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2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3797, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587784

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common reasons for primary care consultations. They are diagnosed predominantly based on clinical assessment. Here, we investigated the benefit of viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in an outpatient setting. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included immunocompetent patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections. General practitioners collected pharyngeal swabs and demographic and clinical data. Specimens were analysed using viral mNGS and conventional tests. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients were recruited by 21 general practitioners between 10/2019 and 12/2020, of which 91% had a suspected viral aetiology. For 138 patients (49.8%), mNGS identified one or more respiratory viruses. The mNGS showed a high overall agreement with conventional routine diagnostic tests. Rhinoviruses were the most frequently detected respiratory viruses (20.2% of patients). Viral mNGS reflected the influenza wave in early 2020 and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic outbreak in Switzerland in March 2020. Notably, rhinoviruses continued to circulate despite non-pharmaceutical hygiene measures. CONCLUSIONS: Viral mNGS allowed the initial diagnosis to be retrospectively re-evaluated. Assuming reduced turnaround times, mNGS has the potential to directly guide the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. On an epidemiological level, our study highlights the utility of mNGS in respiratory infection surveillance, allowing early detection of epidemics and providing information crucial for prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
3.
Noise Health ; 26(120): 37-43, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Noise is a kind of perceived public nuisance that is closely related to people's subjective feelings and lives. This study explores the clinical application effect of comprehensive noise reduction technology in outpatients with vitiligo. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with vitiligo were selected in the Department of Dermatology at Baoding No. 2 Central Hospital from January 2020 to January 2021, as the control group (CG), receiving 5S management mode, and 80 patients with vitiligo from February 2021 to October 2022 were selected as the study group (SG), receiving comprehensive noise reduction technology combined with the 5S management mode for this retrospective study. The effects of different management modes on these patients were observed. RESULTS: SG had higher nursing quality scores in service attitude, service initiative, communication skills, environmental management and item management and overtly a lower noise level than CG (all P < 0.001). The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) scores of the two groups at the end of treatment were significantly lower than those on admission (P < 0.05), with SG showing a lower score than CG (P < 0.001). Correlation analysis showed that noise levels and HAMA scores had a positive correlation (r = 0.423, P < 0.001). Patients with negative feelings about medical treatment caused by various noise sources in SG were obviously less than those in CG (P < 0.05). Both the groups had a statistical difference in overall satisfaction (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The investigation and data analysis demonstrated that comprehensive noise reduction in outpatients with vitiligo had a considerable effect. This technology can standardise the behaviour of medical staff, enhance nursing quality, reduce noise levels and alleviate patients' anxiety and improve their satisfaction. It has great benefits for the outpatient environment and patients.


Assuntos
Vitiligo , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitiligo/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Satisfação do Paciente
4.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2965, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572772

RESUMO

Suicide risk assessment and stratification are a key suicide prevention strategy in mental health care systems that treat military service members and veterans. The aim of the current mixed-method project was to address a gap in our knowledge as to how therapists make these important clinical decisions. This manuscript reports the results of a project during which six vignettes were developed reflecting varying levels of risk according to the Rocky Mountain MIRECC Risk Stratification Table. Mental health therapists were asked to evaluate the risk level of each vignette, determine a treatment disposition, and provide justification for their ratings. The results of the study indicate that therapists can reliably evaluate risk, but that treatment planning tended to be based more on vignette-specific factors than essential features of the risk model. The qualitative findings revealed variations in the definition and perception of foundational concepts, suggesting a need for further research and training in these domains. Overall, the results support the use of vignettes as a method to assess clinical decision-making and provide several areas for further training and research.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Veteranos , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Suicídio/psicologia , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Veteranos/psicologia , Medição de Risco
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 453-460, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557525

RESUMO

Treating breast abscess by conventional incision and drainage, followed by regular dressing with prolonged hospital stay, anesthesia, unsatisfactory scar and chances of developing milk fistula in lactating mother is unsatisfactory. Here we study the outcome of ultrasonogram guided multiple aspirations in non-admitted outpatient setup, for its effectiveness as a replacement of conventional surgery. This descriptive, prospective and observational study was carried out from July 2018 to December 2020 with purposive sampling of all cases of breast abscess in a secondary care hospital who underwent ultrasonogram guided aspiration and oral antibiotics, on multiple visits in outpatient department and followed up for three months to study outcome. Mean age of patient was 28.19 years. Fifteen (46.9%) were non-lactating women. The right breast 18(56.3%) and upper outer quadrant 8(25.0%) was affected slightly more. All cases had tender lump except one (3.1%) who had a non-tender lump, but 20(62.5%) had no maximum fluctuating point, usually found in abscesses of other parts of the body. Fever was not a common feature in 8(25.0%) patients and axillary lymph node was not palpable in 26(81.3%) patient. Eighteen (56.3%) patients had healthy nipple, 8(25%) patients had cracked and 5(15.6%) had retracted nipple 11(34.4%) with pus discharge from nipple. Mean duration of symptom was 7 days. Mean sonographic diameter was 5.53cm and volume was 21.09ml. Mean aspirated total volume was 28±10.5 ml. Fifteen (46.9%) patients required 3 aspirations, 10(31.3%) needed 4 aspirations. Success rate was 84.4%, while 25(78.1%) had no complications. Mean healing time in this study was 14 days. We conclude that multiple aspirations under ultrasonogram guidance in outpatient setup day care procedure, is equally effective as conventional surgery and also devoid of many avoidable complications, but meticulous evaluation and high suspicion of background pathology for non-responding case is crucial.


Assuntos
Abscesso , Lactação , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Abscesso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ultrassonografia , Drenagem/métodos
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(14): 1180-1183, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583050

RESUMO

A newly developed wearable balance diagnosis and treatment system was studied to evaluate the indexes of the abnormal balance function in patients with vestibular vertigo. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 30 patients diagnosed with non-acute vestibular vertigo in the outpatient department of Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from July 2022 to May 2023 were selected as the vertigo group, including 13 males and 17 females, and aged (45.7±13.9) years. Meanwhile, 20 healthy controls (8 males and 12 females) were included as the control group, with a mean age of (43.6±8.0) years. The static balance and limits of stability (LOS) function of all subjects were assessed with wearable balance diagnosis and treatment system developed under the leadership of Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. In the static balance test, the ratio of eyes open with cushions to eyes open without cushions in the vertigo group was less than that of the control group[1.20% (0.92%, 1.53%) vs 1.49% (1.22%, 1.81%), P=0.008], indicating that patients with non-acute vestibular vertigo may compensate static balance ability earlier. In vertigo group, the directional control in 8 directions, the maximum excursion in anterior, posterior, right anterior and right posterior directions, the endpoint excursion in the posterior, right posterior, and left posterior directions were all smaller than those of the control group (all P<0.05). The reaction time in the left posterior direction of vertigo group was longer than that of the control group (all P<0.05). Those results indicated that the directional control, maximum excursion and endpoint excursion of LOS could be considered as important reference indexes for dynamic balance function.


Assuntos
Vertigem , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Vertigem/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Equilíbrio Postural
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 501-508, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557533

RESUMO

Palliative care is a valued aspect of clinical care which is an urgent humanitarian need for people worldwide with cancer and other chronic fatal diseases. Patients experience many different symptoms including severe pain in advanced cancer. Palliative care focuses on relief from symptoms, pain and stress by using different analgesics and adjuvant. The goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of life. So, this prospective observational study was carried out to assess pattern of drugs used and their response to pain in cancer patients attending out-patient department of palliative care service in two teaching hospitals of Bangladesh. One hundred forty (140) cancer patients were purposively selected who attended in out-patient department of palliative care unit in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) from July 2018 to June 2019. Outcome variables were commonly presenting complaints, pain intensity, commonly prescribed drugs and analgesic prescription according to WHO three-step analgesic ladder, etc. The mean age ±SD of the respondents was 51.30±15.38 years, male-female ratio 1:1. Common sites of cancer were alimentary origin (20.0%), genitourinary system (17.86%), hepatobiliary system (11.43%), respiratory system (10.71%). The prescribed drugs were analgesics (96.4%), PPIs (74.3%), laxatives (62.1%), anti-emetics (38.6%), multivitamins (32.9%), H2 antagonists (17.1%), sedatives (17.1%), and corticosteroids (8.6%). Level 1 analgesics (Paracetamol or other NSAIDs) were prescribed to 42.65%, level 2 analgesics (Tramadol) were prescribed to 50.00% patients and level 3 analgesics (Morphine) were prescribed to 51.42% patients. The relation between and receiving three levels of analgesic prescriptions was statistically significant. The association between level of analgesic prescription was significant with site of cancer (p<0.001) and intensity of pain (p<0.001). This study showed that morphine was prescribed to more than half of the patients. Other level of analgesics were also used either single or in combination. Younger and male patients were treated more with level III analgesics. Prescribing analgesics were dependent on sites of cancer and intensity of pain.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Hospitais de Ensino , Derivados da Morfina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Dor , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 166(Suppl 4): 19-26, 2024 04.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Westphalia-Lippe - unlike the rest of Germany - outpatient palliative care, as general and specialized palliative care (AAPV and SAPV), exists as part of an innovative care model. Ten years after its introduction, an evaluation is to be carried out, focusing on the treatment satisfaction of patients and their relatives as well as the extent to which the model has proved successful in urban versus rural care contexts. METHODS: In a multicenter cohort study, in 2019/20, from a total of 36 palliative care regions, 12 - 4 metropolitan, mixed and rural each - were randomly selected, with 20 palliative patients each. Using established instruments (MIDOS, HOPE), the patients were questioned about stressful symptoms and quality of life. Additionally, their relatives were asked about their satisfaction with the care provided. RESULTS: 227 patients were included. The care period was 82.3 days on average (median 47.5). Distressing symptoms were consistently well controlled with a slight tendency for symptoms to increase at the end of life (NRS < 4). There were no significant differences between urban and rural regions. The outpatient palliative care provided by doctors and nurses in Westphalia-Lippe was largely viewed positively by the relatives. CONCLUSIONS: In Westphalia-Lippe, patients in need of palliative care can be offered early and low- threshold structured outpatient palliative care, which is mainly provided by GPs and outpatient specialists. The role of the GP in primary medical care is being strengthened. In this interprofessional and interdisciplinary model, patient care is demand-oriented, that is, the intensity of care can switch between general (AAPV) and specialized care (SAPV) according to the disease progress. This model has proven itself in practice and provides good services benefits for palliative patients and their relatives.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Coortes , Assistência Ambulatorial , Alemanha
10.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 80, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rezum™ is a relatively new bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) procedure that uses thermal energy through water vapour to cause necrosis of prostatic tissue. The standard delivery of this treatment is in an operating theatre under a general or spinal anaesthetic, or under local anaesthetic with sedation that requires patient monitoring. METHODS: We propose an outpatient daycase method of delivering Rezum™ under local anaesthetic without sedation, using a prostatic local anaesthetic block and cold local anaesthetic gel instillation into the urethra. RESULTS: Preliminary results of our first thirteen patients demonstrate the feasibility of this new technique, with a mean pain score of 2.1 out of 10 on a visual analogue scale, a successful trial without catheter in all 13 patients (one patient voided successfully on second trial), a reduction in mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) from 20.6 to 5.4, and improvement in maximum flow from 8.8 ml/s to 14.4 ml/s. The complications were minor (Clavien-Dindo less than III) and included a UTI, minor bleeding not requiring admission, and retrograde ejaculation. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that an outpatient local anaesthetic daycase service without sedation is feasible. This can be delivered in a clinic setting, reduce waiting times for BOO surgery, and increase availability of operating theatre for other general anaesthetic urological procedures.


Assuntos
Doenças Prostáticas , Hiperplasia Prostática , Masculino , Humanos , Anestésicos Locais , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Dor , Anestesia Local , Doenças Prostáticas/complicações , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia
11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3487, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine in palliative care (PC) is increasingly being used, especially in outpatient settings with large geographic distances. Its proven benefits include improved communication, coordination quality and time savings. However, the effect on symptom control is less evident. Whether these benefits apply to the Swiss setting and the needs of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the perceptions and needs of healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians) regarding telemedicine (generally and specifically for care conferences) in a Swiss outpatient palliative care network. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-method online survey with purposefully sampled healthcare professionals from an outpatient palliative care team as baseline data during the planning phase of a quality improvement project (digital care conferences). FINDINGS/RESULTS: Of the 251 HCPs approached, 66 responded, including nurses (n = 37) and physicians (n = 29), with an overall response rate of 26.6%. These were distributed into two groups: general palliative care HCPs (n = 48, return rate 21.3%) and specialised palliative care HCPs (n = 18, return rate 69.2%). Generally, telemedicine was perceived as useful. Potential easy access to other HCPs and hence improved communication and coordination were perceived as advantages. Barriers included a lack of acceptance and physical contact, unsolved questions about potential data breaches and technical obstacles. Regarding digital care conferences, the perceived acceptance and feasibility were good; preferred participants were the specialised palliative care HCPs (nurses and physicians), primary physicians and home care nurses, as well as the leadership of a nurse. The needs of the HCPs were as follows: (a) clear and efficient planning, (b) usability and security and (c) visual contact with the patient. CONCLUSION: Digital care conferences are perceived as a feasible and useful tool by healthcare professionals in a local palliative care network in Switzerland. A pilot phase will be the next step towards systematic integration of this telemedicine modality into outpatient palliative care.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Médicos , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde
12.
Tunis Med ; 102(2): 83-86, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Considering the growing global need and the complexity of health conditions, an intensive rehabilitation in inpatient departments is fundamental. Yet, in Tunisia, the distribution of Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities is not illustrated. AIM: To perform an update concerning the rehabilitation's beds-ratio /1000 Tunisian-inhabitants in 2023. METHODS: Data were collected from the Tunisian Ministry of Health, the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, and the National Institute of Statistics websites. RESULTS: The findings revealed a total number of rehabilitations' beds 132 among a total of 20000 hospital beds with a rehabilitations' beds-ratio equal to 0.01/1000 inhabitants. Only three Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities were identified in Tunisia covering the Greater Tunis, North East, and Center east districts. There was inequity of distribution since the beds ratio is 1.07/1000 in the North east, 0.02/1000 in the Greater Tunis and 0 in the North West and the South of Tunisia. CONCLUSION: This update highlighted the alarmingly low rehabilitation's beds-ratio in Tunisia, coupled to a significant regional disparity. Increasing beds in the existing Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities and extending outpatient rehabilitation departments with inpatient units might be considered urgent solutions.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Tunísia/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244278, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587847

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) experience substantial morbidity and mortality. Contact days (ie, the number of days with health care contact outside the home) measure how much of a person's life is consumed by health care, yet little is known about patterns of contact days for patients with NSCLC. Objective: To describe the trajectories of contact days in patients with stage IV NSCLC and how trajectories vary by receipt of cancer-directed treatment in routine practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, population-based decedent cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada. Participants included adults aged 20 years or older who were diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2017) and died (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019); there was a maximum 2-year follow-up. Data analysis was conducted from February 22 to August 16, 2023. Exposure: Systemic cancer-directed therapy (yes or no) and type of therapy (chemotherapy vs immunotherapy vs targeted therapy). Main Outcomes and Measures: Contact days (days with health care contact, outpatient or institution-based, outside the home) were identified through administrative data. The weekly percentage of contact days and fitted models with cubic splines were quantified to describe trajectories from diagnosis until death. Results: A total of 5785 decedents with stage IV NSCLC were included (median age, 70 [IQR 62-77] years; 3108 [53.7%] were male, and 1985 [34.3%] received systemic therapy). The median overall survival was 108 (IQR, 49-426) days, median contact days were 36 (IQR, 21-62), and the median percentage that were contact days was 33.3%. A median of 5 (IQR, 2-10) days were spent with specialty palliative care. Patients who did not receive systemic therapy had a median overall survival of 66 (IQR, 34-130) days and median contact days of 28 (IQR, 17-44), of which a median of 5 (IQR, 2-9) days were spent with specialty palliative care. Overall and for subgroups, normalized trajectories followed a U-shaped distribution: contact days were most frequent immediately after diagnosis and before death. Patients who received targeted therapy had the lowest contact day rate during the trough (10.6%; vs immunotherapy, 15.4%; vs chemotherapy, 17.7%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, decedents with stage IV NSCLC had a median survival in the order of 3.5 months and spent 1 in every 3 days alive interacting with the health care system outside the home. These results highlight the need to better support patients and care partners, benchmark appropriateness, and improve care delivery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Atenção à Saúde , Ontário/epidemiologia
14.
J Pers Disord ; 38(2): 195-206, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592913

RESUMO

Women are predominantly diagnosed with BPD, with studies estimating a 3:1 female-to-male diagnostic ratio in clinical settings. Previous studies present conflicting findings regarding gender-level criterion differences, with some indicating differences in contradictory criteria. These studies primarily utilize outpatient samples, highlighting gaps in the literature. Thus, the current study investigates gender-level criterion differences, functioning, and impairment within a novel, partial hospital sample. Participants included (a) a sample of 1,153 individuals from the total population of partial hospital patients regardless of BPD diagnosis and (b) 365 BPD-positive patients who were assessed via semistructured clinical interview and provided consent for data collection during the intake process. Results indicated that (a) women endorsed higher relationship instability than men and (b) there were no significant differences in level of functioning across the gender subsamples. Examining gender differences in BPD symptomatology has clinical implications in improving recognition and addressing potential biases associated with men and mental health.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
15.
Brain Behav ; 14(4): e3475, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to conduct the first-ever evaluation of our previously proposed behaviors of "hemomania" in individuals engaged with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). METHODS: The study encompassed 130 outpatients engaged with NSSI who applied at the psychiatry outpatient clinic. NSSI behaviors were assessed using the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury, while psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Disorders-Clinician Version. Subsequently, participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Short Form of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one hemomania behavior including seeing blood, tasting blood, bloodletting, and blood-drinking was observed to be 43.1% in individuals with NSSI. When participants were divided into two groups, individuals with hemomania exhibited: (1) a higher incidence of psychiatric comorbidities, increased suicide attempts, and more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and impulsivity, (2) higher comorbidity rates of borderline personality disorder, body-focused repetitive behaviors, and dissociative disorders, and (3) elevated frequencies of certain NSSI behaviors, including cutting, biting, needle-ticking, and carving, compared to those without. CONCLUSION: Hemomania could be considered a specific impulse control disorder, characterized by heightened impulsivity and a persistent urge to obtain one's own blood. However, further studies are needed to validate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia
16.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 80, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD); however, buprenorphine initiation can be complicated by withdrawal symptoms including precipitated withdrawal. There has been increasing interest in using low dose initiation (LDI) strategies to reduce this withdrawal risk. As there are limited data on withdrawal symptoms during LDI, we characterize withdrawal symptoms in people with daily fentanyl use who underwent initiation using these strategies as outpatients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with OUD using daily fentanyl who were prescribed 7-day or 4-day LDI at 2 substance use disorder treatment clinics in San Francisco. Two addiction medicine experts assessed extracted chart documentation for withdrawal severity and precipitated withdrawal, defined as acute worsening of withdrawal symptoms immediately after taking buprenorphine. A third expert adjudicated disagreements. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: There were 175 initiations in 126 patients. The mean age was 37 (SD 10 years). 71% were men, 26% women, and 2% non-binary. 21% identified as Black, 16% Latine, and 52% white. 60% were unstably housed and 75% had Medicaid insurance. Substance co-use included 74% who used amphetamines, 29% cocaine, 22% benzodiazepines, and 19% alcohol. Follow up was available for 118 (67%) initiations. There was deviation from protocol instructions in 22% of these initiations with follow up. 31% had any withdrawal, including 21% with mild symptoms, 8% moderate and 2% severe. Precipitated withdrawal occurred in 10 cases, or 8% of initiations with follow up. Of these, 7 had deviation from protocol instructions; thus, there were 3 cases with follow up (3%) in which precipitated withdrawal occurred without protocol deviation. CONCLUSIONS: Withdrawal was relatively common in our cohort but was mostly mild, and precipitated withdrawal was rare. Deviation from instructions, structural barriers, and varying fentanyl use characteristics may contribute to withdrawal. Clinicians should counsel patients who use fentanyl that mild withdrawal symptoms are likely during LDI, and there is still a low risk for precipitated withdrawal. Future studies should compare withdrawal across initiation types, seek ways to support patients in initiating buprenorphine, and qualitatively elicit patients' withdrawal experiences.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Fentanila , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico
17.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(4): e5788, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of ICD-10-CM code-based algorithms as proxies for influenza in inpatient and outpatient settings in the USA. METHODS: Administrative claims data (2015-2018) from the largest commercial insurer in New Jersey (NJ), USA, were probabilistically linked to outpatient and inpatient electronic health record (EHR) data containing influenza test results from a large NJ health system. The primary claims-based algorithms defined influenza as presence of an ICD-10-CM code for influenza, stratified by setting (inpatient/outpatient) and code position for inpatient encounters. Test characteristics and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using test-positive influenza as a reference standard. Test characteristics of alternative outpatient algorithms incorporating CPT/HCPCS testing codes and anti-influenza medication pharmacy claims were also calculated. RESULTS: There were 430 documented influenza test results within the study period (295 inpatient, 135 outpatient). The claims-based influenza definition had a sensitivity of 84.9% (95% CI 72.9%-92.1%), specificity of 96.3% (95% CI 93.1%-98.0%), and PPV of 83.3% (95% CI 71.3%-91.0%) in the inpatient setting, and a sensitivity of 76.7% (95% CI 59.1%-88.2%), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI 90.6%-98.5%), PPV of 85.2% (95% CI 67.5%-94.1%) in the outpatient setting. Primary inpatient discharge diagnoses had a sensitivity of 54.7% (95% CI 41.5%-67.3%), specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 97.7%-99.9%), and PPV of 96.7% (95% CI 83.3%-99.4%). CPT/HCPCS codes and anti-influenza medication claims were present for few outpatient encounters (sensitivity 3%-10%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large US healthcare system, inpatient ICD-10-CM codes for influenza, particularly primary inpatient diagnoses, had high predictive value for test-positive influenza. Outpatient ICD-10-CM codes were moderately predictive of test-positive influenza.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Algoritmos
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1283148, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450139

RESUMO

Background: Outpatient treatment of acute malnutrition is usually centralized in health centers and separated into different programs according to case severity. This complicates case detection, care delivery, and supply chain management, making it difficult for families to access treatment. This study assessed the impact of treating severe and moderate cases in the same program using a simplified protocol and decentralizing treatment outside health centers through community health workers (CHWs). Methods: A three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial under a non-inferiority hypothesis was conducted in the Gao region of Mali involving 2,038 children between 6 and 59 months of age with non-complicated acute malnutrition. The control arm consisted of 549 children receiving standard treatment in health centers from nursing staff. The first intervention arm consisted of 800 children treated using the standard protocol with CHWs added as treatment providers. The second intervention arm consisted of 689 children treated by nurses and CHWs under the ComPAS simplified protocol, considering mid-upper arm circumference as the sole anthropometric criterion for admission and discharge and providing a fixed dose of therapeutic food for severe and moderate cases. Coverage was assessed through cross-sectional surveys using the sampling evaluation of access and coverage (SLEAC) methodology for a wide area involving several service delivery units. Results: The recovery rates were 76.3% in the control group, 81.8% in the group that included CHWs with the standard protocol, and 92.9% in the group that applied the simplified protocol, confirming non-inferiority and revealing a significant risk difference among the groups. No significant differences were found in the time to recovery (6 weeks) or in anthropometric gain, whereas the therapeutic food expenditure was significantly lower with the simplified combined program in severe cases (43 sachets fewer than the control). In moderate cases, an average of 35 sachets of therapeutic food were used. With the simplified protocol, the CHWs had 6% discharge errors compared with 19% with the standard protocol. The treatment coverage increased significantly with the simplified combined program (SAM +42.5%, MAM +13.8%). Implications: Implementing a simplified combined treatment program and adding CHWs as treatment providers can improve coverage while maintaining non-inferior effectiveness, reducing the expenditure on nutritional intrants, and ensuring the continuum of care for the most vulnerable children.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Desnutrição , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Mali , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Lactente , Pré-Escolar
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5430, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443438

RESUMO

Studies conducted prior to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron demonstrated that sotrovimab and remdesivir reduced hospitalization among high-risk outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. However, their effectiveness has not been directly compared. This study examined all high-risk outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 who received either remdesivir or sotrovimab at Mayo Clinic during the Omicron BA.1 surge from January to March 2022. COVID-19-related hospitalization or death within 28 days were compared between the two treatment groups. Among 3257 patients, 2158 received sotrovimab and 1099 received remdesivir. Patients treated with sotrovimab were younger and had lower comorbidity but were more likely to be immunocompromised than remdesivir-treated patients. The majority (89%) had received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. COVID-19-related hospitalization (1.5% and 1.0% in remdesivir and sotrovimab, respectively, p = .15) and mortality within 28 days (0.4% in both groups, p = .82) were similarly low. A propensity score weighted analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the outcomes between the two groups. We demonstrated favorable outcomes that were not significantly different between patients treated with remdesivir or sotrovimab.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5446, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443459

RESUMO

Determination of long COVID requires ruling out alternative diagnoses, but there has been no report on the features of alternative diagnoses. This study was a single-center retrospective study of outpatients who visited our clinic between February 2021 and June 2023 that was carried out to determine the characteristics of alternative diagnoses in patients with post-COVID-19 symptoms. In a total of 731 patients, 50 patients (6.8%) were newly diagnosed with 52 diseases requiring medical intervention, and 16 (32%) of those 50 patients (2.2% of the total) were considered to have priority for treatment of the newly diagnosed disorders over long COVID treatment. The proportion of patients with a new diagnosis increased with advance of age, with 15.7% of the patients aged 60 years or older having a new diagnosis. Endocrine and metabolic diseases and hematological and respiratory diseases were the most common, being detected in eight patients (16%) each. Although 35 of the 52 diseases (67%) were related to their symptoms, endocrine and metabolic diseases were the least associated with specific symptoms. Other disorders that require attention were found especially in elderly patients with symptomatic long COVID. Thus, appropriate assessment and differentiation from alternative diagnoses are necessary for managing long COVID.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino , Doenças Metabólicas , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
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