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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 41(1): 60-67, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587518

RESUMO

Ovarian follicle development is an essential process for continuation of sexually reproductive animals, and is controlled by a wide variety of regulatory factors such as neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems. Moreover, while some molecular mechanisms underlying follicle development are conserved, others vary among species. Consequently, follicle development processes are closely related to the evolution and diversity of species. Ciona intestinalis type A (Ciona rubusta) is a cosmopolitan species of ascidians, which are the closest relative of vertebrates. However, unlike vertebrates, ascidians are not endowed with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis involving pituitary gonadotropins and sexual steroids. Combined with the phylogenetic position of ascidians as the closest relative of vertebrates, such morphological and endocrine features suggest that ascidians possess both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in follicle development. To date, several neuropeptides have been shown to participate in the growth of vitellogenic follicles, oocyte maturation of postvitellogenic follicles, and ovulation of fully mature follicles in a developmental stage-specific fashion. Furthermore, recent studies have shed light on the evolutionary processes of follicle development throughout chordates. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuropeptidergic molecular mechanism in the premature follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and ovulation in Ciona, and comparative views of the follicle development processes of mammals and teleosts.


Assuntos
Ciona intestinalis , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Ovulação , Folículo Ovariano , Mamíferos
2.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113863, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457339

RESUMO

Reproduction is an energy-intensive process requiring systemic coordination. However, the inter-organ signaling mechanisms that relay nutrient status to modulate reproductive output are poorly understood. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster as a model to establish the integrated stress response (ISR) transcription factor, Atf4, as a fat tissue metabolic sensor that instructs oogenesis. We demonstrate that Atf4 regulates lipase activity to mediate yolk lipoprotein synthesis in the fat body. Depletion of Atf4 in the fat body also blunts oogenesis recovery after amino acid deprivation and re-feeding, suggestive of a nutrient-sensing role for Atf4. We also discovered that Atf4 promotes secretion of a fat-body-derived neuropeptide, CNMamide, which modulates neural circuits that promote egg-laying behavior (ovulation). Thus, we posit that ISR signaling in fat tissue acts as a "metabolic sensor" that instructs female reproduction-directly by impacting yolk lipoprotein production and follicle maturation and systemically by regulating ovulation.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Oogênese , Animais , Feminino , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Oogênese/fisiologia , Ovulação , Oócitos , Lipoproteínas
3.
Theriogenology ; 220: 77-83, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490112

RESUMO

The present study evaluated follicular and endocrine dynamics during ReBreed21, a reproductive strategy that allows resynchronization of ovulation every 21 days in Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers. A synchronized estrous cycle was induced using a standard timed ovulation protocol (d -10: P4 implant inserted + 2 mg estradiol benzoate; d -2: P4 removed+ 0.5 mg cloprostenol + 0.6 mg estradiol cypionate + 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG); d0: 8.4 µg buserelin) without AI to ensure nonpregnancy in heifers. Day of GnRH was designated d0 of estrous cycle. On d12, heifers (n = 80) were randomized into three experimental groups: (1) ReBreed21 (n = 28) d12 P4 device inserted, d19 P4 device withdrawal plus 200 IU eCG, and d21 8.4 µg buserelin (GnRH); (2) ReBreed21+G (n = 26) same as ReBreed21 plus GnRH (16.8 µg) treatment on d12; and (3) Control (n = 26) no treatment. ReBreed21+G increased two-fold (62.9%; 18/26) percentage of heifers with synchronized follicular wave emergence compared to Control (34.6%; 9/26) whereas ReBreed21 (53.6%; 15/28) was intermediate. The ReBreeed21 groups (eCG on d19) increased (P < 0.01) follicular growth between d19 and d21 in ReBreed21 (2.3 ± 0.2 mm) and ReBreed21+G (3.4 ± 0.2 mm) compared with Control (1.2 ± 0.3 mm), resulting in greater (P < 0.01) follicle diameter on d21 for ReBreed21 (10.7 ± 0.4 mm) and ReBreed21+G (10.8 ± 0.4 mm) compared with Control (9.1 ± 0.5 mm). Structural luteolysis was similar among groups (P = 0.51), although the average day when P4 was <1 ng/mL was later (P < 0.01) for ReBreed21 (20.5 ± 0.2) and ReBreed21+G (20.7 ± 0.2) compared to Control (19.2 ± 0.4). Overall ovulation at the end of the estrous cycle was increased (P = 0.03) for ReBreed21 groups (83.3%; 45/54) compared with Control (57.7%; 15/26). Synchronized ovulation on day 22-23 was greater (P < 0.01) for ReBreed21 (78.6%; 22/28) and ReBreed21+G (76.9%; 20/26) compared with Control (30.8%; 8/26). Thus, the ReBreed21 resynchronization program produced acceptable endocrine and follicular dynamics, including synchronized ovulation at the end of the protocol in nonpregnant heifers providing good rationale for testing the fertility and practical implementation of this protocol under field conditions.


Assuntos
Busserrelina , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Busserrelina/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Gonadotropinas Equinas/farmacologia , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Folículo Ovariano , Ovário , Ovulação , Progesterona/farmacologia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300893, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512821

RESUMO

In the artistic sports program, the referee' scores directly determine the final results of the athletes. Wushu is a artistic sport that has a Chinese characteristic and has the potential to become an official competition at the Summer Olympic. In this study we tested whether a red uniform color affects Wushu Routine practitioners' ratings of athletes' position or movement of Wushu Routine. We also tested whether the effect varied depending on the gender of the athlete and the practitioner, and depending on whether female practitioners were in the ovulation phase of their menstrual cycle. Male (Experiment 1: N = 72) and female (Experiment 1: N = 72; Experiment 2: N = 52) participants who major in Wushu Routine were recruited to take a referee's perspective and rate the movement quality of male and female athletes wearing red or blue uniforms. The results of Experiment 1 showed that both male and female athletes wearing red uniform (compared to blue uniform) received higher ratings (p = .002, η2 = .066; p = .014, η2 = .043), and the red effect was especially strong when male practitioners rated female athletes (p = .002, η2 = .069). The results of Experiment 2, in an all-female sample, showed that in most cases there was no difference in ratings made by women in the ovulation and non-ovulation phases of their menstrual cycle, with the exception of their ratings of male athletes wearing red; in this condition, women gave higher ratings when they were in the ovulation phase of their cycle (p = .026). The results suggest that there is a red effect in an artistic sport like Wushu Routine, in which gender and the female menstrual cycle play an important role.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Artes Marciais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atletas , Ciclo Menstrual , Ovulação
5.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 66, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 2 (QSOX2) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase that is known to be involved in protein folding, cell growth regulation, and redox state modification through oxidative activities. Earlier studies demonstrated the tissue and cellular localization of QSOX2 in the male reproductive tract, as well as the highly-regulated mechanism of QSOX2 protein synthesis and expression through the coordinated action of testosterone and epididymal-enriched amino acid, glutamate. However, the presence and the functions of QSOX2 in female reproduction are unknown. In this study, we applied the Cre-loxP gene manipulation system to generate the heterozygous and homozygous Qsox2 knockout mice and examined its effects on ovarian function. RESULTS: We demonstrated that QSOX2 was detected in the follicle-supporting cells (granulosa and cumulus cells) of ovarian follicles of all stages but was absent in the corpus luteum, suggesting its supportive role in folliculogenesis. In comparison with reproductive organogenesis in wild-type mice, there was no difference in testicular and epididymal structure in male Qsox2 knockout; however, Qsox2 knockout disrupted the regular ovulation process in female mice as a drastic decrease in the formation of the corpus luteum was detected, and no pregnancy was achieved when mating males with homozygous Qsox2 knockout females. RNAseq analyses further revealed that Qsox2 knockout altered critical signaling pathways and genes that are responsible for maintaining ovarian functions. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated for the first time that Qsox2 is critical for ovarian function in mice.


Assuntos
Células da Granulosa , Oxirredutases , Tamoxifeno , Feminino , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/metabolismo , Ovário , Ovulação , Camundongos Knockout
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 103, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483632

RESUMO

Our objective was to compare the efficacy of reducing GnRH dose from 100 µg to 50 µg on the formation of ovulation and sizes of ovarian structures following Ovsynch in apparently healthy Bunaji and Friesian × Bunaji Cows. Thirty female multiparous-apparently-healthy adult [Bunaji (n = 15) and Friesian × Bunaji (n = 15)] breeds of cattle were used. Five cows each were allocated randomly to three groups [control; full dose (FD), and half dose (HD)]. Cows in the control group were treated with 2 ml normal saline while FD-group received 100 µg lecirelin on day 0, with 500 µg clorprostenol on day 7 and with 100 µg lecirelin two days later. Furthermore, HD-group received the same treatment as FD-cows but the dose of lecirelin was reduced to 50 µg at both times of GnRH administration. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasound with a 5-MHZ linear transrectal probe on days - 1 to 12. The ovarian responses of the various groups to first GnRH administration showed (0%, 40% and 60%) ovulation rate for C, HD and FD groups respectively in Bunaji breeds while in Friesian × Bunaji, it was (0%, 60%, 60%). Following second GnRH administration ovulation rate for Bunaji was (20%, 60%, and 60%) for Control, HD and FD-groups, respectively, while for Friesian × Bunaji cows it was (20%, 60%, and 80%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the days of new follicular wave emergence following the first GnRH administration. It was concluded that 50 µg Lecirelin reduced the cost of drug without affecting the efficiency of Ovsynch protocol.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano , Ovulação
7.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(3): e14553, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501644

RESUMO

This study evaluated the efficacy of the administration of different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 0 IU, 200 IU, or 300 IU) at the time of the progesterone device removal in 2-year-old Nelore (Bos indicus) heifers synchronized for fixed-timed artificial insemination (FTAI). On day 0 (D0), a total of 398 heifers received 2 mg of oestradiol benzoate i.m., 0.53 mg of cloprostenol i.m., and an eight-day previously used (second use) intravaginal device containing 1 g of progesterone (P4). Eight days later (D8), simultaneous with the P4 device removal, 0.5 mg of oestradiol cypionate i.m. and 0.53 mg of cloprostenol i.m. were administered. At the same time, heifers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: G-0 IU (n = 141; no eCG treatment), G-200 IU (n = 132; treated with 200 IU of eCG), and G-300 IU (n = 125; treated with 300 IU of eCG). FTAI was performed 48 h after the P4 device removal (D10). Ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at D0, D10, and D17. Heifers were scanned to measure the size of the largest follicle (LF), the presence, number, and size of the corpus luteum (CL), and the ovulation rate. Subsequently, at D40, the heifers underwent scanning to determine the pregnancy rate and identify any twin pregnancies. Additionally, at D70, scans were performed to assess pregnancy loss (PG). Data were analysed by orthogonal contrasts [C1 (eCG effect): control x (200 IU + 300 IU) and C2 (eCG dose effect): 200 IU × 300 IU]. On D0, CL presence was similar between the groups [G-0 IU = 65.2% (92/141), G-200 IU = 55.3% (73/132), and G-300 IU = 63.2% (79/125); p = .16]. No interactions between the presence of CL on D0 and eCG treatment were found for any of the variables (p > .05). The diameter of the LF at FTAI (D10) was not influenced by eCG treatment (p = .22) or eCG dose (p = .18). However, treatment with eCG increased the diameter of the CL at D17 (G-0 IU = 15.7 ± 0.3 mmb , G-200 IU = 16.6 ± 0.2 mma , and G-300 IU = 16.6 ± 0.3 mma ; p = .001), regardless of the dose used (p = .94). The ovulation rate was higher in heifers treated with eCG [G-0 IU = 79.4%b (112/141), G-200 IU = 90.2%a (119/132), and G-300 IU = 93.6%a (117/125); p = .002], but there was no effect of eCG dose (p = .36). Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) on D40 [G-0 IU = 32.6%b (46/141), G-200 IU = 42.4%a (56/132), and G-300 IU = 42.4%a (53/125); P = 0.05] and D70 [G-0 IU = 29.1%b (41/141), G-200 IU = 40.9%a (54/132), and G-300 IU = 40.8%a (51/125); p = .02] were higher on heifers that received eCG; however, no dose effect was observed for P/AI on D40 (p = .89) nor D70 (p = .98). Pregnancy loss between D40 and D70 tended to reduce (p = .07) in eCG-treated heifers without dose effect (p = .91). Heifers with CL at D0 presented a greater follicle diameter (LF) on D10 (With CL = 11.2 ± 0.2 mm and Without CL = 10.2 ± 0.2 mm; p = .05), CL diameter on D17 (With CL = 15.8 ± 0.03 mm and Without CL = 11.8 ± 0.6 mm; p = .01), and ovulation rate [With CL = 95.5% (233/244) and Without CL = 74.7% (115/154); p = .01]. However, no difference in pregnancy rate at D40 (p = .52) and D70 (p = .84) was found. In conclusion, eCG treatment increases ovulation and pregnancy rates of heifers submitted to a FTAI protocol. Furthermore, eCG treatment increases the diameter of the CL after FTAI and reduces pregnancy losses. No dose effect was observed, suggesting Nelore (Bos indicus) heifers respond to 200 IU of eCG treatment for FTAI.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Gravidez , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Aborto Animal , Ovulação , Estradiol/farmacologia , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos
8.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(4): e14555, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546114

RESUMO

Most of the northern hemisphere donkey breeds are faced with the risk of extinction, thus donkey reproduction is considered an emerging branch of theriogenology, and the management of artificial insemination and induction of ovulation is a crucial point in setting up preservation protocols. For four consecutive cycles, six jennies' ovarian activity was routinely monitored; an ultrasound examination was performed daily from the evidence of a follicle diameter ≥27 mm until ovulation. Upon reaching a follicular diameter ≥32 ± 2 mm (Hour 0), oestrous jennies were treated alternatively with 0.1 mg triptorelin acetate, sc, (TRIP), 0.4 mg/sc of buserelin acetate (BUS) or saline, sc, (CTRL) and examined ultrasonographically at Hours 14, 24, 38, 42, 48, 62 and every 24 h until ovulation. Induction of ovulation was considered successful if ovulation occurred from 24 to 48 h after treatment. 11/12 cycles resulted in ovulation for TRIP and 12/12 for BUS and CTRL groups, respectively. Mean ± SD ovulation time after treatment was 37.3 ± 8.3, 47.1 ± 21.0 and 66.8 ± 25.9 h for BUS, TRIP and CTRL, respectively (p = .0032). Ovulation rates between h24 and h48 were 10/12 (83.3%) for both TRIP/BUS and 2/12 (16.7%) for CTRL, respectively (p = .003). Buserelin and triptorelin-treated jennies had a 25 times higher probability to ovulate between Hours 24 and 48 than controls (p = .003), while there were no jenny and cycle effects on the ovulatory rate. The results of this study show how triptorelin successfully induced ovulation in jennies, like other GnRH analogues previously evaluated.


Assuntos
Equidae , Pamoato de Triptorrelina , Feminino , Animais , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/farmacologia , Ovulação , Busserrelina/farmacologia , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Acetatos/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia
9.
Theriogenology ; 218: 56-61, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301507

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of estradiol valerate administered at the beginning of the ovulation synchronization protocol on the pregnancy rate of Bos indicus cows. In the experiments, the following products from MSD, Sao Paulo, Brazil were used: estradiol valerate (EV), estradiol benzoate (EB), intravaginal progesterone device (P4), estradiol cypionate (EC), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and cloprostenol (PGF). In Experiment 1, Bos indicus cows (n=899) with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.76 ± 0.01 were included in a 3 (device) × 2 (protocol: 5 mg of EV or 2 mg of EB) factorial design. There were three types of P4 devices: a new device (New), a device previously used for 9 days (1×), and a device previously used for 18 days (2×). Nine days later (D9), the P4 device was removed, and cows received 300 IU of eCG. In addition, cows in the EB group received 1 mg of EC and 265 µg of PGF. Timed artificial insemination (TAI) was performed 48 h after P4 device removal in the EB group (TAI48) and 54 h after P4 device removal in the EV group (TAI54). In Experiment 2, Bos indicus cows (n=434) with a BCS of 2.62 ± 0.01 received a new P4 device or one previously used for 9 days and 5 mg of EV. On D9, all cows received 300 IU of eCG, and the P4 devices were removed and distributed in TAI48 and TAI54 cows. In Experiment 3, Bos indicus cows (n=429) with a BCS of 2.80 ± 0.01 were divided into the control and EV/EC groups. All cows received a P4 device. In addition, cows in the control group received 2 mg of EB, and cows in the EV/EC group received 5 mg of EV on D0. On D9, all cows received 1 mg of EC and 300 IU of eCG, and the P4 devices were removed. Cows in the control group also received 265 µg of PGF. All cows were inseminated 48 h after the removal of the P4 device. In Experiment 1, there was no effect of the interaction between protocol and P4 device on the occurrence of estrus (P=0.45) or on the pregnancy per artificial insemination ratio (P/AI; P=0.30). In addition, the occurrence of estrus and P/AI were not different between in the two estradiol groups (P=0.12 and P=0.82) and across the types of intravaginal P4 device (P=0.91 and P=0.47). In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate was lower (tendency) in TAI48 cows (P=0.07). In Experiment 3, the estrus rate (P=0.12) and P/AI (P=0.56) were similar between the experimental groups. In summary, protocols using estradiol valerate without exogenous ovulation induction require adjustments in the timing of AI from 48 to 54 h after P4 device removal. However, a combination of estradiol valerate at the beginning of the protocol and estradiol cypionate nine days later successfully induced ovulation in Bos indicus cows inseminated 48 h after P4 device removal.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Cavalos , Brasil , Estradiol/farmacologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Ovulação , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos
10.
Theriogenology ; 218: 174-182, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330861

RESUMO

The current study investigated effects of dietary amino acid (AA) availability on lactational body condition loss and metabolic status, in relation to reproductive parameters after weaning up to Day 8 post-ovulation. Primiparous sows (n = 35) were allocated to one of two lactation diets containing either low crude protein (CP, 140 g/kg) with a low percentage (8%) of slow protein in total protein (LL, n = 18) or high CP (180 g/kg) with a high (16%) percentage of slow protein (HH, n = 17). The HH diet was expected to improve AA utilization by supplying more AA, in a more gradual fashion. The diets did not affect sow body condition loss during lactation, while the HH diet tended to increase litter weight gain during the week 3 of lactation (Δ = 1.3 kg, P = 0.09). On Day 14 post-farrowing, HH diet led to higher plasma urea both pre-feeding and post-feeding (Δ = 2.3 mmol/L, P < 0.01, Δ = 2.4 mmol/L, P < 0.01, respectively), whilst plasma creatinine, NEFA and IGF-1 were similar. No dietary effects on reproductive parameters were found, however several relationships were found between body condition and reproductive parameters. Sows with higher body weight on Day 1 or Day 21 post-farrowing had greater follicle size on Day 3 post-weaning (ß = 0.03 mm/kg, P < 0.01, ß = 0.04 mm/kg, P < 0.01, respectively). At Day 8 post-ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration was negatively related to loin muscle loss (ß = -0.67 ng/ml · mm-1, P = 0.02), backfat loss (ß = -2.33 ng/ml · mm-1, P = 0.02), and estimated body fat loss (ß = -0.67 ng/ml · mm-1, P = 0.02). Both plasma progesterone and the number of corpora lutea were positively related to the energy balance during lactation (ß = 0.03 ng/ml · ME MJ-1, P = 0.01, ß = 0.01 CL/ME MJ, P = 0.02, respectively). The conceptus size at Day 8 post-ovulation was negatively related to body weight loss (ß = -0.01 mm/kg, P = 0.01), estimated body fat loss (ß = -0.02 mm/kg, P = 0.03) and estimated body protein loss (ß = -0.06 mm/kg, P = 0.04), and was positively related to the energy balance during lactation (ß = 5.2*10-4 mm/ME MJ, P = 0.01). In conclusion, body protein and fat losses during lactation reduced subsequent plasma progesterone concentration and conceptus development at Day 8 post-ovulation.


Assuntos
Lactação , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Suínos , Animais , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lactação/fisiologia , Reprodução , Ovulação , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas , Ração Animal/análise , Peso Corporal
11.
Theriogenology ; 218: 239-243, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359562

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administering injectable progesterone (P4i) before a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on the follicular growth, ovulation, and pregnancy rate of Bos taurus suckled cows. The effect of P4i administration before the TAI on the pregnancy rate (P/AI) was evaluated in 576 suckled Bos taurus cows at 30-90 days postpartum. In addition, the effect of P4i administration before TAI on follicular dynamics was evaluated in subgroup of 401 suckled Bos taurus cows. On Day -10 (D-10), cows were divided into two experimental groups (Control and P4i). In this moment, P4i cows received i.m. 150 mg of injectable long-action progesterone. After that, both experimental groups received a synchronization protocol (Day 0; D0) that consisted of administration i.m. of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and a progesterone intravaginal insert on D0. On Day 8 (D8), the progesterone insert was removed, and the cows received 500 µg of cloprostenol, 400 IU of eCG, and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate. TAI was performed 48 h after the removal of the progesterone insert. The ultrasound exams were performed in a subgroup of cows on Days 0, 8, 10 and 12 to evaluate the diameter of the largest follicle, rate of follicular growth and risks of single and double ovulation. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed 30 days after TAI in all cows to determine the pregnancy rate. The diameter of the largest follicle, on D10 (P = 0.84), rate of follicular growth (P = 0.14), ovulation rate (P = 0.40) and double ovulation rates (P = 0.23) did not differ between experimental groups. The pregnancy rate was greater in the P4i group [Control 46.2 % (133/288) vs. P4i 55.6 % (160/288); P = 0.03]. The diameter of the largest follicles (LF) on D0 (Control 11.6 ± 0.2 vs. P4i 13.3 ± 0.3) was greater (P = 0.01) in the P4i group. In conclusion, injectable progesterone before the ovulation synchronization protocol increased the diameter of the largest follicle on the D0 and the pregnancy rate in multiparous Bos taurus suckled beef cows.


Assuntos
Ovulação , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Progesterona/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano , Paridade , Estradiol/farmacologia , Fertilidade , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Sincronização do Estro/métodos
12.
J Reprod Dev ; 70(2): 123-130, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403585

RESUMO

Genetically modified rats are valuable models in human disease research. We recently developed an improved system for rat sperm cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) that facilitates the efficient production and preservation of genetically modified rats. In the IVF procedure performed using frozen-thawed rat sperm, the IVF schedule is fixed to ensure timely hormone administration and oocyte collection. To enhance the flexibility of the IVF schedule, possible periods of postovulated rat oocytes with normal fertility and developmental abilities should be determined. Therefore, in this study, we examined the fertilization and developmental ability of incubated oocytes 1-13 h after oocyte collection at 9:00 AM. The fertilization rate decreased 7 h after oocyte collection, and abnormally fertilized oocytes appeared 10 h after oocyte collection. The developmental rate also decreased 7 h after oocyte collection; however, live pups were obtained from oocytes 12 h after oocyte collection. In summary, ovulated rat oocytes exhibited a high developmental ability after IVF for up to 4 h after oocyte collection.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Sêmen , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Oócitos , Criopreservação/métodos , Ovulação , Inseminação
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 5(3): 101440, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402622

RESUMO

Transmasculine people usually reach amenorrhea within 6 months of adequate testosterone treatment. It is often assumed that no ovulation occurs during amenorrhea. However, in this study, we report recent ovulatory activity in amenorrheic transmasculine people on testosterone therapy at gender-affirming oophorectomy. Histological signs of recent ovulatory activity, including the presence of ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum, and corpus albicans, are observed in 17 of 52 individuals (33%). This is not significantly correlated to the duration, testosterone serum levels, or type of testosterone used. These results suggest that amenorrhea does not equal anovulation in transmasculine people on adequate testosterone therapy, emphasizing the importance of contraception for people who engage in sexual activity that can result in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Amenorreia , Testosterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Amenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Ovulação
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 132, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting the periovulatory period is very important for conception. Current approaches to predicting the periovulatory period include monitoring of basal body temperature and urine luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration; however, these methods are time-consuming. Here, we examined the potential of using vaginal discharge (VD) as a non-invasive means of sample collection for determining the LH surge that indicates ovulation. METHODS: Urine and VD samples were collected from 35 healthy women aged 20-39 years. VD samples were collected with panty liners to reduce the burden on participants. Daily first urine samples and used panty liners were collected from the 10th through 19th days of the menstrual cycle. Urine and VD LH (uLH and vLH) levels in the samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Measured vLH baseline and first surge values were analyzed using Student's t-test and ROC curves. RESULTS: Samples for a total of 55 menstrual cycles were collected. We used uLH surge to establish the date of ovulation. uLH surges were observed in 49 cycles, 34 of which had corresponding VD samples that qualified for measurement. Five cycles were excluded due to a lack of vLH data. In the remaining 29 cycles, the vLH surge appeared within the fertile window 90% of the time, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 86% and 83%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: VD has potential for use as a sample for predicting the periovulatory period by measuring LH content.


Assuntos
Hormônio Luteinizante , Descarga Vaginal , Feminino , Humanos , Ovulação , Ciclo Menstrual , Fertilização
15.
Development ; 151(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345299

RESUMO

Drosophila matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is specifically expressed in posterior follicle cells of stage-14 egg chambers (mature follicles) and is crucial for the breakdown of the follicular wall during ovulation, a process that is highly conserved from flies to mammals. The factors that regulate spatiotemporal expression of MMP2 in follicle cells remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate crucial roles for the ETS-family transcriptional activator Pointed (Pnt) and its endogenous repressor Yan in the regulation of MMP2 expression. We found that Pnt is expressed in posterior follicle cells and overlaps with MMP2 expression in mature follicles. Genetic analysis demonstrated that pnt is both required and sufficient for MMP2 expression in follicle cells. In addition, Yan was temporally upregulated in stage-13 follicle cells to fine-tune Pnt activity and MMP2 expression. Furthermore, we identified a 1.1 kb core enhancer that is responsible for the spatiotemporal expression of MMP2 and contains multiple pnt/yan binding motifs. Mutation of pnt/yan binding sites significantly impaired the Mmp2 enhancer activity. Our data reveal a mechanism of transcriptional regulation of Mmp2 expression in Drosophila ovulation, which could be conserved in other biological systems.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Feminino , Drosophila/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Ovulação/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 134: 105029, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346582

RESUMO

Mares (n = 77) were evaluated by antral follicle count (AFC) and selected as embryo recipients. Cyclic recipients received embryos between days 4-6 after ovulation. The acyclic recipients received an intramuscular (i.m.) protocol with 5mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of donor ovulation (D0; D-4 recipient), 3mg of EB on the following day (D1; D-3 recipient), and 3mg of EB (D2; D-2 recipient). Furthermore, 1500mg of progesterone (P4) i.m. given on D0 of the recipient (D4 donor) followed by 1500mg of P4 on the day of ET (D4-6 recipient). On the ET day, the AFC and animals' weight, body condition score (BCS), corpus luteum diameter, age and degree of uterine edema (UE) were measured. Pregnancy was confirmed on days 12 and 30. Low AFC was defined as ≤11 follicles (n = 43 mares) and high AFC as >11 follicles (n = 34 mares). Data were analyzed by a mixed effect model, including AFC group, reproductive seasonality, and season (P ≤ 0.05). UE was influenced (P = 0.05) by reproductive seasonality. The conception rate was higher (P = 0.016) in recipients with low (79.07 %) than high AFC (61.76 %) and higher (P = 0.005) in cyclic (81.40 %) than anestrus (58.82 %) mares. In addition, we observed a tendency (P = 0.06) for the interaction of AFC*reproductive seasonality, showing that high*anoestrus recipients had the lowest conception rate (37.50 %b) compared to high*cyclic (83.33 %a), low*anoestrus (77.78 %a) and low*cyclic (80 %a). The conception rate was higher in cyclic recipients with low AFC. Furthermore, UE was influenced by reproductive seasonality and mares in anestrus showed a higher degree of UE than cyclic mares.


Assuntos
Progesterona , Reprodução , Gravidez , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Ovulação , Corpo Lúteo
17.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 585: 112180, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342135

RESUMO

The ovulatory response involves diverse molecular determinants, the interplay between which remains less investigated in fish. This study explores the temporal changes in the follicular microenvironment, regulatory factors, and underlying signaling events during ovulation in female zebrafish subjected to 14L:10D at 28 ± 1 °C in vivo vis-à-vis in hCG-stimulated full-grown (FG) follicles in vitro. Congruent with reduced GSH levels, SOD, and GPx activity, a graded increase in follicular free radicals, Nox4, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the morning hour groups (05:00 and 06:30) correlates positively with the ovulatory surge in inflammatory mediators (Tnf-α, Il-1ß, Il-6, Nos2, and Cox-2). Further, elevated Pgr expression and its nuclear translocation, congruent with follicular lhcgr, star, and hsd20b2 upregulation in vivo, corroborates well with the transcriptional activation of genes (pla2g4aa, ptgesl, ptger4b, mmp9, adamts9), triggering ovulation in this species. Mechanistically, an elevated ovulatory response in hCG-treated FG follicles in vitro involves the upregulation of inflammatory mediators, pgr and ovulation-associated genes in a manner sensitive to PKA- and MAPK3/1-mediated signaling.


Assuntos
Superóxidos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Feminino , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Ovulação/genética , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396659

RESUMO

Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone released from lactotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary gland that also originates from extrapituitary sources and plays an important role in regulating lactation in mammals, as well as other actions. Acting in an endocrine and paracrine/autocrine manner, PRL regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, thus influencing the maturation of ovarian follicles and ovulation. This review provides a detailed discussion of the current knowledge on the role of PRL in the context of ovulation and ovulatory disorders, particularly with regard to hyperprolactinemia, which is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Much attention has been given to the PRL structure and the PRL receptor (PRLR), as well as the diverse functions of PRLR signaling under normal and pathological conditions. The hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle in connection with folliculogenesis and ovulation, as well as the current classifications of ovulation disorders, are also described. Finally, the state of knowledge regarding the importance of TIDA (tuberoinfundibular dopamine), KNDγ (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin), and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) neurons in PRL- and kisspeptin (KP)-dependent regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in women is reviewed. Based on this review, a rationale for influencing PRL signaling pathways in therapeutic activities accompanying ovulation disorders is presented.


Assuntos
Ovulação , Prolactina , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Ovulação/metabolismo , Adeno-Hipófise/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298066, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346056

RESUMO

Equine embryo transfer (EET) is a prominent technology in the equine breeding industry, and its efficacy is affected by a number of factors. The current study aimed to determine the effects of the breed of donor/recipient mares, estrus/ovulation induction treatment, cooled transportation of embryos, and synchrony between donor and recipient mares on the efficiency of the EET under subtropical conditions of Pakistan. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) Polo-playing donor mares (Argentino-polo = 41 and Anglo-Arab = 43) and seventy (n = 70) recipient mares (light breed = 26 and heavy breed = 44) were used for EET. The donor mares exhibiting natural estrus (n = 28) were detected by teaser a stallion, and corpus luteum (CL) having mares (n = 56) were treated with prostaglandin (150 µg of Cloprostenol) for estrus induction. The mares' follicular growth was monitored through ultrasonography until the dominant follicle's size reached 35 mm or more with a moderate to obvious uterine edema score. Afterward, the mares were treated either with GnRH, i.e., 50 µg of Lecirelin acetate (n = 41) or Ovusyn, i.e., 1500 IU hCG (n = 43). Insemination with chilled semen was performed 24 hours later. The embryos were collected non-surgically, 7 or 8 days after ovulation, from the donor mares. The collected embryos were transferred into the well-synchronized recipient mares as fresh (n = 44) or chilled (n = 26) embryos. The pregnancy after ET was checked through ultrasonography. Statistical analysis revealed that the embryo recovery rate (ERR) remained significantly higher (P<0.05) for the Prostaglandin (PG) treated group of donors as compared to the natural heat group of donors. The breed of donor mares, type of ovulatory treatment given, and day of embryo collection did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the ERR. There was no significant effect of the type (fresh vs chilled), classification, and stage of development of embryo on pregnancy outcomes (P>0.05). ET pregnancy rate was significantly affected by the breed of recipient mares and ovulation synchrony between donor and recipient mares (P<0.05). In conclusion, under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan, PG-based estrus induction of donor mares, breed of recipient mares, and ovulation synchrony between the donor and recipient mares had a substantial effect on the efficiency of EET.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Ovulação , Gravidez , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Taxa de Gravidez , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Prostaglandinas
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3151, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326534

RESUMO

Embryo-maternal crosstalk is essential to establish pregnancy, with the equine embryo moving throughout the uterus on days 9-15 (ovulation = day 0) as part of this interaction. We hypothesized that the presence of a mobile embryo induces local changes in the gene expression of the endometrium. On Day 12, the endometrial transcripts were compared among three groups: uterine horn with an embryo (P+, n = 7), without an embryo (P-, n = 7) in pregnant mares, and both uterine horns of nonbred mares (NB, n = 6). We identified 1,101 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between P+ vs. NB and 1,229 DEGs between P- vs. NB. The genes upregulated in both P+ and P- relative to NB were involved in growth factor pathway and fatty acid activation, while downregulated genes were associated with oxytocin signaling pathway and estrogen receptor signaling. Comparing the transcriptome of P+ to that of P-, we found 59 DEGs, of which 30 genes had a higher expression in P+. These genes are associated with regulating vascular growth factors and the immune system, all known to be essential in early pregnancy. Overall, this study suggests that the mobile embryo influences the endometrial gene expression locally.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Útero , Gravidez , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Endométrio/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Ovulação
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