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1.
Food Funct ; 14(3): 1459-1475, 2023 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648164

RESUMO

Cereal bran consumption improves gastrointestinal and metabolic health. Unprocessed cereal brans have a limited shelf-life and contain anti-nutrient phytochemicals. In the present study, lipids and antinutrients (flavonoids, tannin, and polyphenol) were removed from finger millet, kodo millet and rice bran using chemo-enzymatic processing. The thus-obtained modified cereal brans (MCBs) were evaluated for their potential in preventing high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD or a HFD supplemented with 10% w/w modified finger millet bran (mFMB), modified kodo millet bran (mKMB), modified rice bran (mRB), or a combination of the modified brans (1 : 1 : 1) for twelve weeks. The MCBs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain, improved glucose homeostasis, decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and increased the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in the cecum. Liver dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) hypertrophy, and lipolysis were also prevented by the MCBs. Among the individual MCBs, mRB showed a greater effect in preventing HFD-induced increase in the inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and LPS) than mFMB and mKMB. mFMB and mKMB supplementation more significantly restored the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and butyrate-producing genera such as Lachnospiraceae, Eubacterium, and Ruminococcus than mRB. Ex vivo gut permeability assay, immunohistochemistry of tight junction proteins, and gene expression analysis in the colon revealed that the combination of three brans was better in preventing HFD-induced leaky gut in comparison to the individual brans. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the combination group was clustered closest to the NPD group, suggesting an additive effect. Our study implies that a combination of mFMB, mKMB, and mRB could be used as a nutraceutical or functional food ingredient for preventing HFD-induced gut derangements and associated metabolic complications.


Assuntos
Eleusine , Oryza , Paspalum , Animais , Camundongos , Grão Comestível , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7731, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513676

RESUMO

A number of crop wild relatives can tolerate extreme stress to a degree outside the range observed in their domesticated relatives. However, it is unclear whether or how the molecular mechanisms employed by these species can be translated to domesticated crops. Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is a self-incompatible and multiply stress-tolerant wild relative of maize and sorghum. Here, we describe the sequencing and pseudomolecule level assembly of a vegetatively propagated accession of P. vaginatum. Phylogenetic analysis based on 6,151 single-copy syntenic orthologues conserved in 6 related grass species places paspalum as an outgroup of the maize-sorghum clade. In parallel metabolic experiments, paspalum, but neither maize nor sorghum, exhibits a significant increase in trehalose when grown under nutrient-deficit conditions. Inducing trehalose accumulation in maize, imitating the metabolic phenotype of paspalum, results in autophagy dependent increases in biomass accumulation.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Sorghum , Paspalum/genética , Paspalum/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , Biomassa , Filogenia , Sorghum/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17138, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229636

RESUMO

Stable isotopes are useful for estimating livestock diet selection. The objective was to compare δ13C and δ15N to estimate diet proportion of C3-C4 forages when steers (Bos spp.) were fed quantities of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata; RP; C3) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum; C4).Treatments were proportions of RP with bahiagrass hay: 100% bahiagrass (0%RP); 25% RP + 75% bahiagrass (25%RP); 50% RP + 50% bahiagrass (50%RP); 75% RP + 25% bahiagrass (75%RP); and 100% RP (100% RP). Feces, plasma, red blood cell (RBC), and hair were collected at 8-days intervals, for 32 days. Two-pool mixing model was utilized to back-calculate the proportion of RP based on the sample and forage δ13C or δ15N. Feces showed changes using δ13C by 8 days, and adj. R2 between predicted and observed RP proportion was 0.81 by 8 days. Plasma, hair, and RBC required beyond 32-days to reach equilibrium, therefore were not useful predictors of diet composition during the study. Diets were best represented using fecal δ13C at both 8-days and 32-days. By 32-days, fecal δ15N showed promise (R2 = 0.71) for predicting diet composition in C3-C4 diets. Further studies are warranted to further corroborate fecal δ15N as a predictor of diet composition in cattle.


Assuntos
Dieta , Paspalum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes , Isótopos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(56): 85376-85388, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793024

RESUMO

The objectives were (a) to evaluate whether grasses native to the Pampa biome, Axonopus affinis Chase, Paspalum notatum Flüggé and Paspalum plicatulum Michx, and the invasive grass Cynodon dactylon (L.). Pers have the potential to phytoremediate soil contaminated with Cu (0, 35 and 70 mg Cu kg-1); (b) assess whether the growth of these species is compromised by the excess of Cu available in the soil; and (c) determine the impact of excess Cu on the physiological responses of the studied species. C. dactylon presented the best performance in soil contaminated with 35 mg of Cu kg-1. In C. dactylon, the concentrations of chlorophyll b and carotenoids increased, as did the photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Phytotoxic effects of Cu in soil contaminated with 70 mg of Cu kg-1 were more severe on A. affinis and led to plant death. The other species presented reduced photosynthetic and growth rates, as well as increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. This very same Cu level has decreased photosynthetic pigment concentrations in P. notatum and P. plicatulum. On the other hand, it did not change chlorophyll a and b concentrations in C. dactylon and increased carotenoid concentrations in it. High values recorded for Cu bioaccumulation-in-grass-root factor, mainly in P. plicatulum, have indicated that the investigated plants are potential phytostabilizers. High C. dactylon biomass production-in comparison to other species-compensates for the relatively low metal concentration in its tissues by increasing metal extraction from the soil. This makes C. dactylon more efficient in the phytoremediation process than other species.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fazendas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Clorofila A , Espécies Introduzidas , Brasil , Cobre/análise , Solo , Ecossistema , Antioxidantes
5.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(9): 3069-3094, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611771

RESUMO

In this report, ZnO nanoparticles were biosynthesized using Paspalum scrobiculatum grains extract for the first time. GC-MS analysis explicated that diethyl phthalate was the major phytocompound with 94.09% in aqueous extract. ZnO nanoparticles formation was confirmed by various physicochemical analyses. HR-TEM images showed the hexagonal, rectangular shaped nanoparticles in 15-30 nm size. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic analyses showed the effective bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles in 80 µg/ml concentration with 95.36%, 94.08%, and 91.96%, respectively. The morphological and tissue changes witnessed in larvicidal and insecticidal activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Tribolium castaneum revealed the efficient nature of ZnO nanoparticles in 100 ppm at 48 h and 100 µg/kg at 72 h, respectively. The morphological changes in antibacterial activity demonstrated the bactericidal nature of ZnO nanoparticles against Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus in 150 µg/ml concentration. The morphological observations in anticancer activity against HepG2 liver cancer cells showed the potent drug features of ZnO nanoparticles in 100 µg/ml concentration with 97.18% of cytotoxicity. The ZnO nanoparticles showed no toxicity against HDF normal cells in lower concentrations and it explicated the biocompatible features of nanoparticles. The Vigna radiata plant growth was efficiently promoted by low (60 ppm) concentration of nanoparticles. The ZnO nanoparticles divulged effective degradation of IPA, EDTA, BQ, and DPBF in 75%, 45%, 55%, and 80% through ROS formation, respectively. Thus, the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles are biocompatible and inexpensive material compared to the traditional one and can be utilized as an efficient material in biological fields. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Efficient larvicidal and insecticidal activities were evinced at low IC50 value. The ZnO nanoparticles were non-toxic to HDP (fibroblast) normal cells. Efficient plant growth was attained at 60 ppm concentration.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Paspalum , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paspalum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 293, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paspalum notatum 'Flugge' is a diploid with 20 chromosomes (2n = 20) multi-purpose subtropical herb native to South America and has a high ecological significance. It is currently widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite the gene pool of P. notatum 'Flugge' being unearthed to a large extent in the past decade, no details about the genomic information of relevant species in Paspalum have been reported. In this study, the complete genome information of P. notatum was established and annotated through sequencing and de novo assembly of its genome. RESULTS: The latest PacBio third-generation HiFi assembly and sequencing revealed that the genome size of P. notatum 'Flugge' is 541 M. The assembly result is the higher index among the genomes of the gramineous family published so far, with a contig N50 = 52Mbp, scaffold N50 = 49Mbp, and BUSCOs = 98.1%, accounting for 98.5% of the estimated genome. Genome annotation revealed 36,511 high-confidence gene models, thus providing an important resource for future molecular breeding and evolutionary research. A comparison of the genome annotation results of P. notatum 'Flugge' with other closely related species revealed that it had a close relationship with Zea mays but not close compared to Brachypodium distachyon, Setaria viridis, Oryza sativa, Puccinellia tenuiflora, Echinochloa crusgalli. An analysis of the expansion and contraction of gene families suggested that P. notatum 'Flugge' contains gene families associated with environmental resistance, increased reproductive ability, and molecular evolution, which explained its excellent agronomic traits. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report the high-quality chromosome-scale-based genome of P. notatum 'Flugge' assembled using the latest PacBio third-generation HiFi sequencing reads. The study provides an excellent genetic resource bank for gramineous crops and invaluable perspectives regarding the evolution of gramineous plants.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Cromossomos , Tamanho do Genoma , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Paspalum/genética
7.
J Anim Sci ; 100(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366307

RESUMO

On day 0 of years 1 and 2, 64 Brangus crossbred heifers per year were stratified by initial body weight (BW) and age (mean = 257 ± 20 kg and 271 ± 22 d) and allocated into 16 bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures (4 heifers per pasture per yr). Treatments were randomly allotted to pastures in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 pastures per treatment per yr). Treatments consisted of concentrate dry matter (DM) supplementation at 1.50% of BW from days 0 to 100 (CON) or concentrate DM supplementation at 1.05% of BW from days 0 to 49 and 1.95% of BW from days 50 to 100 (SST). Then, each respective supplementation strategy was added or not with immunomodulatory feed ingredients from days 0 to 100 (OMN; 4 g/45 kg of BW). Heifers were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol from days 100 to 114. Heifers detected in estrus from days 111 to 114 were inseminated (AI) 12 h after estrus detection. Heifers not detected in estrus were timed AI on day 114. All heifers were exposed to Angus bulls from days 120 to 210 (1 bull per pasture). Effects of supplementation strategy × OMN inclusion × hour were detected (P < 0.0001) only for intravaginal temperature from days 26 to 30, which were the least (P ≤ 0.03) for SST heifers offered OMN supplementation and did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among all remaining treatments from 0830 to 1600 hours. Effects of supplementation strategy × OMN inclusion and OMN inclusion were not detected (P ≥ 0.12) for any variable, except for the percentage of heifers detected in estrus, which was greater (P = 0.01) for heifers supplemented with vs. without OMN. Total concentrate DM offered from days 0 to 100 and heifer BW on days 0 and 56 did not differ (P ≥ 0.49) between CON and SST heifers, but SST heifers were heavier (P ≤ 0.01) on days 100 and 210 compared with CON heifers. Body surface temperature on day 25 and plasma IGF-1 concentrations on day 75 were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for SST vs. CON heifers. Percentage of pubertal heifers, heifers detected in estrus, and pregnancy to AI did not differ (P = 0.36) between SST and CON heifers but the final pregnancy percentage was greater (P = 0.04) for SST vs. CON heifers. Thus, OMN supplementation decreased the intravaginal temperature of SST heifers but failed to improve their growth and reproduction, whereas the SST strategy improved body thermoregulation, growth, and final pregnancy percentage of heat-stressed Bos indicus-influenced beef heifers compared with a constant concentrate supplementation strategy.


In Bos taurus beef heifers, altering the timing of body weight (BW) growth pattern either reduced feed costs without decreasing reproduction or enhanced reproduction without increasing feed costs. Moreover, supplementation of OmniGen-AF (OMN, a patented immunomodulatory feed ingredient) decreased internal body temperature in dairy and beef B. taurus cattle, with variable impacts on growth and reproduction. Combining both nutritional strategies for Bos indicus-beef heifers developed under heat stress conditions of tropical and subtropical environments has not been reported in the literature yet and was the main objective of the present study. For 100 d before the breeding season, heifers received either a constant supplementation amount or stair-step (SST) supplementation strategy (50 d of low followed by 50 d of high supplement amount), with or without OMN inclusion. Overall, OMN supplementation alleviated the internal body temperature of heifers but did not improve their growth and reproduction, whereas the SST strategy increased BW gain and final pregnancy percentage of B. indicus-influenced beef heifers under heat stress conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Paspalum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Gravidez , Reprodução
8.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(1): 46-62, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389167

RESUMO

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue la caracterización productiva y de emisiones modeladas de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) en 61 sistemas lecheros localizados en cinco regiones de Honduras. Durante las fases inicial (FI) y final (FF), con encuestas aplicadas individualmente a los productores, se identificaron aspectos técnicos y de productividad. Variables numéricas expresadas en Microsoft Excel ® permitieron, con el modelo FAO de evaluación ambiental de la ganadería global-interactivo (GLEAM-i, por sus siglas en inglés) de ciclo de vida, estimar emisiones anuales de metano (CH4), óxido nitroso (N2O) y dióxido de carbono (CO2) en cada finca. Cálculos intermedios (GEI/animal) fueron derivados de la modelización GLEAM-i en Excel®. Durante la FI las fincas conjuntamente emitieron 25.038 t CO2 equivalente (CO2-eq), mientras que dichas emisiones fueron 10,5% menores en la FF. Emisiones de GEI/animal (2,85 ± 0,08 t CO2-eq) y de GEI/kg de proteína láctea (96,91 ± 4,50 kg CO2-eq) durante la FI fue-ron 13 y 21% menores en la FF, respectivamente. Valores de 52,82 ± 1,64 (CH4) y 2,66 ± 0,10 (N2O) kg/animal en la FI fueron 13% y 17% menores en la FF, respectivamente. La región Centro-Sur-Oriente emitió la menor cantidad de CH4 (42,95 ± 2,37 kg/animal) y N2O (1,82 ± 0,15 kg/animal, mientras las regiones Occidente y Norte experimentaron una reducción del 27% en GEI/kg proteína láctea entre la FI y FF. Se concluyó que la metodologia usada identificó los impactos productivos y medioambientales, derivados de alternativas técnicas implementadas en sistemas de producción lechera de Honduras.


ABSTRACT The study aimed to characterize production dynamics and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 61 dairy farms in five regions in Honduras. Farm data were collected through individual surveys during the initial and final phases (IP; FP). Using Microsoft Excel, data was incorporated into the global livestock environmental assessment model-interactive (GLEAM-i, FAO) life cycle framework to estimate annual emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) at the farm system level. Animal emissions (GHG/animal) were derived in Excel® from the GLEAM-i predictions. Together, farms during the IP emitted 25.038 t CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) while these emissions were 10,5% lower in the FP. Emissions of GHG/animal (2,85 ± 0,08 t CO2-eq) and GHG/kg of milk protein (96,91 ± 4,50 kg CO2-eq) during the IP were 13% and 21% lower in the FP, respectively. Methane and N2O emission values (52,82 ± 1,64 vs. 2,66 ± 0,10 kg/animal) were 13% and 17% higher in the IP than in FP. The South-Central region emitted the lowest amount of CH4 and N2O (42,95 ± 2,37 kg/animal vs. 1,82 ± 0,15 kg/animal) while 27% lower GHG/kg milk protein was observed between the IP and FP of the Western and Northern regions. It was concluded that the used methodology identified productive and environmental impacts derived from implemented technical interventions in dairy production systems in Honduras.


Assuntos
Animais , Indústria da Carne , Indústria de Laticínios , Paspalum , Diagnóstico , Meio Ambiente , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono , Produção de Alimentos , Eficiência , Fermentação , Metano , Óxido Nitroso
9.
Funct Plant Biol ; 49(4): 333-350, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190024

RESUMO

Severe water stress is responsible for reducing plant growth and reproduction. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with the tolerance of two genotipes of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) with different ploidy level to water deficit and flooding at the reproductive stage. Photosynthetic performance of diploid and tetraploid plants was not affected by flooding. In contrast, the water deficit decreased stomatal conductance, increased leaf temperature, and resulted in a decrease in the assimilation rate of the two genotypes. Despite the greater activities of antioxidant enzymes, flooded roots accumulated hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. Roots of plants exposed to water deficit maintained an accumulation of biomass similar to that of control plants; however, with higher levels of total phenol content, total soluble sugars and proline. Diploid plants subjected to flooding had more inflorescences, however, the drought reduced the total number of filled florets per plant. Less starch degradation allows the maintenance and recovery of biomass in the tetraploid genotype, which allows it to maintain its reproductive performance even under drought conditions. Overall, the synthesis of osmoprotectants and activation of antioxidant machinery are important strategies in the tolerance of bahiagrass to water stress at the reproductive stage.


Assuntos
Secas , Paspalum , Genótipo , Paspalum/genética , Ploidias , Reprodução
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(1): 85-96, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224929

RESUMO

Species coexistence depends on the comprehensive effects of biological properties and habitat heterogeneity. Based on a large-scale field survey (21°-35° N), we compared the differences on morphological and stoichiometric characteristics between the invasive aquatic species Alternanthera philoxeroides and the native co-occurring species Paspalum paspaloides, and examined the effects of environmental factors on such differences. The results showed that the coverage and importance value (IV) of A. philoxeroides were all significantly greater than P. paspa-loides (34.3% and 104.0%, respectively), whereas the height of P. paspaloides was significantly greater than A. philoxeroides (13.8%). Moreover, the total nitrogen concentration (TN) and N:P of A. philoxeroides were significantly greater than those of P. paspaloides (55.1% and 55.8%, respectively), whereas the total carbon concentration (TC) and C:N of P. paspaloides were significantly greater than those of A. philoxeroides (4.1% and 83.8%, respectively). A. philoxeroides coverage increased with the increases of longitude, and its abundance increased with the increases of water nitrate concentration and longitude, while its IV increased with the increases of water ammonium concentration. However, the coverage, abundance, and IV of P. paspaloides decreased with the increases of ammonium concentration. C:N of A. philoxeroides decreased with the increase of ammonium concentration. Increased mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation increased C:N but decreased N:P of P. paspa-loides. The C:P of both species decreased with the increases of ammonium concentration and electrical conductivity. N:P of A. philoxeroides was little affected by environment. These results indicated that A. philoxeroides had greater coverage and N absorption capacity than P. paspaloides, and that enriched water nitrogen would aggravate the invasion of A. philoxeroides. Meanwhile, P. paspaloides improved its C-assimilate reserves and chose the growth competition strategy for resisting A. philoxeroides invasion under the superior hydrothermal conditions. Different responses to environmental changes contributed to their coexistence in aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae , Paspalum , Amaranthaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Ecótipo , Espécies Introduzidas
11.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(2): 623-629, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528741

RESUMO

Present research work was carried out to clarify the variations among species of genus Paspalum morphologically and palynologically as this genus is taxonomically difficult due to having multiple similar morphologically overlapping characters which make it difficult to identify. Henceforth present research work was carried out to delimit taxa within the same genus by morphological and palynological tools through light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both these tools are considered as the most useful taxonomic characters for taxonomically problematic genera. The results showed a lot of variations among morphological characters. In Paspalum dilatatum, the upper glume was ovate whereas in the other two species, the upper glume was elliptic. The upper glume apex found in P. dilatatum and Paspalum scrobiculatum was obtuse whereas in Paspalum distichum, upper glume apex was acute. Glume nerves showed variation in all three species. Paspalum distichum was 3 nerved, P. scrobiculatum was 5-7 nerved, and P. dilatatum was 5-9 nerved. All three species showed variation in lemma nerves. Paspalum scrobiculatum had 3 nerved lemma whereas in P. distichum 3-5 nerved and P. dilatatum 5-9 nerved lemma were present. In polar and equatorial view, pollen grains ranged from 25 (20-30) to 37.5 (30-45) µm. Paspalum distichum appeared to be the smallest in size whereas P. dilatatum was the largest. Exine thickness ranged from 0.75 (0.5-1) to 1.35 (1.2-1.5) µm. The higher value of pollen fertility was found in P. scrobiculatum as 87.69% and the lowest value was in P. distichum as 78.08%. Morphological keys were also given for correct identification.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pólen
12.
J Anim Sci ; 100(2)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919708

RESUMO

To determine the effect of CaO-treated Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) hay on intake, ruminal fermentation parameters, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, nine ruminally cannulated Angus-crossbred steers were used in a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Steers had ad libitum access to either 1) untreated dry hay (DH; n = 8); 2) hay at 50% DM treated with 8.9% CaCO3 (dry matter [DM] basis; CC; n = 9); or 3) hay at 50% DM treated with 5% CaO (DM basis; CO; n = 8). Water was added to reach 50% DM in the CC and CO diets. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected every 3 h for 24 h. Ruminal fluid was analyzed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Hay and fecal samples were collected for 4 d, four times daily for hay and twice daily for feces, to determine apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients. The hay provided to steers during the digestibility period was analyzed for in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for 48 h. Data were analyzed as repeated measures for blood and ruminal fermentation parameters. Total DM intake was not affected (P ≥ 0.674) by treatment. A treatment effect (P < 0.001) was observed for average ruminal pH, where steers consuming CO had the greatest pH (P < 0.001). Ruminal concentration of NH3-N tended (P = 0.059) to be reduced in steers consuming CO. There was a treatment × time interaction (P = 0.023) on concentrations of PUN, where at 3 h DH and CO were lesser than CC (P ≤ 0.050) and at 21 h DH was lesser than CC (P = 0.020). Total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, branched-chain VFA, and valerate concentrations were affected by treatment (P ≤ 0.035), where a reduction (P ≤ 0.034) occurred in steers consuming CO. No treatment differences were observed for total-tract digestibility of DM (P = 0.186), organic matter (P = 0.169), or crude protein (P = 0.152); however, steers consuming DH had greater neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.038) than CC and tended to be greater than CO (P = 0.082). The CO hay had greater (P = 0.005) IVOMD compared with DH and tended (P = 0.100) to be greater than CC. Bahiagrass hay treated with CaO may reduce ruminal fermentation, as indicated by decreased total VFA concentration without altering DM intake. The addition of CaO did not improve the digestibility of bahiagrass hay in vivo; however, in vitro results are contradictory and warrant further elucidation.


With the ever-growing desire to increase efficiency in beef cattle production, researchers have developed strategies such as treating poor-quality forages with chemicals to increase the digestibility of fiber fractions, consequently increasing their energy value for cattle feeding. Calcium oxide has been proposed as a replacement to more caustic chemicals used in the past (e.g., NaOH) and data indicate that it can promote similar and effective outcomes. The current study evaluated the effects of bahiagrass hay treated with calcium oxide on ruminal fermentation parameters, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and intake by beef steers consuming hay ad libitum as the sole ingredient in their diet. Additionally, in vitro organic matter digestibility was evaluated on the hay provided to steers to assess treatment effectiveness. Results indicated that steers consuming bahiagrass hay treated with calcium oxide had 1) increased pH and reduced volatile fatty acids concentrations in the rumen; 2) reduced or tendency for reduction on total-tract digestibility of fiber fractions; and 3) no effect on intake, all when compared with steers consuming untreated hay. In contrast, in vitro results indicated that organic matter digestibility was increased when the forage was treated with calcium oxide.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Fermentação , Óxidos , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 766, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phytopatogen Claviceps paspali is the causal agent of Ergot disease in Paspalum spp., which includes highly productive forage grasses such as P. dilatatum. This disease impacts dairy and beef production by affecting seed quality and producing mycotoxins that can affect performance in feeding animals. The molecular basis of pathogenicity of C. paspali remains unknown, which makes it more difficult to find solutions for this problem. Secreted proteins are related to fungi virulence and can manipulate plant immunity acting on different subcellular localizations. Therefore, identifying and characterizing secreted proteins in phytopathogenic fungi will provide a better understanding of how they overcome host defense and cause disease. The aim of this work is to analyze the whole genome sequences of three C. paspali isolates to obtain a comparative genome characterization based on possible secreted proteins and pathogenicity factors present in their genome. In planta RNA-seq analysis at an early stage of the interaction of C. paspali with P. dilatatum stigmas was also conducted in order to determine possible secreted proteins expressed in the infection process. RESULTS: C. paspali isolates had compact genomes and secretome which accounted for 4.6-4.9% of the predicted proteomes. More than 50% of the predicted secretome had no homology to known proteins. RNA-Seq revealed that three protein-coding genes predicted as secreted have mayor expression changes during 1 dpi vs 4 dpi. Also, three of the first 10 highly expressed genes in both time points were predicted as effector-like. CAZyme-like proteins were found in the predicted secretome and the most abundant family could be associated to pectine degradation. Based on this, pectine could be a main component affected by the cell wall degrading enzymes of C. paspali. CONCLUSIONS: Based on predictions from DNA sequence and RNA-seq, unique probable secreted proteins and probable pathogenicity factors were identified in C. paspali isolates. This information opens new avenues in the study of the biology of this fungus and how it modulates the interaction with its host. Knowledge of the diversity of the secretome and putative pathogenicity genes should facilitate future research in disease management of Claviceps spp.


Assuntos
Claviceps , Micotoxinas , Paspalum , Animais , Bovinos , Claviceps/genética , Virulência
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 821-826, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285277

RESUMO

Canine atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory, genetic, pruritic and chronic dermatosis that affects between 10 and 30% of dogs and one of the most important allergens is grass pollen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis and to compare intradermal skin test (IDT) with percutaneous test (PT). For this study, ten healthy dogs and 39 dogs with atopic dermatitis were tested. Dogs were submitted to IDT and PT for Lolium multiflorum, Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum. The IDT and PT tests were compared using the Proportion Test. All healthy dogs were negative to both tests. Ten atopic dogs (25.6%) responded positively to the PT and none were positive in IDT. C. dactylon, L. multiflorum and P. notatum were responsible for positive reactions in 70%, 70% and 30% of positive dogs, respectively. The number of positive reactions in PT were statistically higher than IDT (P<0.05). In conclusion, grass pollen can be important source of allergens for dogs in Paraná state (Brazil) and the PT showed higher sensitization to grass pollen in dogs with atopic dermatitis than IDT.(AU)


A dermatite atópica canina é uma dermatose inflamatória, genética, prurítica e crônica que afeta entre 10% e 30% dos cães, e um dos alérgenos mais importantes são os polens de gramíneas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a sensibilização a alérgenos de polens de gramíneas em cães com dermatite atópica e comparar o teste intradérmico (TID) com o teste percutâneo (TP). Para o estudo, 10 cães hígidos e 39 cães com dermatite atópica foram testados. Estes foram submetidos ao TID e ao TP para Lolium multiflorum, Cynodon dactylon e Paspalum notatum. TID e TP foram comparados usando-se o teste de proporção. Todos os cães hígidos foram negativos em ambos os testes. Dez cães atópicos (25,6%) responderam positivamente ao TP e nenhum ao TID. C. dactylon, L. multiflorum e P. notatum foram responsáveis por reações positivas de 70%, 70% e 30% dos cães positivos, respectivamente. O número de reações positivas no TP foi estatisticamente maior que no TID (P<0,05). Foi concluído que os polens de gramíneas podem ser importantes fontes de alérgenos para cães no estado do Paraná (Brasil) e que o TP mostrou maior sensibilização a polens em cães com dermatite atópica que o TID.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Pólen/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/análise , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Lolium , Testes Cutâneos/veterinária , Cynodon , Paspalum , Poaceae/efeitos adversos
15.
Microsc Res Tech ; 84(12): 3035-3043, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213034

RESUMO

Paspalum is one of the 10 largest genera in Poaceae and is considered as a complex and taxonomically difficult genus due to its similar morphological characters within the species which makes it difficult to delimit taxa within the same genus. The current research work establishes the distinction among species of this genus and resolves taxonomic confusions among this genus. And this distinction is done by micro morphological foliar anatomical characterization by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both the abaxial and adaxial epidermal cuticles of three different species of genus Paspalum were studied and their phytoliths were observed through elemental dispersive spectrophotometric analysis by SEM first time in Pakistan. Results showed great variation in studied anatomical features. P. dilatatum Poir. was comprised of macro-hairs in the intercostal regions only whereas no macro-hairs were found in P. distichum Linn. and P. scrobiculatum Linn. Beak-shaped prickles were found in the intercostal regions on adaxial surface only in P. distichum Linn. and P. scrobiculatum Linn. whereas in P. dilatatum Poir., knife-shaped prickles were present in intercostal regions only on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of leaf epidermis. No papillae were seen in P. dilatatum Poir whereas in P. distichum Linn. and P. scrobiculatum Linn. papillae were found abundantly. In genus paspalum, P. dilatatum Poir. phytoliths showed lowest mass percentage of silicon as 15.13% whereas P. distichum Linn. phytoliths showed highest mass percentage of silicon as 22.00%. Based on micro morphological foliar characteristics a taxonomic key of studied species is also provided to delimit the taxa.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Epiderme Vegetal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Folhas de Planta , Estômatos de Plantas
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(47): 66990-66997, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244935

RESUMO

Paspalum distichum L. was tested to evaluate their phytoremediation capacity for Hg contaminated soil through analyzing the dissipation of Hg in soil through a greenhouse study by using self-made rhizos box. Original soil samples were collected at Hg mining site with serious Hg contamination and a control site, respectively. Planting of P. distichum. L last for 60 days. Soil and plant samples were collected from four periods (0 d, 20 d, 40 d, and 60 d) and soil samples were collected from five different rhizosphere distance in horizontal direction (0-2 cm, 2-4cm, 4-6cm, 6-8cm, 8-10cm). The results showed that the presence of P. distichum. L significantly accelerated the Hg dissipation in soil compared with control. Hg concentration in the rhizospheric soil was affected by the plant growth period and the distance to the plant roots. The closer of soil to the root of P. distichum. L, the lower mercury concentration in soil. During the 60-day growing period, the concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) reduced by 45% and 64%, respectively, in the rhizosphere (0-2cm) of Hg contaminated soil. However, MeHg concentration was increased near the roots (0-4 cm) during the initial growing period (0-20 d), which may be attributed to the influence of root exudates. Root is the major part for Hg accumulation in P. distichum. L. The low ratio between Hg concentrations in underground and aboveground tissues indicated that it seemed difficult for Hg translocation from root to shoot. The highest THg (9.71 ± 3.09 µg·g-1) and MeHg (26.97 ± 0.98 ng·g-1) value in root of P. distichum. L were observed at the 20th day when P. distichum. L grown in Hg contaminated soil. The results of chemical fractions analyses showed that elemental Hg and residual Hg were the two major speciations followed by organic bound Hg in the Hg contaminated soil, which indicated the high bioavailability and ecological potential risk of Hg in Hg contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Paspalum , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Animal ; 15(5): 100195, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029791

RESUMO

There is a need to increase efficiency of beef production. Decreasing losses of CH4 and improving byproduct utilization are popular strategies. Two feed additives were tested to find potential solutions. Three randomized complete block design experiments were performed using batch culture systems to evaluate the effects of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) and calcium-ammonium nitrate (CAN) on in vitro ruminal fermentation of bahiagrass hay and supplemental molasses. The first experiment contained four treatments: (1) basal substrate; (2) basal substrate with 0.75% urea (DM basis); (3) basal substrate with 1.2% CAN and 0.38% urea (DM basis); and (4) basal substrate with 2.4% CAN (DM basis). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were isonitrogenous. The second experiment had a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 4 concentrations of BSS (0.00, 0.33, 0.66, and 1.00%; DM basis) and 3 concentrations of CAN (0.0, 1.2, and 2.4%; DM basis). The third experiment had the following treatments: (1) basal substrate; (2) basal substrate with 0.05% BSS (DM basis); (3) basal substrate with 0.10% BSS (DM basis); and (4) basal substrate with 0.33% BSS (DM basis). For all experiments, basal substrate consisted of Pensacola bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Flüggé; 80% substrate DM) and molasses (20% substrate DM). All data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. In Exp. 1, in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (IVOMD) was linearly reduced (P < 0.001) with the inclusion of CAN, and CH4, in mmol/g OM fermented, was decreased linearly (P < 0.001). The volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile was not impacted by the inclusion of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) or CAN (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2, except for CH4 production (P < 0.05), there were no BSS × CAN interactions. Linear reductions in total gas production (P < 0.001), IVOMD (P < 0.001), and total concentration of VFA (P = 0.007) were observed with the inclusion of BSS up to 1%. The inclusion of BSS decreased H2S production in a quadratic manner (P = 0.024). In Exp. 3, IVOMD was not impacted by the inclusion of BSS (P > 0.05); however, production of H2S was linearly decreased (P = 0.004) with the inclusion of BSS up to 0.33%. In conclusion, in vitro fermentation was negatively impacted by the inclusions of BSS, up to 1%, and CAN, up to 2.4%; however, BSS decreased production of H2S when included up to 0.33% without impeding fermentation, while CAN decreased CH4 production.


Assuntos
Paspalum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bismuto , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Fermentação , Melaço , Nitratos , Compostos Organometálicos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Salicilatos
18.
Food Chem ; 361: 130073, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029901

RESUMO

The present investigationwas carried out to determine the effect of germination on pasting, rheological, morphological properties of Kodo millet flour and in-vitroantioxidant characteristics of its phenolic and γ-amino butyric acid extracts. Rheological analysis depicted complex flour viscosity decreased with an improvement in shear intensity, symbolizing the shear-thinning action of flour upon germination. The frequency and temperature sweep demonstrated a decrease in visco-elasticity as a result of germination wherein, SEM revealed destruction in the continuous composite structure of starch which got entangled in dense protein matrix following germination. The in-vitroantioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity, DPPH*, FRAP, metal chelating ability and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of both the extracts increased significantly. There was a decrease in pasting properties and gelatinization behaviour whereas, visco-elastic solid behaviour changed to visco-elastic fluid. This research explores the potential of germinated Kodo millet flour for valuable bioactive compounds extraction and its utilization in product development.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Germinação , Paspalum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Elasticidade , Paspalum/fisiologia , Fenóis/análise , Reologia , Amido/química , Temperatura , Viscosidade
20.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 185, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apomixis, an asexual mode of plant reproduction, is a genetically heritable trait evolutionarily related to sexuality, which enables the fixation of heterozygous genetic combinations through the development of maternal seeds. Recently, reference floral transcriptomes were generated from sexual and apomictic biotypes of Paspalum notatum, one of the most well-known plant models for the study of apomixis. However, the transcriptome dynamics, the occurrence of apomixis vs. sexual expression heterochronicity across consecutive developmental steps and the orientation of transcription (sense/antisense) remain unexplored. RESULTS: We produced 24 Illumina TruSeq®/ Hiseq 1500 sense/antisense floral transcriptome libraries covering four developmental stages (premeiosis, meiosis, postmeiosis, and anthesis) in biological triplicates, from an obligate apomictic and a full sexual genotype. De novo assemblies with Trinity yielded 103,699 and 100,114 transcripts for the apomictic and sexual samples respectively. A global comparative analysis involving reads from all developmental stages revealed 19,352 differentially expressed sense transcripts, of which 13,205 (68%) and 6147 (32%) were up- and down-regulated in apomictic samples with respect to the sexual ones. Interestingly, 100 differentially expressed antisense transcripts were detected, 55 (55%) of them up- and 45 (45%) down-regulated in apomictic libraries. A stage-by-stage comparative analysis showed a higher number of differentially expressed candidates due to heterochronicity discrimination: the highest number of differential sense transcripts was detected at premeiosis (23,651), followed by meiosis (22,830), postmeiosis (19,100), and anthesis (17,962), while the highest number of differential antisense transcripts were detected at anthesis (495), followed by postmeiosis (164), meiosis (120) and premeiosis (115). Members of the AP2, ARF, MYB and WRKY transcription factor families, as well as the auxin, jasmonate and cytokinin plant hormone families appeared broadly deregulated. Moreover, the chronological expression profile of several well-characterized apomixis controllers was examined in detail. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides a quantitative sense/antisense gene expression catalogue covering several subsequent reproductive developmental stages from premeiosis to anthesis for apomictic and sexual P. notatum, with potential to reveal heterochronic expression between reproductive types and discover sense/antisense mediated regulation. We detected a contrasting transcriptional and hormonal control in apomixis and sexuality as well as specific sense/antisense modulation occurring at the onset of parthenogenesis.


Assuntos
Apomixia , Paspalum , Apomixia/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paspalum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA Antissenso/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
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