Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 455
Filtrar
1.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 326(6): F1004-F1015, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634129

RESUMO

Humans are predisposed to gout because they lack uricase that converts uric acid to allantoin. Rodents have uricase, resulting in low basal serum uric acid. A uricase inhibitor raises serum uric acid in rodents. There were two aims of the study in polycystic kidney disease (PKD): 1) to determine whether increasing serum uric acid with the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid, resulted in faster cyst growth and 2) to determine whether treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, oxypurinol, reduced the cyst growth caused by oxonic acid. Orthologous models of human PKD were used: PCK rats, a polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (Pkhd1) gene model of autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) and Pkd1RC/RC mice, a hypomorphic Pkd1 gene model. In PCK rats and Pkd1RC/RC mice, oxonic acid resulted in a significant increase in serum uric acid, kidney weight, and cyst index. Mechanisms of increased cyst growth that were investigated were proinflammatory cytokines, the inflammasome, and crystal deposition in the kidney. Oxonic acid resulted in an increase in proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and kidney in Pkd1RC/RC mice. Oxonic acid did not cause activation of the inflammasome or uric acid crystal deposition in the kidney. In Pkd1RC/RC male and female mice analyzed together, oxypurinol decreased the oxonic acid-induced increase in cyst index. In summary, increasing serum uric acid by inhibiting uricase with oxonic acid results in an increase in kidney weight and cyst index in PCK rats and Pkd1RC/RC mice. The effect is independent of inflammasome activation or crystal deposition in the kidney.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first reported study of uric acid measurements and xanthine oxidase inhibition in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) rodents. Raising serum uric acid with a uricase inhibitor resulted in increased kidney weight and cyst index in Pkd1RC/RC mice and PCK rats, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and kidney in Pkd1RC/RC mice, and no uric acid crystal deposition or activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome in the kidney.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim , Doenças Renais Policísticas , Urato Oxidase , Ácido Úrico , Animais , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Doenças Renais Policísticas/patologia , Doenças Renais Policísticas/metabolismo , Doenças Renais Policísticas/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxipurinol/farmacologia , Ácido Oxônico/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ratos , Feminino , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Camundongos , Canais de Cátion TRPP/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPP/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359644

RESUMO

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare , hereditary disorder characterized by renal excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), leading to kidney stone formation and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, allopurinol or febuxostat, reduces urinary DHA excretion and slows the progression of CKD. The method currently used for therapeutic monitoring of APRT deficiency lacks specificity and thus, a more reliable measurement technique is needed. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of DHA, adenine, allopurinol, oxypurinol and febuxostat in human plasma was optimized and validated. Plasma samples were prepared with protein precipitation using acetonitrile followed by evaporation. The chemometric approach design of experiments was implemented to optimize gradient steepness, amount of organic solvent, flow rate, column temperature, cone voltage, desolvation temperature and desolvation flow rate. Experimental screening was conducted using fractional factorial design with addition of complementary experiments at the axial points for optimization of peak area, peak resolution and peak width. The assay was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical method validation over the concentration range of 50 to 5000 ng/mL for DHA, allopurinol and febuxostat, 100 to 5000 ng/mL for adenine and 50 to 12,000 ng/mL for oxypurinol, with r2 ≥ 0.99. The analytical assay achieved acceptable performance of accuracy (-10.8 to 8.3 %) and precision (CV < 15 %). DHA, adenine, allopurinol, oxypurinol and febuxostat were stable in plasma samples after five freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C and after storage at -80 °C for 12 months. The assay was evaluated for quantification of the five analytes in clinical plasma samples from six APRT deficiency patients and proved to be both efficient and accurate. The proposed assay will be valuable for guiding pharmacotherapy and thereby contribute to improved and more personalized care for patients with APRT deficiency.


Assuntos
Adenina Fosforribosiltransferase/deficiência , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Alopurinol , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Urolitíase , Humanos , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Oxipurinol , Febuxostat , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida , Adenina/metabolismo , Adenina Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
4.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 1044, 2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37904102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease with no effective treatments. Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) exhibited therapeutic effects on several cancers, but their roles in pancreatic cancer are unknown. This study aims to explore how L. casei & L. reuteri influence pancreatic cancer and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Pancreatic cancer cells were treated with L. casei & L. reuteri and co-cultured with macrophages in a transwell system in vitro. Pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established and L. casei & L. reuteri was used to treat mice in vivo. MTT, CCK-8 assay or immunohistochemical staining were used to determine the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells or tumor tissues. Transwell assay was applied to test the migration and invasion of pancreatic cells. RT-qPCR was utilized to assess TLR4 and MyD88 expressions in pancreatic cells or tumor tissues. WB, immunofluorescence staining, or flow cytometry was used to evaluate the M1/M2 polarization of macrophages. Besides, the composition of gut microbiota of tumor-bearing mice was determined by 16 S rRNA sequencing, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) untargeted metabolomics was used to evaluate the metabolic profiles of feces. RESULTS: L. casei & L. reuteri inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cell-induced M2 polarization of macrophages by suppressing TLR4. Meanwhile, L. casei & L. reuteri repressed pancreatic cancer growth and promoted M1 macrophage polarization. Besides, L. casei & L. reuteri reduced fecal Alloprevotella and increased fecal azelate and glutamate in nude mice, while TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 increased Clostridia UCG-014, azelate, uridine, methionine sulfoxide, oxypurinol, and decreased glyceryl monoester in the feces of pancreatic tumor-bearing mice. Fecal oxypurinol and glyceryl monoester levels were positively or negatively associated with gut Clostridia UCG-014 abundance, respectively. CONCLUSION: L. casei & L. reuteri alleviate pancreatic cancer by inhibiting TLR4 to promote macrophage M1 polarization and regulate gut microbial homeostasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Cromatografia Líquida , Oxipurinol/metabolismo , Oxipurinol/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas
5.
Allergy ; 78(11): 2980-2993, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37452515

RESUMO

Allopurinol (ALP) is a successful drug used in the treatment of gout. However, this drug has been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions that can cause severe to life-threatening reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Individuals who carry the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*58:01 allotype are at higher risk of experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction (odds ratios ranging from 5.62 to 580.3 for mild to severe reactions, respectively). In addition to the parent drug, the metabolite oxypurinol (OXP) is implicated in triggering T cell-mediated immunopathology via a labile interaction with HLA-B*58:01. To date, there has been limited information regarding the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire usage of reactive T cells in patients with ALP-induced SJS or TEN and, in particular, there are no reports examining paired αßTCRs. Here, using in vitro drug-treated PBMCs isolated from both resolved ALP-induced SJS/TEN cases and drug-naïve healthy donors, we show that OXP is the driver of CD8+ T cell-mediated responses and that drug-exposed memory T cells can exhibit a proinflammatory immunophenotype similar to T cells described during active disease. Furthermore, this response supported the pharmacological interaction with immune receptors (p-i) concept by showcasing (i) the labile metabolite interaction with peptide/HLA complexes, (ii) immunogenic complex formation at the cell surface, and (iii) lack of requirement for antigen processing to elicit drug-induced T cell responsiveness. Examination of paired OXP-induced αßTCR repertoires highlighted an oligoclonal and private clonotypic profile in both resolved ALP-induced SJS/TEN cases and drug-naïve healthy donors.


Assuntos
Alopurinol , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Humanos , Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Oxipurinol/farmacologia , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antígenos HLA-B/genética
6.
J Chem Inf Model ; 63(13): 4190-4206, 2023 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37319436

RESUMO

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme found in various organisms. It converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and urate, which are crucial steps in purine elimination in humans. Elevated uric acid levels can lead to conditions like gout and hyperuricemia. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing drugs that target XOR for treating these conditions and other diseases. Oxipurinol, an analogue of xanthine, is a well-known inhibitor of XOR. Crystallographic studies have revealed that oxipurinol directly binds to the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) in XOR. However, the precise details of the inhibition mechanism are still unclear, which would be valuable for designing more effective drugs with similar inhibitory functions. In this study, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations are employed to investigate the inhibition mechanism of XOR by oxipurinol. The study examines the structural and dynamic effects of oxipurinol on the pre-catalytic structure of the metabolite-bound system. Our results provide insights on the reaction mechanism catalyzed by the MoCo center in the active site, which aligns well with experimental findings. Furthermore, the results provide insights into the residues surrounding the active site and propose an alternative mechanism for developing alternative covalent inhibitors.


Assuntos
Metaloproteínas , Oxipurinol , Humanos , Xantina Desidrogenase/química , Xantina Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Xantina/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9373, 2023 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37296297

RESUMO

Allopurinol, widely used in gout treatment, is the most common cause of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. The risk of developing such life-threatening reactions is increased particularly for HLA-B*58:01 positive individuals. However the mechanism of action between allopurinol and HLA remains unknown. We demonstrate here that a Lamin A/C peptide KAGQVVTI which is unable to bind HLA-B*58:01 on its own, is enabled to form a stable peptide-HLA complex only in the presence of allopurinol. Crystal structure analysis reveal that allopurinol non-covalently facilitated KAGQVVTI to adopt an unusual binding conformation, whereby the C-terminal isoleucine does not engage as a PΩ that typically fit deeply in the binding F-pocket. A similar observation, though to a lesser degree was seen with oxypurinol. Presentation of unconventional peptides by HLA-B*58:01 aided by allopurinol contributes to our fundamental understanding of drug-HLA interactions. The binding of peptides from endogenously available proteins such as self-protein lamin A/C and viral protein EBNA3B suggest that aberrant loading of unconventional peptides in the presence of allopurinol or oxypurinol may be able to trigger anti-self reactions that can lead to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS).


Assuntos
Alopurinol , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Humanos , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Lamina Tipo A , Oxipurinol , Genótipo , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Peptídeos
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(10): 2964-2976, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37202871

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to quantify identifiable sources of variability, including key pharmacogenetic variants in oxypurinol pharmacokinetics and their pharmacodynamic effect on serum urate (SU). METHODS: Hmong participants (n = 34) received 100 mg allopurinol twice daily for 7 days followed by 150 mg allopurinol twice daily for 7 days. A sequential population pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamics (PKPD) analysis with non-linear mixed effects modelling was performed. Allopurinol maintenance dose to achieve target SU was simulated based on the final PKPD model. RESULTS: A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best described the oxypurinol concentration-time data. Inhibition of SU by oxypurinol was described with a direct inhibitory Emax model using steady-state oxypurinol concentrations. Fat-free body mass, estimated creatinine clearance and SLC22A12 rs505802 genotype (0.32 per T allele, 95% CI 0.13, 0.55) were found to predict differences in oxypurinol clearance. Oxypurinol concentration required to inhibit 50% of xanthine dehydrogenase activity was affected by PDZK1 rs12129861 genotype (-0.27 per A allele, 95% CI -0.38, -0.13). Most individuals with both PDZK1 rs12129861 AA and SLC22A12 rs505802 CC genotypes achieve target SU (with at least 75% success rate) with allopurinol below the maximum dose, regardless of renal function and body mass. In contrast, individuals with both PDZK1 rs12129861 GG and SLC22A12 rs505802 TT genotypes would require more than the maximum dose, thus requiring selection of alternative medications. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed allopurinol dosing guide uses individuals' fat-free mass, renal function and SLC22A12 rs505802 and PDZK1 rs12129861 genotypes to achieve target SU.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Adulto , Humanos , Oxipurinol , Alopurinol/farmacocinética , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/genética , Supressores da Gota/farmacocinética , Farmacogenética , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética
9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 16(5): 872-885, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36864560

RESUMO

Females present a higher risk of adverse drug reactions. Sex-related differences in drug concentrations may contribute to these observations but they remain understudied given the underrepresentation of females in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anthropometric and socioeconomic factors and comorbidities could explain sex-related differences in concentrations and dosing for metoprolol and oxypurinol, the active metabolite of allopurinol. We conducted an analysis of two cross-sectional studies. Participants were self-described "White" adults taking metoprolol or allopurinol selected from the Montreal Heart Institute Hospital Cohort. A total of 1007 participants were included in the metoprolol subpopulation and 459 participants in the allopurinol subpopulation; 73% and 86% of the participants from the metoprolol and allopurinol subpopulations were males, respectively. Females presented higher age- and dose-adjusted concentrations of both metoprolol and oxypurinol (both p < 0.03). Accordingly, females presented higher unadjusted and age-adjusted concentration:dose ratio of both metoprolol and allopurinol/oxypurinol compared to males (all p < 3.0 × 10-4 ). Sex remained an independent predictor of metoprolol concentrations (p < 0.01), but not of oxypurinol concentrations, after adjusting for other predictors. In addition to sex, age, daily dose, use of moderate to strong CYP2D6 inhibitors, weight, and CYP2D6 genotype-inferred phenotype were associated with concentrations of metoprolol (all p < 0.01). Daily dose, weight, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and employment status were associated with oxypurinol concentrations (all p < 0.01). Females present higher dose-adjusted concentrations of metoprolol and oxypurinol than males. This suggests the need for sex-specific dosing requirements for these drugs, although this hypothesis should be validated in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Alopurinol , Oxipurinol , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Metoprolol , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
10.
Clin Transl Sci ; 16(3): 422-428, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398357

RESUMO

The genetic determinants of the allopurinol dose-concentration relationship have not been extensively studied. We aimed to clarify what factors, including genetic variation in urate transporters, influence oxypurinol pharmacokinetics (PKs). A population PK model for oxypurinol was developed with NONMEM (version 7.3). The influence of urate transporter genetic variants for ABCG2 (rs2231142 and rs10011796), SLC2A9/GLUT9 (rs11942223), SLC17A1/NPT1 (rs1183201), SLC22A12/URAT1 (rs3825018), SLC22A11/OAT4 (rs17300741), and ABCC4/MRP4 (rs4148500), as well as other participant factors on oxypurinol PKs was assessed. Data from 325 people with gout were available. The presence of the T allele for ABCG2 (rs2231142) and SLC17A1/NPT1 (rs1183201) was associated with a 24% and 22% increase in oxypurinol clearance, respectively, in univariate analysis. This effect was not significant in the multivariate analysis. In the final model, oxypurinol PKs were predicted by creatinine clearance, diuretic use, ethnicity, and body weight. We have found that genetic variability in the transporters examined does not appear to influence oxypurinol PKs.


Assuntos
Gota , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Humanos , Oxipurinol/farmacocinética , Ácido Úrico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/genética , Alopurinol/farmacocinética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética
11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(7): 1956-1964, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036094

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to develop and evaluate an allopurinol adherence tool based on steady-state oxypurinol plasma concentrations, allopurinol's active metabolite. METHODS: Plasma oxypurinol concentrations were simulated stochastically from an oxypurinol pharmacokinetic model for allopurinol doses of 100-800 mg daily, accounting for differences in renal function, diuretic use and ethnicity. For each scenario, the 20th percentile for peak and trough concentrations defined the adherence threshold, below which imperfect adherence was assumed. Predictive performance was evaluated using both simulated low adherence and against data from 146 individuals with paired oxypurinol plasma concentrations and adherence measures. Sensitivity and specificity (S&S), negative and positive predictive values (NPV, PPV) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) were determined. The predictive performance of the tool was evaluated using adherence data from an external study (CKD-FIX). RESULTS: The allopurinol adherence tool produced S&S values for trough thresholds of 89-98% and 76-84%, respectively, and 90%-98% and 76-83% for peak thresholds. PPV and NPV were 79-84% and 88-94%, respectively, for trough and 80-85% and 89-98%, respectively, for peak concentrations. The ROC AUC values ranged from 0.84 to 0.88 and from 0.86 to 0.89 for trough and peak concentrations, respectively. S&S values for the external evaluation were found to be 75.8% and 86.5%, respectively, producing an ROC AUC of 0.8113. CONCLUSION: A tool to identify people with gout who require additional support to maintain adherence using plasma oxypurinol concentrations was developed and evaluated. The predictive performance of the tool is suitable for adherence screening in clinical trials and may have utility in some clinical practice settings.


Assuntos
Gota , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Humanos , Alopurinol/farmacocinética , Oxipurinol , Supressores da Gota/farmacocinética , Gota/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 61(11): 1545-1558, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previously, we developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of allopurinol, oxypurinol, and biomarkers, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid, in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, in which high initial biomarker levels were observed suggesting an impact of hypoxia. However, the full pharmacodynamics could not be elucidated in our previous study. The current study included additional data from the ALBINO study (NCT03162653) placebo group, aiming to characterize the dynamics of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Neonates from the ALBINO study who received allopurinol or placebo mannitol were included. An extended population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was developed based on the mechanism of purine metabolism, where synthesis, salvage, and degradation via xanthine oxidoreductase pathways were described. The initial level of the biomarkers was a combination of endogenous turnover and high disease-related amounts. Model development was accomplished by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM®, version 7.5). RESULTS: In total, 20 neonates treated with allopurinol and 17 neonates treated with mannitol were included in this analysis. Endogenous synthesis of the biomarkers reduced with 0.43% per hour because of precursor exhaustion. Hypoxanthine was readily salvaged or degraded to xanthine with rate constants of 0.5 1/h (95% confidence interval 0.33-0.77) and 0.2 1/h (95% confidence interval 0.09-0.31), respectively. A greater salvage was found in the allopurinol treatment group consistent with its mechanism of action. High hypoxia-induced initial levels of biomarkers were quantified, and were 1.2-fold to 2.9-fold higher in neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy compared with those with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Half-maximal xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition was achieved with a combined allopurinol and oxypurinol concentration of 0.68 mg/L (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.92), suggesting full xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition during the period studied. CONCLUSIONS: This extended pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model provided an adequate description of the complex hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid metabolism in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, suggesting a positive allopurinol effect on these biomarkers. The impact of hypoxia on their dynamics was characterized, underlining higher hypoxia-related initial exposure with a more severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy status.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Oxipurinol , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Hipoxantina , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Manitol , Oxipurinol/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico , Xantina , Xantina Desidrogenase , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto
13.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(8): 2024-2034, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689378

RESUMO

ABCG2 is a gene that codes for the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). It is established that rs2231142 G>T, a single nucleotide polymorphism of the ABCG2 gene, is associated with gout and poor response to allopurinol, a uric acid-lowering agent used to treat this condition. It has also been suggested that oxypurinol, the primary active metabolite of allopurinol, is a substrate of the BCRP. We thus hypothesized that carrying the rs2231142 variant would be associated with decreased oxypurinol concentrations, which would explain the lower reduction in uric acid. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between the ABCG2 rs2231142 variant and oxypurinol, allopurinol, and allopurinol riboside concentrations in 459 participants from the Montreal Heart Institute Hospital Cohort. Age, sex, weight, use of diuretics, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were all significantly associated with oxypurinol plasma concentration. No association was found between rs2231142 and oxypurinol, allopurinol and allopurinol riboside plasma concentrations. Rs2231142 was not significantly associated with daily allopurinol dose in the overall population, but an association was observed in men, with T carriers receiving higher doses. Our results do not support a major role of ABCG2 in the pharmacokinetics of allopurinol or its metabolites. The underlying mechanism of the association between rs2231142 and allopurinol efficacy requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Alopurinol , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Alopurinol/análogos & derivados , Alopurinol/sangue , Alopurinol/metabolismo , Alopurinol/farmacocinética , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Oxipurinol/sangue , Oxipurinol/metabolismo , Oxipurinol/farmacocinética , Ribonucleosídeos/sangue , Ribonucleosídeos/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeos/farmacocinética , Ácido Úrico/sangue
14.
Drug Test Anal ; 14(8): 1519-1524, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355431

RESUMO

The increasing global prevalence of gout and diabetes has led to a rise in the use of their respective medications, allopurinol and metformin. These are excreted via urine as oxypurinol and metformin and are discharged into wastewater and the environment. Current environmental monitoring of those two polar chemicals requires labour intensive and potentially inefficient sample pre-treatments, such as using solid-phase extraction or freeze-drying. This study validated a sensitive and simple method using direct-injection LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous measurement of oxypurinol and metformin in wastewater. The final method utilised a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography together with simple filtration through 0.2 µm regenerated cellulose filter followed by dilution in acetonitrile with a dilution factor of 10. The developed method was validated with the limit of quantifications (LOQ) of 0.11 and 0.34 µg/L for metformin and oxypurinol, respectively. The new method was applied to 42 influent wastewater samples and 6 effluent samples collected from 6 Australian wastewater treatment plants. Both compounds were detected well above the LOQ at concentrations 29-214 µg/L in influent and 2-53 µg/L in effluent for metformin, and 24-248 µg/L in influent and 4-81 µg/L in effluent for oxypurinol, demonstrating its high applicability.


Assuntos
Metformina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Austrália , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Oxipurinol/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163565

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is a nuclear receptor known to play an essential role in regulation of cell metabolism, cell proliferation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis in normal and cancer cells. Recently, we found that a newly generated villin-PPARD mouse model, in which PPARD is overexpressed in villin-positive gastric progenitor cells, demonstrated spontaneous development of large, invasive gastric tumors as the mice aged. However, the role of PPARD in regulation of downstream metabolism in normal gastric and tumor cells is elusive. The aim of the present study was to find PPARD-regulated downstream metabolic changes and to determine the potential significance of those changes to gastric tumorigenesis in mice. Hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed for metabolic profiling to determine the PPARD-regulated metabolite changes in PPARD mice at different ages during the development of gastric cancer, and the changes were compared to corresponding wild-type mice. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic screening results showed higher levels of inosine monophosphate (p = 0.0054), uracil (p = 0.0205), phenylalanine (p = 0.017), glycine (p = 0.014), and isocitrate (p = 0.029) and lower levels of inosine (p = 0.0188) in 55-week-old PPARD mice than in 55-week-old wild-type mice. As the PPARD mice aged from 10 weeks to 35 weeks and 55 weeks, we observed significant changes in levels of the metabolites inosine monophosphate (p = 0.0054), adenosine monophosphate (p = 0.009), UDP-glucose (p = 0.0006), and oxypurinol (p = 0.039). Hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy performed to measure lactate flux in live 10-week-old PPARD mice with no gastric tumors and 35-week-old PPARD mice with gastric tumors did not reveal a significant difference in the ratio of lactate to total pyruvate plus lactate, indicating that this PPARD-induced spontaneous gastric tumor development does not require glycolysis as the main source of fuel for tumorigenesis. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based measurement of fatty acid levels showed lower linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and steric acid levels in 55-week-old PPARD mice than in 10-week-old PPARD mice, supporting fatty acid oxidation as a bioenergy source for PPARD-expressing gastric tumors.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , PPAR delta/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Engenharia Genética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais , Oxipurinol/análise , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Glucose/análise
16.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 61(2): 321-333, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allopurinol, an xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, is a promising intervention that may provide neuroprotection for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Currently, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study (ALBINO, NCT03162653) is investigating the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol in HIE neonates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to establish the pharmacokinetics (PK) of allopurinol and oxypurinol, and the pharmacodynamics (PD) of both compounds on hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid in HIE neonates. The dosage used and the effect of allopurinol in this population, either or not undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH), were evaluated. METHODS: Forty-six neonates from the ALBINO study and two historical clinical studies were included. All doses were administered on the first day of life. In the ALBINO study (n = 20), neonates received a first dose of allopurinol 20 mg/kg, and, in the case of TH (n = 13), a second dose of allopurinol 10 mg/kg. In the historical cohorts (n = 26), neonates (all without TH) received two doses of allopurinol 20 mg/kg in total. Allopurinol and oxypurinol population PK, and their effects on inhibiting conversions of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid, were assessed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. RESULTS: Allopurinol and oxypurinol PK were described by two sequential one-compartment models with an autoinhibition effect on allopurinol metabolism by oxypurinol. For allopurinol, clearance (CL) was 0.83 L/h (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.09) and volume of distribution (Vd) was 2.43 L (95% CI 2.25-2.63). For metabolite oxypurinol, CL and Vd relative to a formation fraction (fm) were 0.26 L/h (95% CI 0.23-0.3) and 11 L (95% CI 9.9-12.2), respectively. No difference in allopurinol and oxypurinol CL was found between TH and non-TH patients. The effect of allopurinol and oxypurinol on XO inhibition was described by a turnover model of hypoxanthine with sequential metabolites xanthine and uric acid. The combined allopurinol and oxypurinol concentration at the half-maximal XO inhibition was 0.36 mg/L (95% CI 0.31-0.42). CONCLUSION: The PK and PD of allopurinol, oxypurinol, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid in neonates with HIE were described. The dosing regimen applied in the ALBINO trial leads to the targeted XO inhibition in neonates treated with or without TH.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Oxipurinol , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Humanos , Hipoxantina , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido , Oxipurinol/farmacocinética , Ácido Úrico , Xantina , Xantina Oxidase
17.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(4): 1431-1443, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931953

RESUMO

The missense variant, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) p.Q141K, which encodes a reduced function BCRP, has been linked to poor response to allopurinol. Using a multifaceted approach, we aimed to characterize the relationship(s) between BCRP p.Q141K, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxypurinol (the active metabolite of allopurinol), and serum uric acid (SUA) levels. A prospective clinical study (NCT02956278) was conducted in which healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of 300 mg allopurinol followed by intensive blood sampling. Data were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis and population PK/PD modeling. Additionally, electronic health records were analyzed to investigate whether clinical inhibitors of BCRP phenocopied the effects of the p.Q141K variant with respect to SUA. Subjects homozygous for p.Q141K had a longer half-life (34.2 ± 12.2 h vs. 19.1 ± 1.42 h) of oxypurinol. The PK/PD model showed that women had a 24.8% lower volume of distribution. Baseline SUA was affected by p.Q141K genotype and renal function; that is, it changed by 48.8% for every 1 mg/dl difference in serum creatinine. Real-world data analyses showed that patients prescribed clinical inhibitors of BCRP have higher SUA levels than those that have not been prescribed inhibitors of BCRP, consistent with the idea that BCRP inhibitors phenocopy the effects of p.Q141K on uric acid levels. This study identified important covariates of oxypurinol PK/PD that could affect its efficacy for the treatment of gout as well as a potential side effect of BCRP inhibitors on increasing uric acid levels, which has not been described previously.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Oxipurinol/farmacocinética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Meia-Vida , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oxipurinol/administração & dosagem , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Eliminação Renal , Fatores Sexuais , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(35): 4515-4521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a potentially lethal, rapidly-expanding pandemic and many efforts are being carried out worldwide to understand and control the disease. COVID-19 patients may display a cytokine release syndrome, which causes severe lung inflammation, leading, in many instances, to death. OBJECTIVE: This paper is intended to explore the possibilities of controlling the COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation by using licensed drugs with anti-inflammatory effects. HYPOTHESIS: We have previously described that pentoxifylline alone, or in combination with oxypurinol, reduces the systemic inflammation caused by experimentally-induced pancreatitis in rats. Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of TNF-α production and oxypurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase. TNF-α, in turn, activates other inflammatory genes such as Nos2, Icam or IL-6, which regulate migration and infiltration of neutrophils into the pulmonary interstitial tissue, causing injury to the lung parenchyma. In acute pancreatitis, the anti-inflammatory action of pentoxifylline seems to be mediated by the prevention of the rapid and presumably transient loss of PP2A activity. This may also occur in the hyperinflammatory -cytokine releasing phase- of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that early treatment of COVID-19 patients with pentoxifylline, alone or in combination with oxypurinol, would prevent the potentially lethal acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSION: Pentoxifylline and oxypurinol are licensed drugs used for diseases other than COVID-19 and, therefore, phase I clinical trials would not be necessary for the administration to SARS-CoV-2- infected people. It would be worth investigating their potential effects against the hyperinflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Oxipurinol/uso terapêutico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Animais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Humanos , Pancreatite , Pandemias , Ratos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 34(4): 101501, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265121

RESUMO

Allopurinol, a first line urate-lowering therapy, has been associated with serious cutaneous reactions that have a high mortality. A number of risk factors for these serious adverse reactions have been identified including ethnicity, HLA-B∗5801 genotype, kidney impairment, allopurinol starting dose, and concomitant diuretic use. There is a complex interplay between these risk factors, which may (albeit rarely) lead to allopurinol-related serious adverse events. Although oxypurinol, the active metabolite of allopurinol, has been implicated, there is no defined drug concentration at which the reaction will occur. There is no specific treatment other than the cessation of allopurinol and supportive care. Whether hemodialysis, which rapidly removes oxypurinol, improves outcomes remains to be determined. Strategies to help reduce this risk are therefore important, which includes screening for HLA-B∗5801 in high-risk individuals, commencing allopurinol at low dose, and educating patients about the signs and symptoms of severe cutaneous adverse reactions, and what to do if they occur.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Gota , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Supressores da Gota/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Oxipurinol/uso terapêutico
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 185: 113204, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126445

RESUMO

Allopurinol is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of hyperuricemia in people, and in view of the risks of fatal hypersensitivity in patients with renal dysfunction, doses based on the glomerular filtration rate are proposed. In veterinary medicine, allopurinol is used in the treatment of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum owing to the drug action of inhibiting the parasite's RNA synthesis. However, renal dysfunction frequently ensues from disease progression in dogs. The purpose of the present study was to standardize and validate a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the concentration of allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol in canine urine for clinical pharmacokinetic investigation. Urine samples of eleven (11) dogs with naturally occurring CanL and in the maintenance phase of the treatment with alopurinol were used. For the chromatographic analysis of urine, the mobile phase consisted of a solution of 0.1 % formic acid (88 %) in 10 mM ammonium acetate. Separation of allopurinol and oxypurinol occurred in a flow of 0.8 mL/min on a C8 reverse phase column 5 µm, and acyclovir was the internal standard. The HPLC-MS/MS method was validated by reaching the limits of detection and quantification, reproducibility and linearity. The lower limit of quantification achieved by the method was 10 µg/mL for both allopurinol and oxypurinol. Calibration curves were prepared in blank urine added with allopurinol at concentrations of 10-1000 µg/mL, and oxypurinol at 10-200 µg/mL. Coefficients of variation of less than 15 % between intracurrent and intercurrent accuracy values were observed for both allopurinol and oxypurinol. Urine test samples remained stable after being subjected to freeze-thaw cycles and remaining at room temperature for 4 h. The method proved to be adequate to quantify allopurinol and oxypurinol in urine samples from dogs under treatment.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/urina , Cães/urina , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/veterinária , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Oxipurinol/urina , Administração Oral , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Alopurinol/farmacocinética , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cães/parasitologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Oxipurinol/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...