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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2312773, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334135

RESUMO

Background: Combatants who are exposed to events that transgress deeply held moral beliefs might face lasting psychopathological outcomes, referred to as Moral Injury (MI). However, knowledge about pre-deployment factors that might moderate the negative consequences of MI is sparse. In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment personality factors as possible moderators in the link between exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and psychiatric symptomatology among Israeli active-duty combatants.Methods: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: Six months following enlistment - pre-deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment - post-deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures of personality factors: emotional regulation, impulsivity, and aggression (T2) and combat exposure, PMIEs, psychiatric symptomology and posttraumatic symptoms (T3) between 2019 and 2021.Results: Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and negative life events contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment. Higher levels of pre-deployment aggression and lower levels of emotional regulation and impulsivity moderated the association between betrayal, PMIEs and psychiatric symptomology post-deployment, above and beyond pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and life events.Conclusions: Our results highlight that pre-deployment emotional regulation, impulsivity and aggressiveness levels should be assessed, screened, and identified among combatants, as they all facilitate psychiatric symptomology (and PTSS) after combatants are exposed to PMIEs of betrayal. Such pre-assessment will enable the identification of at-risk combatants and might provide them with tailor-made preparation regarding moral and ethical situations that should be investigated in future research.


Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment.Pre-deployment personality moderated the associations between PMIEs and psychiatric symptomatology among combatants.Higher levels of pre-deployment emotional regulation moderated the association between betrayal PMIEs and post-deployment PTSS symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Agressão , Personalidade
2.
J R Soc Med ; 117(1): 3, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335051
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339171

RESUMO

Resistant migraine characterizes those patients who have failed at least three classes of migraine prophylaxis. These difficult-to-treat patients are likely to be characterized by a high prevalence of psychological disturbances. A dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), including alteration in the levels of endocannabinoid congeners, may underlie several psychiatric disorders and the pathogenesis of migraines. Here we explored whether the peripheral gene expression of major components of the ECS and the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids are associated with psychological disorders in resistant migraine. Fifty-one patients (age = 46.0 ± 11.7) with resistant migraine received a comprehensive psychological evaluation according to the DSM-5 criteria. Among the patients, 61% had personality disorders (PD) and 61% had mood disorders (MD). Several associations were found between these psychological disorders and peripheral ECS alterations. Lower plasma levels of palmitoiletanolamide (PEA) were found in the PD group compared with the non-PD group. The MD group was characterized by lower mRNA levels of diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) and CB2 (cannabinoid-2) receptor. The results suggest the existence of peripheral dysfunction in some components of the ECS and an alteration in plasma levels of PEA in patients with resistant migraine and mood or personality disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2909, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316898

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become an integral part of many contemporary technologies, such as social media platforms, smart devices, and global logistics systems. At the same time, research on the public acceptance of AI shows that many people feel quite apprehensive about the potential of such technologies-an observation that has been connected to both demographic and sociocultural user variables (e.g., age, previous media exposure). Yet, due to divergent and often ad-hoc measurements of AI-related attitudes, the current body of evidence remains inconclusive. Likewise, it is still unclear if attitudes towards AI are also affected by users' personality traits. In response to these research gaps, we offer a two-fold contribution. First, we present a novel, psychologically informed questionnaire (ATTARI-12) that captures attitudes towards AI as a single construct, independent of specific contexts or applications. Having observed good reliability and validity for our new measure across two studies (N1 = 490; N2 = 150), we examine several personality traits-the Big Five, the Dark Triad, and conspiracy mentality-as potential predictors of AI-related attitudes in a third study (N3 = 298). We find that agreeableness and younger age predict a more positive view towards artificially intelligent technology, whereas the susceptibility to conspiracy beliefs connects to a more negative attitude. Our findings are discussed considering potential limitations and future directions for research and practice.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Personalidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos da Personalidade , Emoções
5.
J Pers Disord ; 38(1): 75-86, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324251

RESUMO

Stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with personality disorders are common. Preliminary evidence suggests that continuum beliefs (the view that presented symptoms lie on a continuum with normality) are associated with reduced personality disorder stigma. This study aimed to evaluate whether this association holds across the entire spectrum of personality disorder severity and whether greater personality disorder severity is linked to higher stigma. A general population sample (N = 848) completed questions about a vignette depicting mild, moderate, or severe personality disorder severity. Higher continuum beliefs were associated with a lower desire for social distance from persons with mild, moderate, or severe personality disorder. In addition, continuum beliefs were higher, and the desired social distance was lower toward a person with mild than a person with moderate or severe personality disorder. Thus, fostering continuum beliefs might aid in combating personality disorder stigma, including toward severely affected persons who experience strong stigmatization.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Estigma Social , Cultura
6.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(2): 85-93, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date the relationships between rape myths and other psychological constructs within males who have committed rape have not been explored sufficiently. Considered as a risk factor for the perpetration of rape it seems significant to examine their association to individual behavioral and personality characteristics more in detail. METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the relations between self-reported rape myth acceptance and the self-evaluation of aggressiveness, assertiveness, hypersexuality, social anxiety, sexual anxiety, SCID personality characteristics and the external assessment of psychopathy within a sample of N=569 males convicted of rape. RESULTS: The results showed significant correlations with all constructs except sexual anxiety, antisocial personality and psychopathy. Furthermore, findings indicated the assignment of the relevant variables to two principal components: rape myths, aggressiveness, hypersexuality, paranoid and narcissistic personality (K1) on the one hand and psychopathy and antisocial personality (K2) on the other hand. DISCUSSION: Following the results, rape myths are contextualized within the investigated psychological constructs and their potential differentiation from psychopathy and antisocial personality is discussed.


Assuntos
Estupro , Masculino , Humanos , Estupro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores de Risco , Personalidade
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3868, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366048

RESUMO

If a dialogue system can predict the personality of a user from dialogue, it will enable the system to adapt to the user's personality, leading to better task success and user satisfaction. In a recent study, personality prediction was performed using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality traits with a task-oriented human-machine dialogue using an end-to-end (neural-based) system. However, it is still not clear whether such prediction is generally possible for other types of systems and user personality traits. To clarify this, we recruited 378 participants, asked them to fill out four personality questionnaires covering 25 personality traits, and had them perform three rounds of human-machine dialogue with a pipeline task-oriented dialogue system or an end-to-end task-oriented dialogue system. We also had another 186 participants do the same with an open-domain dialogue system. We then constructed BERT-based models to predict the personality traits of the participants from the dialogues. The results showed that prediction accuracy was generally better with open-domain dialogue than with task-oriented dialogue, although Extraversion (one of the Big Five personality traits) could be predicted equally well for both open-domain dialogue and pipeline task-oriented dialogue. We also examined the effect of utilizing different types of dialogue on personality prediction by conducting a cross-comparison of the models trained from the task-oriented and open-domain dialogues. As a result, we clarified that the open-domain dialogue cannot be used to predict personality traits from task-oriented dialogue, and vice versa. We further analyzed the effects of system utterances, task performance, and the round of dialogue with regard to the prediction accuracy.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade
8.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 81, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We introduce a novel measure for assessing TikTok overuse, called the TikTok Use Disorder-Questionnaire (TTUD-Q). As part of ongoing investigations into the suitability of the World Health Organization's (WHO) framework for diagnosing Gaming Disorder in the context of social media overuse, we developed this questionnaire by adapting the WHO framework, replacing the term "gaming" with "TikTok use". METHODS: In order to address this question, we investigated the psychometric properties of the newly designed TTUD-Q and assessed its associations with the BFI-10 (assessing the Big Five of Personality) and the PHQ-8 (assessing depressive tendencies). RESULTS: In this study, involving a final sample of 378 participants, we observed that higher levels of neuroticism were linked to greater tendencies toward TikTok Use Disorder (TTUD). Furthermore, we identified that this association was mediated by depressive tendencies. Similar trends emerged when investigating the relationship between lower levels of conscientiousness and higher TTUD tendencies, with depressive tendencies once again serving as a mediator. DISCUSSION: Our research sets the foundation for future studies that should delve deeper into examining individual differences in TTUD using the WHO framework originally designed for Gaming Disorder.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 71(2): 126-137, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300563

RESUMO

Testing an adapted psychology of working theory (PWT) model (PWT; Duffy et al., 2016), this study examined how and when contextual constraints affect the ability of Chinese rural migrant workers () to attain decent work. Surveying a sample of 510 employed Chinese rural migrants at two time points, this study revealed that economic constraints and daily discrimination were indirectly related to attaining decent work through the mediating factors of work volition and psychological ownership over work. In addition, proactive personality moderated the relationships between daily discrimination and economic constraints and the two mediators. The results contribute to better understanding Chinese rural migrant workers' work experience, refining the PWT and enriching the literature on the underlying mechanisms and moderating factors associated with decent work attainment. The research results call for policy and social change to lessen economic constraints and discrimination at the macro level and organizational commitment to employee-oriented human resource management and counseling interventions to improve the quality of the work lives of rural migrant workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Propriedade , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , China
10.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 158: 105570, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311046

RESUMO

This systematic review and a meta-analysis synthesised the results from contemporary, randomized and non-randomized controlled studies to assess lasting (one week minimum) changes on cognition/creativity, emotional processing and personality from serotonergic psychedelics. PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo were searched in July 2022. Risk of bias was assessed using Rob 2.0 and ROBINS-I. Ten studies met the eligibility criteria which involved 304 participants. No statistically significant effects were found for the majority outcome measures across the three constructs. A meta-analysis of emotional recognition outcomes found an overall significant effect for faster reaction times in the active treatment groups for disgust (SMD=-0.63, 95% CI=[-1.01 to -0.25], I2 = 65%) and sadness (SMD=-0.45, 95% CI=[-0.85 to -0.06], I2 = 60%). Future research should include larger samples, better control conditions, standardized doses and longer follow-up periods to confirm these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Humanos , Cognição , Personalidade , Emoções
11.
Am Nat ; 203(3): 347-361, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358809

RESUMO

AbstractClassic evolutionary theory predicts that predation will shift trait means and erode variance within prey species; however, several studies indicate higher behavioral trait variance and trait integration in high-predation populations. These results come predominately from field-sampled animals comparing low- and high-predation sites and thus cannot isolate the role of predation from other ecological factors, including density effects arising from higher predation. Here, we study the role of predation on behavioral trait (co)variation in experimental populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) living with and without a benthic ambush predator (Jaguar cichlid) to better evaluate the role of predation and where density was equalized among replicates twice per year. At 2.5 years after introduction of the predators (∼10 overlapping generations), 40 males were sampled from each of the six replicate populations and extensively assayed for activity rates, water column use, and latency to feed following disturbance. Individual variation was pronounced in both treatments, with substantial individual variation in means, temporal plasticity, and predictability (inverse residual variance). Predators had little effect on mean behavior, although there was some evidence for greater use of the upper water column in predator-exposed fish. There was greater variance among individuals in water column use in predator-exposed fish, and they habituated more quickly over time; individuals higher in the water column fed slower and had a reduced positive correlation with activity, although again this effect was time specific. Predators also affected the integration of personality and plasticity-among-individual variances in water column use increased, and those in activity decreased, through time-which was absent in controls. Our results contrast with the extensive guppy literature showing rapid evolution in trait means, demonstrating either increases or maintenance of behavioral variance under predation.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Poecilia , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Personalidade , Água
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298193, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of tobacco and cigarette products remains widespread globally, with varying patterns across countries. Understanding the factors influencing cigarette dependence among young adults is crucial for effective smoking prevention and control programs. Personality traits are one of the factors that influence smoking behaviour, yet the evidence on their role in high cigarette dependence among young adults remains inconclusive. This study aims to provide insights and initial evidence on the potential association between personality dimensions, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, and high cigarette dependence among Lebanese university students. METHODS: A convenient sample of 212 student smokers from one private and one public university in Lebanon participated in an online survey. The survey included measures of personality traits using the Big-Five framework, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, and the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD). Logistic regression models and mediation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results revealed significant associations between personality dimensions and high cigarette dependence among Lebanese university students. Smokers with higher levels of Openness to Experience were more likely to have high cigarette dependence (ß = 0.408, p < = 0.015). Conversely, smokers with higher levels of Conscientiousness (ß = -0.500, p < 0.001) and Agreeableness (ß = -0.491, p < 0.01) were less likely to have high cigarette dependence. Additionally, attending a public university (ß = 1.198, p = 0.018), having more close friends who smoke (ß = 0.525, p < 0.01), and switching to a cheaper cigarette brand (ß = 0.928, p < 0.05) were associated with a higher cigarette dependence. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of considering personality dimensions, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle habits in understanding high cigarette dependence among Lebanese university students. The results can inform the development of targeted interventions to address high cigarette dependence in this population.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Universidades , Líbano/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Personalidade
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1244605, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322123

RESUMO

Background: Suicide rates are higher among physicians than in the general population. We aimed to investigate the role of stressful life events (related or not to work conditions) and personality traits on wish to die, a proxy measure of suicidal ideation. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in France from March 2018 to September 2018. Physicians completed an online questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression model estimated factors associated with wish to die. Moderated moderation models were used to assess the effect of personality traits on the relationship between stressful events and wish to die. Results: 1,020 physicians completed the questionnaire. Most (75%) had endorsed a work-related stressful event and one in six (15.9%) endorsed a wish to die the year before. Wish to die was associated with burnout (OR = 2.65, 95%CI = 1.82-3.88) and work-related stressful events (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.24-3.85) including interpersonal conflicts, harassment and work-overload. Emotional stability was the only personality trait associated with wish to die in the logistic regression (OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.59-0.82). In moderation models, we observed a significant interaction involving three personality traits-emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness-along with gender, influencing the impact of stressful events on the wish to die. Limitations: Our study is limited by the impossibility to control for risk factors associated with suicide like psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion: Work-related stressful events significantly contribute to the manifestation of a wish to die among physicians. The impact of stressful events on the wish to die is moderated by factors such as gender and personality traits, including emotional stability and extraversion. These results are overall consistent with prior studies concerning the risk of burnout and suicide among physicians.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Médicos , Suicídio , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Suicídio/psicologia , Personalidade
14.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 153-160, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322543

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the correlation between 5 dimensions of personality, physical activity (PA), and bone mineral density (BMD) among college students. Methods: A total of 705 undergraduates (329 males and 376 females) from a sports university were recruited. Based on their sports training experience, the participants were divided into 6 major sports groups, including ball sports, skilled sports, competitive sports, track and field, leisure sports, and no sports. Students with professional sports training (ie, athletes) were categorized into ballgame, skilled, competitive, and track and field groups, while the rest (non-athletes) were placed in leisure and no sports groups. Ten-Item Personality Inventory in China (TIPI-C), or the 5-factor model of personality, was used to measure the 5 personality dimensions of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism of the participants. Their daily level was measured with GT3X+ triaxial accelerometers over 7 continuous days. Then, parameter thresholds were established and the participants' PA was categorized as light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA). The bone mineral density (BMD) of arms, legs, and the total body was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mediation effect of PA and that of the 5-factor model of personality were tested using PROCESS and Sobel tests. The correlation between the 5 personality dimensions, PA, and BMD was explored, with PA and the 5 personality dimensions as mediator variables. A comparison of PA and BMD was conducted across the 6 major sports groups. The correlation between PA of different intensities and BMD was also analyzed using Spearman's correlation. Results: Although there were 90 potential relationships between PA, the 5 personality dimensions, and BMD, only 3 were significant. When conscientiousness was used as an independent variable and MPA, as a mediating variable, statistically significant differences in PROCESS results were reported (P<0.01), with MPA mediating 17.3% of arm BMD, 19.4% of leg BMD, and 19.1% of total body BMD. Among male students, there was no significant difference in LPA among the 6 groups, but significant differences in MPA and VPA (P<0.05). Among female students, significant differences in LPA, MPA, and VPA were observed in all 6 groups and the differences between MPA and VPA were especially prominent (P<0.05). For both males and females, the differences in arm, leg, and total body BMD across the 6 groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), with these differences being more pronounced in females. There was no correlation between LPA and BMD in either sex. MPA and VPA were positively correlated with BMD, with MPA correlating with arm, leg, and total body BMD (males, Spearman's correlation [rs]: 0.11-0.14, P<0.05; females, rs: 0.20-0.23, P<0.01). VPA correlated with arm, leg, and total body BMD (males, rs: 0.11-0.23, P<0.05; females, rs: 0.26-0.30, P<0.01). Conclusion: MPA is associated with BMD in college students scoring high in the conscientiousness dimension of personality. In addition, there is a weak positive correlation between both MPA and VPA and BMD levels, with these associations being more pronounced in females.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Estudantes , Personalidade
15.
Am Nat ; 203(2): 174-188, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306285

RESUMO

AbstractWhen organisms respond behaviorally to a stimulus, they exhibit plasticity, but some individuals respond to the same stimulus consistently differently than others, thereby also exhibiting personality differences. Parent house sparrows express individual differences in how often they feed offspring and how that feeding rate changes with nestling age. Mean feeding rate and its slope with respect to nestling age were positively correlated at median nestling ages but not at hatching, indicating that individuality is primarily in plasticity. Individual differences could arise because of (1) interactions between environmental variables, (2) differences in underlying state or "quality," or (3) differences in the ability to update cues of changing nestling demand. Individual slopes were modestly repeatable across breeding attempts, hinting at the likely action of additional environmental variables, but only brood size was important. I also found few correlates suggesting quality differences. I used short-term brood size manipulations at two nestling ages to test divergent predictions between the three hypotheses. The pattern of correlations between response to the manipulation and individual slope did not fit any single hypothesis. Patterns of sparrow parental care reveal that personality and plasticity are not cleanly separable, and their biology is likely intertwined. New thinking may be needed about the factors parents use in decisions about care and the relevant fitness consequences.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Animais , Humanos
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(2): e19502022, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324841

RESUMO

Since its origin in the surgical medicine of the 17th century, trauma research has had multiple interpretations and has been associated either with visible injuries to organs and tissues, or with the influence of pathogenic psychic agents on memory, consciousness and personality. With the intensification of the role of classification systems since DSM-III, the phenomenon of trauma came to be incorporated into the psychiatric realm through Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and destined finally to the constraints of neuroscientific research. Based on a narrative review, this article will address one of the fundamental epistemological premises for this transition, which informs how psychological trauma gained autonomy over anatomical descriptions to be reclassified, around a century later, as an essentially bodily phenomenon and incorporated into the jargon of neurosciences.


Desde o seu nascimento na medicina cirúrgica do século XVII, a pesquisa do trauma admitiu interpretações múltiplas e associadas ora às lesões visíveis de órgãos e tecidos, ora à influência de agentes psíquicos patogênicos sobre a memória, a consciência e a personalidade. Com o aprofundamento do papel dos sistemas classificatórios desde DSM-III, o fenômeno do trauma será incorporado ao prisma psiquiátrico através do Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático e destinado, finalmente, à circunscrição da pesquisa neurocientífica. A partir de revisão narrativa, este artigo abordará uma das premissas epistemológicas fundamentais para essa transição, que informa como o trauma psicológico ganhou autonomia sobre as descrições anatômicas para ser, cerca de um século depois, por ela reanexado enquanto fenômeno essencialmente corporal e aderido à gramática das neurociências.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Personalidade
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 147, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown that postpartum negative life events and neuroticism are both important risk factors for PPD. However, few studies have considered the role of protective factors in the influence of postpartum negative life events and neuroticism on PPD. Based on the diathesis-stress model and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a moderated mediating model was established to examine the mediating role of neuroticism between postpartum negative life events and PPD, as well as the moderating role of psychological flexibility in this mediating effect. METHODS: A sample of 776 parturients from three different Grade A hospitals in China were assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, the Postpartum Negative Life Events Scale, the Neuroticism Subscale of the Big Five Personality Scale, and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire- II. RESULTS: PPD, postpartum negative life events, neuroticism, and experiential avoidance were significantly positively correlated with one another. Neuroticism partially mediated the relationship between postpartum negative life events and PPD. In this mediation model, the direct path and the second half of the mediation path were moderated by psychological flexibility. Specifically, the links between postpartum negative life events and PPD, as well as between neuroticism and PPD, were stronger when psychological flexibility was low, but weaker when psychological flexibility was high. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that psychological flexibility plays an important role in buffering the negative effects of postpartum negative life events and neuroticism on PPD. These findings provide implications for the prevention and intervention of PPD using an ACT approach.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Depressão Pós-Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Neuroticismo , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Personalidade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(2): 78-84, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study follows the question if psychotherapists with lived experiences of crisis and treatment address these experiences during their processes of self-experience. Further, the conceptual differentiation between self-experience and psychotherapy of this group of staff is explored. METHODS: 108 professionals with psychotherapeutic qualification were surveyed on their training self-experience. Relationships between processing of crisis experiences, crises frequency, and experienced benefit were analyzed using correlation analyses. Conceptual differences between self-experience and psychotherapy were gauged via nine content categories whose importance for self-experience and psychotherapy were rated by the participants. The means of these ratings were compared via t-test. RESULTS: Most participants reported that they had used their self-experience to process lived crisis experiences, and that they benefited from their self-experience, with processing and benefit being correlated significantly and positively. Conceptual differentiation of the two formats appeared to be complex. Participants ascribed biographical and personal categories rather to psychotherapy, and professional categories to self-experience. DISCUSSION: Given the prevalence of stigmatization towards individuals with mental health problems, it was surprising that most of the participants were able to address and process their lived experiences during their self-experience. It was surprising too that personal factors were ascribed to psychotherapy rather than self-experience, as the major importance of the therapeutic relationship and, by extension, personality development is well-known. CONCLUSION: Training self-experience should be a stigma-free setting, where future therapists are able to address their biographical burdens freely and thereby develop their personalities.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Berlim , Psicoterapia/educação , Psicoterapeutas , Personalidade
19.
J Pers Disord ; 38(1): 34-52, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324246

RESUMO

Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterized by recurrent reactive aggression. IED is associated with significant personality pathology that is suggestive of higher levels of general personality disorder (PD). However, little is known about how personality factors impact the severity and presentation of IED. The present study employed a latent class analysis to assess for distinct PD symptom classes within IED and to evaluate whether these classes differed in terms of severity and behavioral presentation. Statistical and clinical indicators revealed a four-class model, with latent classes distinguished primarily on general levels of PD symptoms (low, moderate, high). However, the two moderate PD symptom classes were distinguished from other classes on avoidant PD. In addition, classes differed in terms of severity and presentation, suggesting important implications for both general PD and avoidant PD comorbidity within IED. Results provide further insight into the heterogeneity within IED and suggest a more nuanced approach in treating this serious condition.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Personalidade , Agressão
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(2): 797-804, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the world. Based on the risk factors for colorectal cancer (behavior, lifestyle), it is important to better understand the behavioral and psychological characteristics of the individual associated with timely seeking medical help, coping with the extreme situation of diagnosis, and the course of the disease. This determined the purpose of the study: identify the psychological characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer associated with the stage of diagnosis verification and the prognosis of disease outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Coping, quality of life, and resilience, as well as clinical and sociodemographic variables were studied in 72 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The design of the study involved studying the relationship between the stage of cancer and the prognosis of the outcome of the disease, as well as the role of psychological variables in the timeliness of diagnosis and predicting the outcome of cancer. RESULTS: The stage of verification of colorectal cancer is associated with the prognosis of the outcome of the cancer; the later colorectal cancer is verified, the more unfavorable the prognosis of the outcome of the oncological disease. Escape-avoidance coping is associated with the verification stage of colorectal cancer; pronounced avoidance is associated with the late verification stage. Coping strategies such as seeking social support, positive reappraisal, risk-taking, pain intensity, and role functioning significantly influence the prognosis of colorectal cancer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological characteristics of the personality of patients with colorectal cancer have been identified, which, by determining the behavior of patients, affect the timeliness of diagnosis verification and the prognosis of the outcome of the disease.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Personalidade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico
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