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1.
Equine Vet J ; 56(2): 220-242, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a prevalent, age-related chronic disorder in equids. Diagnosis of PPID can be challenging because of its broad spectrum of clinical presentations and disparate published diagnostic criteria, and there are limited available treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To develop evidence-based primary care guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of equine PPID based on the available literature. STUDY DESIGN: Evidence-based clinical guideline using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. METHODS: Research questions were proposed by a panel of veterinarians and developed into PICO or another structured format. VetSRev and Veterinary Evidence were searched for evidence summaries, and systematic searches of the NCBI PubMed and CAB Direct databases were conducted using keyword searches in July 2022 and updated in January 2023. The evidence was evaluated using the GRADE framework. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The research questions were categorised into four areas: (A) Case selection for diagnostic testing, pre-test probability and diagnostic test accuracy, (B) interpretation of test results, (C) pharmacological treatments and other treatment/management options and (D) monitoring treated cases. Relevant veterinary publications were identified and assessed using the GRADE criteria. The results were developed into recommendations: (A) Case selection for diagnostic testing and diagnostic test accuracy: (i) The prevalence of PPID in equids aged ≥15 years is between 21% and 27%; (ii) hypertrichosis or delayed/incomplete hair coat shedding provides a high index of clinical suspicion for PPID; (iii) the combination of clinical signs and age informs the index of clinical suspicion prior to diagnostic testing; (iv) estimated pre-test probability of PPID should be considered in interpretation of diagnostic test results; (v) pre-test probability of PPID is low in equids aged <10 years; (vi) both pre-test probability of disease and season of testing have strong influence on the ability to diagnose PPID using basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or ACTH after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation. The overall diagnostic accuracy of basal ACTH concentrations for diagnosing PPID ranged between 88% and 92% in the autumn and 70% and 86% in the non-autumn, depending on the pre-test probability. Based on a single study, the overall diagnostic accuracy of ACTH concentrations in response to TRH after 30 minutes for diagnosing PPID ranged between 92% and 98% in the autumn and 90% and 94% in the non-autumn, depending on the pre-test probability. Thus, it should be remembered that the risk of a false positive result increases in situations where there is a low pre-test probability, which could mean that treatment is initiated for PPID without checking for a more likely alternative diagnosis. This could compromise horse welfare due to the commencement of lifelong therapy and/or failing to identify and treat an alternative potentially life-threatening condition. (B) Interpretation of diagnostic tests: (i) There is a significant effect of breed on plasma ACTH concentration, particularly in the autumn with markedly higher ACTH concentrations in some but not all 'thrifty' breeds; (ii) basal and/or post-TRH ACTH concentrations may also be affected by latitude/location, diet/feeding, coat colour, critical illness and trailer transport; (iii) mild pain is unlikely to have a large effect on basal ACTH, but caution may be required for more severe pain; (iv) determining diagnostic thresholds that allow for all possible contributory factors is not practical; therefore, the use of equivocal ranges is supported; (v) dynamic insulin testing and TRH stimulation testing may be combined, but TRH stimulation testing should not immediately follow an oral sugar test; (vi) equids with PPID and hyperinsulinaemia appear to be at higher risk of laminitis, but ACTH is not an independent predictor of laminitis risk. (C) Pharmacologic treatments and other treatment/management options: (i) Pergolide improves most clinical signs associated with PPID in the majority of affected animals; (ii) Pergolide treatment lowers basal ACTH concentrations and improves the ACTH response to TRH in many animals, but measures of insulin dysregulation (ID) are not altered in most cases; (iii) chasteberry has no effect on ACTH concentrations and there is no benefit to adding chasteberry to pergolide therapy; (iv) combination of cyproheptadine with pergolide is not superior to pergolide alone; (v) there is no evidence that pergolide has adverse cardiac effects in horses; (vi) Pergolide does not affect insulin sensitivity. (D) Monitoring pergolide-treated cases: (i) Hormone assays provide a crude indication of pituitary control in response to pergolide therapy, however it is unknown whether monitoring of ACTH concentrations and titrating of pergolide doses accordingly is associated with improved endocrinological or clinical outcome; (ii) it is unknown whether monitoring the ACTH response to TRH or clinical signs is associated with an improved outcome; (iii) there is very weak evidence to suggest that increasing pergolide dose in autumn months may be beneficial; (iv) there is little advantage in waiting for more than a month to perform follow-up endocrine testing following initiation of pergolide therapy; there may be merit in performing repeat tests sooner; (v) timing of sampling in relation to pergolide dosing does not confound measurement of ACTH concentration; (vi) there is no evidence that making changes after interpretation of ACTH concentrations measured at certain times of the year is associated with improved outcomes; (vii) evidence is very limited, however, compliance with PPID treatment appears to be poor and it is unclear whether this influences clinical outcome; (viii) evidence is very limited, but horses with clinical signs of PPID are likely to shed more nematode eggs than horses without clinical signs of PPID; it is unclear whether this results in an increased risk of parasitic disease or whether there is a need for more frequent assessment of faecal worm egg counts. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Limited relevant publications in the veterinary scientific literature. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should be used to inform decision-making in equine primary care practice.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças da Hipófise , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia , Cavalos , Animais , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Doenças da Hipófise/terapia , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Insulina , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Atenção Primária à Saúde
2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 954: 175884, 2023 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37385577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with levodopa, dopamine agonists (DAs) as initial treatment are associated with lower incidences of motor complications in early Parkinson's disease (PD). There is no strong evidence that a given DA is more potent in lower incidences of motor complications than another. OBJECTIVE: We performed a network meta-analysis of levodopa versus DAs as monotherapy in early PD to access the risk of motor complications. METHODS: Databases were searched up to June 2022 for eligible RCTs. Levodopa and four DAs (pramipexole, ropinirole, bromocriptine and pergolide) were investigated. The incidences of motor complications and efficacy, tolerability and safety outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Nine RCTs (2112 patients) were included in the current study. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) indicated that levodopa ranked first in the incidence of dyskinesia (0.988), followed by pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and bromocriptine (0.704, 0.408, 0.240, 0.160). Pramipexole was least prone to wearing-off (0.109) and on-off fluctuation (0.041). Levodopa performed best in improvements of UPDRS-II, UPDRS-III, and UPDRS-II + III (0.925, 0.952, 0.934). Bromocriptine ranked first in total withdrawals and withdrawals due to adverse events (0.736, 0.751). Four DAs showed different adverse events profiles. CONCLUSION: In the two non-ergot DAs, ropinirole is associated with a lower risk of dyskinesia while pramipexole is associated with lower risks of wearing-off and on-off fluctuations. Our research may facilitate head-to-head research, larger sample sizes, long following-up time RCTs to confirm the findings of this network meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Discinesias , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Bromocriptina/efeitos adversos , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Pramipexol/uso terapêutico , Pergolida , Metanálise em Rede
3.
Intern Med ; 62(24): 3637-3641, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37005266

RESUMO

We herein report the first case of constrictive pericarditis (CP) induced by long-term pergolide treatment for Parkinson's disease that was assessed using multimodal imaging in a 72-year-old patient with leg edema and dyspnea. The patient was correctly diagnosed with CP using multimodal imaging and successfully treated with pericardiectomy. The treatment history of Parkinson's disease and pathological findings of the removed pericardium suggested that long-term pergolide was the cause of CP. Properly recognizing pergolide as the cause of CP and accurately diagnosing CP using multimodal imaging may contribute to the early detection and treatment of pergolide-induced CP.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Pericardite Constritiva , Humanos , Idoso , Pericardite Constritiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericardite Constritiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pericardite Constritiva/etiologia , Pergolida/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/patologia , Pericardiectomia , Imagem Multimodal
4.
Open Vet J ; 12(4): 511-518, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118716

RESUMO

Background: Hyperinsulinemia associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and/or equine metabolic syndrome is well documented to put horses at high risk of laminitis. While dietary control of simple sugars and starch is the most effective therapy to control hyperinsulinemia, some horses fail to respond. Case Descriptions: Ten horses with hyperinsulinemia refractory to diet control, metformin, levothyroxine, and pergolide (if diagnosed with PPID) were treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor canagliflozin (Invokana®). Nine horses were hyperglycemic (>5.5 mmol/l) or had a history of hyperglycemia. Before instituting therapy, renal function was assessed by determining serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Canagliflozin was administered orally once a day, with food. Dipstick urinalysis was performed every 2 weeks to confirm glucosuria and screen for proteinuria. Owners were also instructed regarding clinical signs consistent with urinary tract infection. All horses responded with a substantial decrease in serum insulin concentrations to normal or near normal values. Laminitis pain resolved in all cases, with regression of fat deposits. Owner satisfaction with outcomes was 100%. Conclusion: Once daily administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin corrected hyperglycemia, reduced insulin to normal or near normal levels, and was 100% effective in reversing or reducing abnormal fat pads and eliminating laminitis pain in horses with refractory hyperinsulinemia and laminitis. The core aspects of therapy-diet control, exercise when possible, and adequate treatment of PPID-must also be maintained if using canagliflozin. Canagliflozin should be reserved for refractory cases. Further controlled trials to investigate canagliflozin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças dos Cavalos , Hiperglicemia , Hiperinsulinismo , Metformina , Doenças da Hipófise , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Animais , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/veterinária , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/veterinária , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperinsulinismo/veterinária , Insulina , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Monossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Dor/complicações , Dor/veterinária , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/complicações , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Sódio/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Amido/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina
5.
Vet J ; 285: 105831, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477010

RESUMO

Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation testing is often used to support a diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses although it is unclear whether or not repeat TRH stimulation testing post-treatment is a valid means of assessing response to medical therapy. Laboratory submissions from 64 suspected equine PPID cases were examined including the initial pre-treatment TRH stimulation test and a follow up test within 100 days of starting medical therapy with pergolide. In a subset of cases, further follow-up tests were examined beyond 100 days of starting treatment. Results from tests conducted between 1 July and 30 November were excluded. Significant improvements were seen in both the baseline and TRH-stimulated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations within 100 days with no further improvements seen in the subset of cases examined thereafter. Although 88% (n = 56/64) of all cases showed a decreased response to TRH post-treatment, only 24% (n = 9/38) of horses with positive pre-treatment TRH stimulation tests normalised following treatment, with a further 34% (n = 13/38) improving into an equivocal test outcome category. Most commonly (42%; n = 16/38), horses with positive pre-treatment TRH stimulation tests remained positive following treatment, although 75% (n = 12/16) of these showed a numerically lower post-treatment response to TRH. These results will help inform practitioners of expected changes in TRH stimulation test results when assessing response of horses with PPID to medical therapy with pergolide.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças da Hipófise , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Pergolida/farmacologia , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/uso terapêutico
6.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406766

RESUMO

Pathological angiogenesis is correlated with many ophthalmic diseases. The most common are exudative age-related macular degeneration and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The current treatment for these diseases is based on regularly administered anti-VEGF antibodies injections. In the study, we investigated selected D2 dopaminergic receptor agonists, namely bromocriptine, cabergoline and pergolide, on hypoxia-induced neovascularization. We used the zebrafish laboratory model, specifically three-day post fertilization (dpf) Tg(fli-1: EGFP) zebrafish larvae. To induce abnormal angiogenesis of hyaloid-retinal vessels (HRVs) and intersegmental vessels (ISVs), the larvae were treated with cobalt chloride (II) (CoCl2) (a hypoxia-inducing agent) from 24 h post fertilization. The inhibitory role of D2 dopaminergic receptor agonists was investigated using confocal microscopy and qPCR. Additionally, the results were compared to those obtained in the group treated with CoCl2 followed by bevacizumab, the well-known antiangiogenic agent. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed severe deformation of vessels in the CoCl2 treated group, while co-incubation with bromocriptine, cabergoline, pergolide and bevacizumab, respectively, significantly inhibited abnormalities of angiogenesis. The qPCR analyses supported the protective role of the chosen dopaminergic agonists by demonstrating their influence on CoCl2-derived upregulation of vegfaa expression. The present results suggest that the D2 receptor agonists can be considered as a new direction in research for antiangiogenic therapy.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina , Peixe-Zebra , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bevacizumab , Bromocriptina/metabolismo , Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Cabergolina/metabolismo , Agonistas de Dopamina/metabolismo , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/patologia , Larva/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Pergolida/metabolismo , Pergolida/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
7.
J Vet Sci ; 22(5): e64, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), a neurodegenerative disease leading to reduced dopamine production, is a common disease in aged horses. The treatment is based on administration of the dopamine agonist pergolide. This drug has been related to valvular fibrosis in humans, but the cardiovascular effect of this drug has not yet been investigated in horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pergolide induces valvular disease in horses or affects the cardiac function. METHODS: Standard, tissue Doppler (TDE) and two-dimensional speckle tracking (STE) echocardiography were performed in horses with diagnosed PPID based on adrenocorticotropic hormone dosage. Measurements taken in horses treated with pergolide were compared with those from untreated horses with nonparametric t-tests. Furthermore, measurements from follow-up examinations performed at least three months after the initial exam were compared with a Wilcoxon signed rank test for repeated measurements in each group. RESULTS: Twenty-three horses were included. None of the 12 horses under treatment developed valvular regurgitation. Furthermore, no differences in the measurements of the left ventricular systolic or diastolic function could be seen between the group of horses with treatment and those without treatment. Measurements taken in the follow-up exam did not differ compared to those taken in the initial exam in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: No changes of the left ventricular function assessed by TDE and STE could be shown in a small population of horses with confirmed PPID. Treatment with pergolide did not affect the ventricular function nor induce valvular disease.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pergolida/farmacologia , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cavalos , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
8.
Vet Rec ; 189(1): e142, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is treated with daily pergolide therapy. Owner compliance and its effect on PPID control have not been previously investigated. METHODS: Clinical records were searched to identify the sample of animals with PPID treated with pergolide from 2016 to 2019. The signalment was noted and the dose of pergolide received calculated. Animals were classified as compliant (receiving ≥90% of the veterinarian recommended dose of pergolide) or non-compliant, and as controlled (follow-up basal adrenocorticotrophic hormone concentrations within the reference range) or not. RESULTS: In total, 110 animals were included. The majority (85%) were ≥16 years (mean ± SD 19.8 ± 4.4 years); the most common breeds were Cob (18%), Thoroughbred (16%) and Welsh (15%); 37% were female and 63% male. Overall, 48% were compliant and 52% non-compliant. There was no significant effect of compliance on laboratory control. Of those that were compliant, 74% were controlled, while 67% of non-compliant animals were controlled. Univariable analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.001) effect of age and breed on compliance and control, and of sex on control. On multivariable analysis, only age (compliance) and breed (compliance and control) were retained in the final model. CONCLUSION: Only half of animals received the recommended pergolide dose; however, this did not affect laboratory control of PPID.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pergolida/administração & dosagem , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 76: 106620, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740552

RESUMO

Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a common endocrine disorder of aged horses, with muscle atrophy as one of the clinical signs. We sought to compare muscle mass and regulation of skeletal muscle proteolysis between horses with PPID and muscle atrophy to older horses without PPID, and to assess the impact of treatment with pergolide (dopaminergic agonist) on PPID horses. We hypothesized that PPID-associated muscle atrophy is a result of increased proteolysis, and that markers of muscle atrophy and proteolysis would improve over time with pergolide treatment. Markers of muscle atrophy, adiposity, insulin regulation, skeletal muscle composition, and proteolysis (muscle atrophy F- box/atrogin 1 [MAFbx1], muscle RING finger 1 [MuRF1], Bcl2/adenovirus EIV 19kD interacting protein 3 [Bnip3], and microtubule-associated light chain 3 [LC3]) were compared between PPID and control horses. PPID horses were treated for 12 weeks with either pergolide or placebo. Dose of pergolide was adjusted based upon monthly measurement of adrenocorticotropin, and markers of muscle atrophy, adiposity, insulin regulation, skeletal muscle composition, and proteolysis were compared after 12 weeks of treatment. Horses with PPID exhibited increased transcript abundance of MuRF1 (P= 0.04) compared to control. However, no difference was observed in transcript abundance of markers of proteolysis with treatment (P ≥ 0.25). Pergolide treated horses lost weight (P = 0.02) and improved fasting insulin (P = 0.02), while placebo treated horses gained weight and rump fat thickness (P = 0.02). Findings from this study suggest that treatment with pergolide may promote weight loss and improve insulin regulation in horses with PPID, but does not impact muscle mass or markers of muscle proteolysis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças da Hipófise , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/veterinária , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/metabolismo
10.
Drug Saf ; 44(5): 589-600, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of pharmacovigilance activities on public health remains under-investigated, and measuring the impact on health of pharmacovigilance activities for a specific safety signal is challenging. OBJECTIVE: To gain more insight into the methodological challenges and the data required, we assessed the impact of pharmacovigilance on public health for four identified product-specific safety signals using publicly available data in the Netherlands. The assessment was on the impact of the intertwined and complementary steps of the pharmacovigilance pathways. METHODS: The impact of pharmacovigilance on public health was assessed using the assessment support tool and 'open data' from the Netherlands for four different types of pharmacovigilance safety signals: (1) off-label use of cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol (CPA/EE) and thrombotic risk after pharmacovigilance measures after 2014; (2) pergolide and the risk of cardiac valvulopathy after pharmacovigilance activities in 2003; (3) proton pump inhibitors and the risk of hypomagnesaemia after pharmacovigilance activities in 2011; (4) rosiglitazone withdrawal from the market because of cardiovascular effects in 2010. RESULTS: For the signals on CPA/EE and pergolide, a crude estimation of the impact could be made with varying degrees of assumptions based on the risk described in the literature and utilisation data. CONCLUSION: This article highlights the methodological challenges and the data required to assess the impact of product-specific safety signals. A structured assessment support tool can be used as a guide for the necessary data elements and steps needed for the measurement or estimation of impact of pharmacovigilance activities on public health, provided that the appropriate data are available.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacovigilância , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pergolida , Saúde Pública
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 791633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35095761

RESUMO

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNET) are commonly benign tumors accounting for 10-25% of intracranial tumors. Prolactin-secreting adenomas represent the most predominant type of all PitNET and for this subtype of tumors, the medical therapy relies on the use of dopamine agonists (DAs). DAs yield an excellent therapeutic response in reducing tumor size and hormonal secretion targeting the dopamine receptor type 2 (D2DR) whose higher expression in prolactin-secreting adenomas compared to other PitNET is now well established. Moreover, although DAs therapy does not represent the first-line therapy for other PitNET, off-label use of DAs is considered in PitNET expressing D2DR. Nevertheless, DAs primary or secondary resistance, occurring in a subset of patients, may involve several molecular mechanisms, presently not fully elucidated. Dopamine receptors (DRs) expression is a prerequisite for a proper DA function in PitNET and several molecular events may negatively modify DR membrane expression, through the DRs down-regulation and intracellular trafficking, and DR signal transduction pathway. The current mini-review will summarise the presently known molecular events that underpin the unsuccessful therapy with DAs.


Assuntos
Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/metabolismo , Adenoma/metabolismo , Aminoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Bromocriptina/uso terapêutico , Cabergolina/uso terapêutico , Filaminas/metabolismo , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisurida/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Prolactinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Prolactinoma/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/agonistas , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo
12.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(2): 225-234, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635808

RESUMO

Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors differ with respect to patterns of regional brain distribution and behavioral effects. Pre-clinical work suggests that D1 agonists enhance working memory, but the absence of selective D1 agonists has constrained using this approach in humans. This study examines working memory performance in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients when given pergolide, a mixed D1/D2 agonist, compared with bromocriptine, a selective D2 agonist. Fifteen individuals were studied 1 month after mTBI and compared with 17 healthy controls. At separate visits, participants were administered 1.25 mg bromocriptine or 0.05 mg pergolide prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a working memory task (visual-verbal n-back). Results indicated a significant group-by-drug interaction for mean performance across n-back task conditions, where the mTBI group showed better performance on pergolide relative to bromocriptine, whereas controls showed the opposite pattern. There was also a significant effect of diagnosis, where mTBI patients performed worse than controls, particularly while on bromocriptine, as shown in our prior work. Functional MRI activation during the most challenging task condition (3-back > 0-back contrast) showed a significant group-by-drug interaction, with the mTBI group showing increased activation relative to controls in working memory circuitry while on pergolide, including in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Across participants there was a positive correlation between change in activation in this region and change in performance between drug conditions. Results suggest that activation of the D1 receptor may improve working memory performance after mTBI. This has implications for the development of pharmacological strategies to treat cognitive deficits after mTBI.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pergolida/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 74: 106531, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942194

RESUMO

It remains unclear how pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and pergolide treatment (Prascend [pergolide tablets]) affect endocrine and immune function in horses. To evaluate these effects, blood was collected regularly from 28 university-owned horses (10 Non-PPID, 9 PPID control [PC], and 9 PPID treatment [PT]) over approximately 15 mo. Pergolide treatment was initiated after Day 0 collections. Analyses included ACTH, insulin, total cortisol, free cortisol, complete blood counts, plasma myeloperoxidase, and cytokine/receptor gene expression in basal whole blood and in vitro stimulations (PMA/ionomycin, heat-inactivated Rhodococcus equi, and heat-inactivated Escherichia coli) of whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results were analyzed using a linear mixed model (SAS 9.4) with significance set at P < 0.05. Significant group (P = 0.0014) and group-by-time (P = 0.0004) effects were observed in resting ACTH such that PT horses differed from Non-PPID horses only at Day 0. PT horses had significantly lower changes in ACTH responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation tests than PC horses at non-fall time points only, mid-late February 2018 (P = 0.016) and early April 2018 (P = 0.0172). When PT and PC horses did not differ, they were combined before comparison to Non-PPID horses. No significant group or group-by-time effects were seen in resting insulin, total cortisol, or free cortisol; however, significant time effects were observed in these measures. PPID horses had lower absolute lymphocyte (P = 0.028) and red blood cell (P = 0.0203) counts than Non-PPID horses. In unstimulated whole blood, PPID horses had increased IL-8 expression compared with Non-PPID horses (P = 0.0102). In addition, PPID horses had decreased interferon γ production from PBMCs after stimulation with R. equi (P = 0.0063) and E. coli (P = 0.0057) and showed increased transforming growth factor ß expression after E. coli stimulation (P = 0.0399). The main limitations of this study were a limited sample size and an inability to truly randomize the PPID horses into treatment groups. Resting ACTH is likely the best choice for determining successful responses to pergolide. Neither PPID nor pergolide appears to influence insulin, total cortisol, and free cortisol. As measured, systemic immune function was altered in PPID horses, and it is likely that these horses are indeed at increased risk of opportunistic infection. Despite reducing ACTH, pergolide treatment did not appear to influence immune function.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Hipertricose/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertricose/etiologia , Hipertricose/veterinária , Masculino , Pergolida/administração & dosagem , Doenças da Hipófise/complicações , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Vet J ; 266: 105562, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323174

RESUMO

Pergolide, a dopamine agonist, is commonly administered to manage pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), a progressive neurodegenerative disease prevalent in aged horses. However, available evidence regarding pergolide's efficacy in improving clinical and endocrine parameters is limited. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published literature and evaluate evidence regarding whether pergolide treatment results in improvement of clinical signs and/or adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentration compared to no treatment or other unlicensed treatments. Systematic searches of electronic databases were undertaken in April 2019, repeated in August and October 2019, and updated in July 2020. English language publications published prior to these dates were included. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment of publications was undertaken individually by the authors using predefined criteria and subsequently cross-checked. Modified critically appraised topic data collection forms were used to extract data. Due to marked between-study variations, meta-analysis was not undertaken. After removal of duplicate records; 612 publications were identified, of which 129 abstracts were screened for eligibility and 28 publications met criteria for inclusion in the review. Most studies were descriptive case series, cohort studies or non-randomised, uncontrolled field trials. Despite marked variation in study populations, case selection, diagnostic protocols, pergolide dose, follow-up period and outcome measures, in the vast majority of the included studies, pergolide was reported to provide overall clinical improvement in >75% of cases. However, reported improvements in individual clinical signs varied widely. A reduction in plasma ACTH concentrations was reported in 44-74% of cases, while normalisation to within reported reference intervals occurred in 28-74% of cases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Cavalos , Pergolida/administração & dosagem , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 356, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) develops slowly in aged horses as degeneration of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons leads to proliferation of pars intermedia (PI) melanotropes through hyperplasia and adenoma formation. Dopamine (DA) concentrations and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity are markedly reduced in PI tissue of PPID-affected equids and treatment with the DA receptor agonist pergolide results in notable clinical improvement. Thus, we hypothesized that pergolide treatment of PPID-affected horses would result in greater DA and TH levels in PI tissue collected from PPID-affected horses versus untreated PPID-affected horses. To test this hypothesis, pituitary glands were removed from 18 horses: four untreated PPID-affected horses, four aged and four young horses without signs of PPID, and six PPID-affected horses that had been treated with pergolide at 2 µg/kg orally once daily for 6 months. DA concentrations and TH expression levels in PI tissues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and Western blot analyses, respectively. RESULTS: DA and TH levels were lowest in PI collected from untreated PPID-affected horses while levels in the pergolide treated horses were similar to those of aged horses without signs of PPID. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of restoration of DA and TH levels following treatment with pergolide. Equine PPID is a potential animal model of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, which could provide insight into human neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Cavalos , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/patologia
16.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 92: 103181, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797773

RESUMO

A 26-year-old pony mare (ca. 180 kg bodyweight) was presented as an emergency because it had erroneously received 110 times its standard dose of pergolide (Prascend) per os approximately 4 hours earlier. Clinical examination initially was normal except tachycardia of 52 beats/min. The pony was treated symptomatically with paraffin oil and activated charcoal per nasogastric tube to prevent further systemic absorption and accelerate intestinal excretion of the pergolide. Furthermore, the pony received 400 mg of dopamine antagonist azaperone (Stresnil) intramuscularly (i.m.) followed by 80 mg every 6 hours twice i.m. and then 60 mg every 6 hours twice i.m. In addition, 40 mg verapamil (Verapamil-ratiopharm) was given every 4 hours per os for two days, followed by 40 mg every 6 hours for another 5 days. The pony was closely monitored clinically. It remained bright and alert with heart rate returning to normal within one day. The only abnormalities noticed 24 hours after ingestion of the pergolide overdose were a decreased appetite and anxiety, possibly a dopaminergic central nervous effect. Over the next days, appetite returned and anxiety disappeared. Overdosing pergolide is considered very rare and to the authors' knowledge this is the first report with a severe overdose of pergolide (Prascend). As accidental drug overdosing is a common error in medicine, it is important to know about possible side effects and how to react in cases like this.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Pergolida , Animais , Apetite , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Cavalos , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/veterinária
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503311

RESUMO

Several clinical reports indicate that the use of amphetaminic anorectic drugs or ergot derivatives could cause valvular heart disease (VHD). We sought to investigate whether valvular lesions develop in response to long-term oral administration of these drugs and to identify drug-targeted biological processes that may lead to VHD. Treatment of New Zealand White rabbits with pergolide, dexfenfluramine, or high-dose serotonin for 16 weeks induced valvular alterations characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling. Transcriptome profiling of tricuspid valves using RNA sequencing revealed distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that clustered according to the different treatments. Genes that were affected by the three treatments were functionally enriched for reduced cell metabolism processes. The two drugs yielded more changes in gene expression than serotonin and shared most of the DEGs. These DEGs were mostly enriched for decreased biosynthetic processes, increased cell-matrix interaction, and cell response to growth factors, including TGF-ß, which was associated with p38 MAPK activation. Treatment with pergolide specifically affected genes involved in homeostasis, which was corroborated by the activation of the master regulator of cell energy homeostasis, AMPK-α, as well as decreased levels of metabolism-related miR-107. Thus, both pergolide and dexfenfluramine may cause VHD through valve metabolic reprogramming and matrix remodeling.


Assuntos
Dexfenfluramina/efeitos adversos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Pergolida/efeitos adversos , Valva Tricúspide/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Análise por Conglomerados , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Homeostase , MicroRNAs/genética , Coelhos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Valva Tricúspide/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
18.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(1): 4, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999819

RESUMO

Purpose: Neurotrophic keratopathy is a degenerative disease that may be improved by nerve growth factor (NGF). Our aim was to investigate the use of pergolide, a dopamine (D1 and D2) receptor agonist known to increase the synthesis and release of NGF for regeneration of damaged corneal nerve fibers. Methods: Pergolide function was evaluated by measuring axon length and NGF levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cultured chicken dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells with serial doses of pergolide (10, 25, 50, 150, and 300 µg/ml) and with different concentrations of a D1 antagonist. Pergolide function was further evaluated by cornea nerve fiber density and wound healing in a cornea scratch mouse model. Results: Pergolide increased DRG axon length significantly at a dose between 50 and 300 µg/ml. Different concentrations of D1 antagonist (12, 24, 48, and 96 µg/ml) inhibited DRG axon length growth with pergolide (300 µg/ml). Pergolide (50 µg/ml) upregulated NGF expression in DRG cells at both 24 hours and 48 hours. Pergolide improved cornea nerve fiber density at both 1 week and 2 weeks. Pergolide also improved cornea wound healing. Conclusions: We demonstrated that pergolide can act to promote an increase in NGF which promotes corneal nerve regeneration and would therefore improve corneal sensation and visual acuity in eyes with peripheral neurotrophic keratopathy.


Assuntos
Lesões da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Fibras Nervosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Regeneração Nervosa , Pergolida/farmacologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia
19.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 68: 135-141, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082785

RESUMO

Published information on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pergolide is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral pergolide in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The study design was a nonrandomized clinical trial. Six horses with PPID diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests received pergolide at 4 µg/kg for 18 d. Plasma samples for determination of pergolide and ACTH concentration were collected 0.5 h before and 2 and 12 h after each administration of pergolide. Maximum plasma concentrations after the first oral dose of pergolide (0.104-0.684 ng/mL; median 0.261 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR] 0.184-0.416 ng/mL) were not significantly different to the maximum steady-state concentration at day 18 (0.197-0.628 ng/mL; median 0.274; IQR 0.232-0.458 ng/mL). Chronic administration was not associated with drug accumulation (R = 1.09) and pergolide concentration reached steady state within 3 d. Throughout, concentrations of pergolide fluctuated considerably, with median plasma peak concentrations more than four times higher than median trough concentrations. Plasma ACTH concentration reduced significantly within 12 h of administration with further reductions occurring up to 10 d after the initiation of treatment. Although there were parallel fluctuations in the concentrations of pergolide and ACTH, timing of ACTH measurement in relation to the administration of pergolide did not have a significant effect. Alterations in the response to TRH were identified at 8 d with no further change being identified at 18 d. A small number of horses were studied. Oral pergolide results in significant suppression of pars intermedia activity within hours. Pergolide and ACTH concentrations fluctuated in tandem although correlation was poor. Fluctuations in pergolide concentration were consistent with a terminal elimination half-life of less than 12 h. To reduce the level of fluctuation of ACTH, twice-daily dosing of pergolide may be more appropriate.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pergolida/farmacocinética , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Adeno-Hipófise Parte Intermédia/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cavalos , Pergolida/administração & dosagem , Pergolida/sangue , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/farmacologia
20.
J Biol Chem ; 294(11): 4079-4090, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593506

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are currently the target of more than 30% of the marketed medicines. However, there is an important medical need for ligands with improved pharmacological activities on validated drug targets. Moreover, most of these ligands remain poorly characterized, notably because of a lack of pharmacological tools. Thus, there is an important demand for innovative assays that can detect and drive the design of compounds with novel or improved pharmacological properties. In particular, a functional and screening-compatible GPCR-G protein interaction assay is still unavailable. Here, we report on a nanoluciferase-based complementation technique to detect ligands that promote a GPCR-G protein interaction. We demonstrate that our system can be used to profile compounds with regard to the G proteins they activate through a given GPCR. Furthermore, we established a proof of applicability of screening for distinct G proteins on dopamine receptor D2 whose differential coupling to Gαi/o family members has been extensively studied. In a D2-Gαi1versus D2-Gαo screening, we retrieved five agonists that are currently being used in antiparkinsonian medications. We determined that in this assay, piribedil and pergolide are full agonists for the recruitment of Gαi1 but are partial agonists for Gαo, that the agonist activity of ropinirole is biased in favor of Gαi1 recruitment, and that the agonist activity of apomorphine is biased for Gαo We propose that this newly developed assay could be used to develop molecules that selectively modulate a particular G protein pathway.


Assuntos
Luciferases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Luciferases/química , Nanopartículas/química , Pergolida/química , Pergolida/farmacologia , Piribedil/química , Piribedil/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química
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