosmotic stress response in S. melonis and reveals a novel sRNA, SNC251, which contributes to the S. melonis TY biofilm formation and thus enhances its hyperosmotic stress response ability.IMPORTANCESphingomonas species play a vital role in plant defense and pollutant degradation and survive extensively under drought or salinity. Previous studies have focused on the transcriptional and translational responses of Sphingomonas under hyperosmotic stress, but the posttranscriptional regulation of small RNA molecules (sRNAs) is also crucial for quickly modulating cellular processes to adapt dynamically to osmotic environments. In addition, the current knowledge of sRNAs in Sphingomonas is extremely scarce. This research revealed a novel sRNA landscape of Sphingomonas melonis and will greatly enhance our understanding of sRNAs' acting mechanisms in the hyperosmotic stress response.


Assuntos
Pequeno RNA não Traduzido , Sphingomonas , Sphingomonas/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Bactérias/genética , Osmorregulação/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935274

RESUMO

This study examined the osmoregulatory responses to hypo-osmotic shock in the commercially and ecologically important crab Episesarma mederi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853). After the acclimation for one week at a salinity of 25 PSU, Adult males E. mederi were immediately exposed to salinities of 5 PSU and 25 PSU (the control group). The time course of changes in haemolymph osmolality, gill Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA) activity, oxygen uptake rates, and mRNA expression levels of ion-transport related genes, including the NKA-α subunit, V-type H+ATPase (VT) and Na+/K+/2Cl-(NKCC), were determined. The results showed that E. mederi was a strong hyperosmoregulator after exposure to 5 PSU, achieved by modulations of NKA activity in their posterior gills rather than the anterior gills. The crabs acclimated to 5 PSU increased oxygen uptake, especially during the initial exposure, reflecting increased energetic costs for osmotic stress responses. In the posterior gills, the NKA activities of the crabs acclimated to 5 PSU at 3, 72 and 168 h were significantly higher than those in the control group. Elevated NKA-α subunit expression levels were detected at 6 h and 12 h. Increased expression levels of VT and NKCC were identified at 6 h and 12 h, respectively. Our results indicate that elevated gill NKA activity at 3 h could result from enzyme activity and kinetic alterations. On the other hand, the gill NKA activity at 72 and 168 h was sustained by elevated NKA-α subunit expression. Hence, these adaptive responses in osmoregulation enable the crabs to withstand hypo-osmotic challenges and thrive in areas of fluctuating salinity in mangroves and estuaries.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras , Masculino , Animais , Osmorregulação , Pressão Osmótica , Braquiúros/genética , Braquiúros/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Salinidade , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo
13.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 69: 415-438, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37758224

RESUMO

Water is essential to life. Terrestrial insects lose water by evaporation from the body surface and respiratory surfaces, as well as in the excretory products, posing a challenge made more acute by their high surface-to-volume ratio. These losses must be kept to a minimum and be offset by water gained from other sources. By contrast, insects such as the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus consume up to 10 times their body weight in a single blood meal, necessitating rapid expulsion of excess water and ions. How do insects manage their ion and water budgets? A century of study has revealed a great deal about the organ systems that insects use to maintain their ion and water balance and their regulation. Traditionally, a taxonomically wide range of species were studied, whereas more recent research has focused on model organisms to leverage the power of the molecular genetic approach. Key advances in new technologies have become available for a wider range of species in the past decade. We document how these approaches have already begun to inform our understanding of the diversity and conservation of insect systemic osmoregulation. We advocate that these technologies be combined with traditional approaches to study a broader range of nonmodel species to gain a comprehensive overview of the mechanism underpinning systemic osmoregulation in the most species-rich group of animals on earth, the insects.


Assuntos
Planeta Terra , Osmorregulação , Animais , Insetos , Água
14.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 341(1): 5-30, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37853933

RESUMO

Decapods occupy all aquatic, and terrestrial and semi-terrestrial environments. According to their osmoregulatory capacity, they can be osmoconformers or osmoregulators (hypo or hyperegulators). The goal of this study is to gather data available in the literature for aquatic decapods and verify if the rare hyporegulatory capacity of decapods is associated with hyper-regulatory capacity. The metric used to quantify osmoregulation was the osmotic capacity (OC), the gradient between external and internal (hemolymph) osmolalities. We employ phylogenetic comparative methods using 83 species of decapods to test the correlation between hyper OC and hypo OC, beyond the ancestral state for osmolality habitat, which was used to reconstruct the colonization route. Our analysis showed a phylogenetic signal for habitat osmolality, hyper OC and hypo OC, suggesting that hyper-hyporegulators decapods occupy similar habitats and show similar hyper and hyporegulatory capacities. Our findings reveal that all hyper-hyporegulators decapods (mainly shrimps and crabs) originated in estuarine waters. Hyper OC and hypo OC are correlated in decapods, suggesting correlated evolution. The analysis showed that species which inhabit environments with intense salinity variation such as estuaries, supratidal and mangrove habitats, all undergo selective pressure to acquire efficient hyper-hyporegulatory mechanisms, aided by low permeabilities. Therefore, hyporegulation can be observed in any colonization route that passes through environments with extreme variations in salinity, such as estuaries or brackish water.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Decápodes , Animais , Osmorregulação , Filogenia , Decápodes/fisiologia , Ecossistema
15.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 341(1): 99-106, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905465

RESUMO

Mitochondrial-rich cells (MRCs) are one of the most significant canceled type of epithelial cells. Morphologically these cells are totally different from other epithelial cells. These cells primarily implicated in sea-water and fresh-water adaptation, and acid-base regulation. However, in this review paper, we explored some of the most intriguing biological and immune-related functional developmental networks of MRCs. The main pinpoint, MRCs perform a dynamic osmoregulatory and immunological functional role in the gut and male reproductive system. The Na+/K+_ATPase (NKA) and Na+/K+/2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) are key acidifying proteins of MRCs for the ion-transporting function for intestinal homeostasis and maintenance of acidifying the luminal microenvironment in the male reproductive system. Further more importantly, MRCs play a novel immunological role through the exocrine secretion of nano-scale exosomes and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) pathway, which is very essential for sperm maturation, motility, acrosome reaction, and male sex hormones, and these an essential events to produce male gametes with optimal fertilizing ability. This effort is expected to promote the novel immunological role of MRCs, which might be essential for nano-scale exosome secretion.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Masculino , Animais , Sêmen/metabolismo , Osmorregulação , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
16.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 26(1): 60-73, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147145

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic composition and regional adaptation of marine species under environmental heterogeneity and fishing pressure is crucial for responsible management. In order to understand the genetic diversity and adaptability of yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) along southern China coast, this study was conducted a seascape genome analysis on yellowfin seabream from the ecologically diverse coast, spanning over 1600 km. A total of 92 yellowfin seabream individuals from 15 sites were performed whole-genome resequencing, and 4,383,564 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were called. By conducting a genotype-environment association analysis, 29,951 adaptive and 4,328,299 neutral SNPs were identified. The yellowfin seabream exhibited two distinct population structures, despite high gene flow between sites. The seascape genome analysis revealed that genetic structure was influenced by a variety of factors including salinity gradients, habitat distance, and ocean currents. The frequency of allelic variation at the candidate loci changed with the salinity gradient. Annotation of these loci revealed that most of the genes are associated with osmoregulation, such as kcnab2a, kcnk5a, and slc47a1. These genes are significantly enriched in pathways associated with ion transport including G protein-coupled receptor activity, transmembrane signaling receptor activity, and transporter activity. Overall, our findings provide insights into how seascape heterogeneity affects adaptive evolution, while providing important information for regional management in yellowfin seabream populations.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Dourada , Humanos , Animais , Dourada/genética , Dourada/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Osmorregulação , China
17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(1): 25, 2023 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38155260

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: NtTAS14-like1 enhances osmotic tolerance through coordinately activating the expression of osmotic- and ABA-related genes. Osmotic stress is one of the most important limiting factors for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) growth and development. Dehydrin proteins are widely involved in plant adaptation to osmotic stress, but few of these proteins have been functionally characterized in tobacco. Here, to identify genes required for osmotic stress response in tobacco, an encoding dehydrin protein gene NtTAS14-like1 was isolated based on RNA sequence data. The expression of NtTAS14-like1 was obviously induced by mannitol and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Knock down of NtTAS14-like1 expression reduced osmotic tolerance, while overexpression of NtTAS14-like1 conferred tolerance to osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco plants, as determined by physiological analysis of the relative electrolyte leakage and malonaldehyde accumulation. Further expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that NtTAS14-like1 participates in osmotic stress response possibly through coordinately activating osmotic- and ABA-related genes expression, such as late embryogenesis abundant (NtLEA5), early responsive to dehydration 10C (NtERD10C), calcium-dependent protein kinase 2 (NtCDPK2), ABA-responsive element-binding protein (NtAREB), ABA-responsive element-binding factor 1 (NtABF1), dehydration-responsive element-binding genes (NtDREB2A), xanthoxin dehydrogenase/reductase (NtABA2), ABA-aldehyde oxidase 3 (NtAAO3), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NtNCED3). Together, this study will facilitate to improve our understandings of molecular and functional properties of plant TAS14 proteins and to improve genetic evidence on the involvement of the NtTAS14-like1 in osmotic stress response of tobacco.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação , /genética , Desidratação , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(12)2023 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38137057

RESUMO

Tea is an important cash crop worldwide, and its nutritional value has led to its high economic benefits. Tea anthracnose is a common disease of tea plants that seriously affects food safety and yield and has a far-reaching impact on the sustainable development of the tea industry. In this study, phenotypic analysis and pathogenicity analysis were performed on knockout and complement strains of HTF2-the transcriptional regulator of tea anthracnose homeobox-and the pathogenic mechanism of these strains was explored via RNA-seq. The MoHox1 gene sequence of the rice blast fungus was indexed, and the anthracnose genome was searched for CfHTF2. Evolutionary analysis recently reported the affinity of HTF2 for C. fructicola and C. higginsianum. The loss of CfHTF2 slowed the vegetative growth and spore-producing capacity of C. fructicola and weakened its resistance and pathogenesis to adverse conditions. The transcriptome sequencing of wild-type N425 and CfHTF2 deletion mutants was performed, and a total of 3144 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, 1594 of which were upregulated and 1550 of which were downregulated. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of DEGs mainly focused on signaling pathways such as the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In conclusion, this study lays a foundation for further study of the pathogenic mechanism of tea anthracnose and provides a molecular basis for the analysis of the pathogenic molecular mechanism of CfHTF2.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Osmorregulação , Esporos Fúngicos , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Chá/genética
19.
Physiol Plant ; 175(6): e14057, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148196

RESUMO

Climate change-induced concurrent drought and salinity stresses significantly threaten global crop yields, yet the physio-biochemical responses to combined stress in quinoa remain elusive. This study evaluated quinoa responses under four growth conditions: well-watered, drought stress, salt stress, and drought + salt stress with (15 mM) or without (0 mM) exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) application. All examined stresses (alone or in combination) reduce quinoa growth and net photosynthesis, although salt stress was found to be less destructive than drought and combined stress. Strikingly, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), stomatal conductance (gs ), photosynthetic rate (PN ), K+ uptake, shoot height, shoot fresh, and dry weight were increased by 46.1%, 22.2%, 101.6%, 12.9%, 12.1%, 22.4%, 7.1%, 14%, and 16.4%, respectively, under combined stress compared to drought alone. In addition, exogenous H2 O2 effectively improved gaseous exchange, osmolytes' accumulation, and antioxidant activity, resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation, which eventually led to higher plant growth under all coercive conditions. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated a strong positive correlation between antioxidant enzymes and inorganic ions, which contributed efficiently to osmotic adjustment, particularly under conditions of salinity followed by combined stress. In short, in combination, salt stress has the potential to mitigate drought-induced injuries by promoting the absorption of inorganic solutes for osmoregulation in quinoa plants. Furthermore, exogenous application of H2 O2 could be opted to enhance quinoa performance to increase its tolerance mechanism against drought and salinity, even under combined stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Chenopodium quinoa , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Osmorregulação , Salinidade , Secas , Gases
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 265: 106764, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972502

RESUMO

Fish maintain their body fluid ionic and osmotic homeostasis using sophisticated iono-/osmoregulation mechanisms through gills ionocytes. Pesticide-induced ionic imbalance in fish has been recognized as a valuable tool to determine its toxic effects. Acute exposure to synthetic and organo-chemical pesticides on the regulation of ionic (Na+, Ca2+, P) metabolism in freshwater catfish Mystus keletius was evaluated. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (mg/l) of selected pesticide for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results indicated that chemical pesticides - Impala and Ekalux - evoked adverse toxic effects on selected tissues compared to organo-chemical pesticide tested. Statistical analysis of the summative data using two-way ANOVA was significant (p-value<0.001). Variations in the cellular parameters analysed were attributed to the physiological acclimatization of fish to the pesticide exposed. Based on the results it is concluded that organic pesticides may be preferred for rice field application considering safety aspects.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Água Doce , Osmorregulação
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