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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-5, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213890

RESUMO

Background/Objectives: Several studies have shown that personality traits are a benchmark in research field of bullying prevention, while others have highlighted that the socio-emotional skills are important to prevent a wide range of maladjusted behaviors, suggesting that the investment in their developing may mediate the effects of personality dispositions. The present study aims to clarify if socio-emotional attitudes can mediate the relationships between personality traits and bullying. Methods: Five sequential mediation models are tested using the Big Five personality traits as focal predictors, bullying as the outcome, and trait emotional intelligence and empathy as causally chained mediators, involving 199 primary school children (8-10 years) through the Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire, the Big Five Questionnaire for children, the Emotional Intelligence Index and the Empathy-Teen Conflict Survey. Results: Data showed that openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were inversely related to bullying, and that the causal chain of TEI-empathy negatively and completely mediated the relationship between emotional instability and bullying and negatively and partially mediated the relationship between openness and bullying. Conclusions: These results suggest that TEI and empathy mediate the relationship between personality traits and bullying, reducing the risk of being involved in bullying perpetration. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Personalidade , Bullying , Inteligência Emocional , Empatia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Infantil
2.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 71-94, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723418

RESUMO

The triarchic model of psychopathy emphasizes the role of three phenotypic personality domains (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) that have been operationalized using the well-established Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The present study sought to further validate the MPQ-Tri scales and examine their temporal stability and predictive validity across two time points (ages 18 and 26) from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative and longitudinal sample (N = 1,037). This investigation necessitated modification of the MPQ-Tri scales to enable their use in a broader range of samples, including the Dunedin Study. The revised MPQ-Tri scales demonstrated good temporal stability, and correlation and multiple linear regression analyses predominantly revealed associations consistent with theoretical expectations. Overall, the findings provide support for the MPQ-Tri scales as reliable, stable, and valid measures of the triarchic constructs, which provide a unique opportunity to examine highly novel research questions concerning psychopathy in a wide variety of samples.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 1-15, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723421

RESUMO

Experts in personality disorders (PDs) generally prefer dimensional diagnostic systems to categorical ones, but less is known about experts' attitudes toward personality pathology diagnoses in adolescents, and little is known about public health shortfalls and advocacy needs and how these might differ geographically. To fill these gaps, the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders surveyed 248 professionals with interests in PDs about their attitudes toward different diagnostic systems for adults and adolescents, their PD-related clinical practices, and perceived advocacy needs in their area. Results suggested that dimensional diagnostic systems are preferable to categorical and that skepticism about personality pathology in adolescents may not be warranted. The most pressing advocacy need was the increased availability of PD-related services, but many other needs were identified. Results provide a blueprint for advocacy and suggest ways that professional societies can collaborate with public health bodies to expand the reach of PD expertise and services.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
4.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 112-129, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723419

RESUMO

Whether complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnoses differ substantially enough to warrant separate diagnostic classifications has been a subject of controversy for years. To contribute to the nomological network of cumulative evidence, the main goal of the present study was to explore, using network analysis, how the symptoms of ICD-11 PTSD and disturbances in self-organization (DSO) are interconnected with BPD in a clinical sample of polytraumatized individuals (N = 330). Participants completed measures of life events, CPTSD, and BPD. Overall, our study suggests that BPD and CPTSD are largely separated. The bridges between BPD and CPTSD symptom clusters were scarce, with "Affective Dysregulation" items being the only items related to BPD. The present study contributes to the growing literature on discriminant validity of CPTSD and supports its distinctiveness from BPD. Implications for treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Personalidade , Síndrome
5.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 36-48, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723422

RESUMO

In Kernerg's Object Relations Theory model of personality pathology, splitting, the mutual polarization of aspects of experience, is thought to result in a failure of identity integration. The authors sought to identify a clinician-independent, automated measure of splitting by examining 54 subjects' natural speech. Splitting in these individuals, recruited from the community, was investigated and evaluated with a shortened version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO-R). A type of automated sentiment textual analysis called VADER was applied to transcripts from the section of the STIPO-R that probes identity integration. Higher variability in speech valence, more negative minimum valence, and more frequent shifts in valence polarity were associated with more severe identity disturbance. The authors concluded that the degree of splitting elicited during the description of self and others is related to the degree of identity disturbance, and to the degree of negativity and instability of these descriptions of self and others.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Análise de Sentimentos , Humanos , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade
6.
J Pers Disord ; 37(1): 49-70, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723423

RESUMO

Given growing evidence for a joint hierarchical framework of clinical and personality symptomatology, situating triarchic traits within this model would acknowledge transdiagnostic trait-related variance and provide a basis for linking the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) domains to established indicators of these neurobehavioral traits. The current study (N = 2,041 Italian adults) sought to replicate and extend recent evidence regarding the locations of triarchic traits within the AMPD and to examine relations with criterion measures at different levels of the hierarchy. "Bass-ackwards" analyses revealed a hierarchical structure of personality pathology in which triarchic traits aligned with broad dispositional domains of the AMPD. Boldness, meanness, and disinhibition were clearly situated within the Externalizing branch of the hierarchy and helped to differentiate the Negative Affect, Antagonism, Detachment, and Disinhibition domains at lower levels. The current findings support the view of psychopathy as multidimensional and encompassing developmentally meaningful and neurobehaviorally relevant traits.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Adulto , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
7.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280563, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662893

RESUMO

In this paper, we aimed at developing and validating a novel instrument to evaluate personality in 10-14 years old adolescents with six basic traits, with two dedicated studies. In Study 1, we generated a large pool of items (384 items) from three basic items sources, which we administered to 714 Italian adolescents. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and extension factor analysis, we selected the best eight items for each facet, and so the best 32 items for each factor, except for the Unconventionality facet of Openness to Experience (O) for which we selected the best six items. This resulted in a total of 190 items. The 190-item HEXACO-MSI had very good levels of dimensional validity and reliability, but it fell short in containing 8 items for each facet (i.e., for Unconventionality) and in balancing normal and reversed items within each facet. Therefore, in a second study we added items to the scale and verified again the dimensionality and reliability with the goal of developing a final version of the scale. In Study 2, we administered a version of the HEXACO-MSI consisting of 219 items to 1175 Italian adolescents. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we selected the best eight items for each facet equally balanced between normal and reversed items within each facet and factor. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the six-factor structure and its invariance. The results showed that the HEXACO-MSI-E had a clear six-factor structure in adolescents, that was invariant across gender and across the three middle school classes, and was reliable. Finally, we established temporal stability of each factor in two measurements after one year. Together with the positive results of this contribution, we discussed some aspects for future studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inventário de Personalidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Psicometria
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279985, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652408

RESUMO

The current empirical evidence regarding the effects of personality on physical attractiveness is limited to adult faces. In two preregistered studies, we demonstrated that personality descriptions influenced perceived cuteness, warmth, competence of young children, and female adults' nurturing motivation toward them. Study 1 showed that participants rated children accompanied by positive personality descriptions as cuter, friendlier, and more intelligent than their initial ratings. Negative personality descriptions reduced perceived cuteness in children, which in turn reduced nurturing motivation. Study 2 showed that negative personality descriptions consistently reduced perceived cuteness and warmth ratings after manipulation, regardless of the initial level of perceived cuteness. After one week, cuteness and warmth ratings in the positive personality condition tended to return to their initial ratings. However, the effect of negative personality descriptions on cuteness ratings persisted for all children. Together, our findings suggest that female adults' perception of cuteness and nurturing motivation are induced not only by children's appearance but also their personality.


Assuntos
Motivação , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Face , Inteligência , Personalidade
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280462, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638104

RESUMO

Studying can be very stressful leading to a decreased academic efficacy. In this exploratory longitudinal study, we analysed a wide range of students' leisure activities and their effects on students' academic efficacy. Further, we identified the personality types of students who choose specific leisure activities as a strategy to stress reduction and determined how the use of leisure behaviours affects academic performance among students with different personality types. Students were asked about their personality (Neo-FFI), leisure time behaviour (self-generated items), and academic efficacy (MBI-SS) at three measurement points. Multivariate regression analyses were applied to estimate the moderation effects. In total, 331 students were included in the study. Social activities were found to have a direct effect on academic efficacy. The students' personality moderated the effects of leisure behaviour on efficacy, suggesting a negative effect on academic efficacy for some personality traits. Since our results suggest that the effectiveness of stress management through the use of leisure behaviour depends on the students' personality, universities offering stress management services should pay attention to precise targeting to attract the specific students who might benefit the most from the offered services.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Atividades de Lazer
10.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 7, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624541

RESUMO

The manuscript is based on the dispositional approach of employability, dispositional personality trait theories (dark triad, light triad, HEXACO honesty-humility), and reinforcement sensitivity theory. The facet-focused analysis allowed a more targeted interpretation of the results about the contribution of dark/light personalities and self-regulation for employability and a deeper understanding of practical implications. We analyzed the mediating effect of the behavioral activating system (BAS drive) on antisocial and prosocial traits in predicting employability. The convenient research sample consisted of 343 students. Participants completed: The short dark triad, light triad, honesty-humility, dispositional employability, and BIS/BAS. Dark traits explained 17.5% of work/career resilience, 12% of work identity, 6.4% of career motivation, and 6.6% of openness to changes at work. Narcissism explained 20% of work/career resilience. Prosocial traits explained 19.7% of work/career resilience, 16.8% of work identity, 11.8% of career motivation, and 5.3% of openness to changes at work. Modesty explained 10% of career motivation variance. BAS drive mediates predictions of employability by prosocial and antisocial traits. Demanding attention from others and focusing on making a good impression are effective tools for employability. Prosocial traits significant for BAS drive-activated participants (believing in the goodness of people and avoiding fraud and corruption) can be supported in organizations by providing career growth opportunities.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Autocontrole , Humanos , Motivação , Narcisismo , Reforço Psicológico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280003, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626372

RESUMO

Employee creativity is important for TV companies because it can improve organizational performance and increase success and survival based on the ability to create innovations. In response to this, field reporters who work for TV companies also need high creativity in facing the challenges of their work and in creating innovations. This research aims to test the roles of perceived organizational support, proactive personality, the meaning of work, and work engagement in affecting employee creativity. The total numbers of respondents were 119 selected from 14 private television companies in Indonesia. The method in this study is a quantitative approach using the Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis tool with the SmartPls 3.0 application. Most of the hypotheses of this study show significant results. However, there is one finding that a proactive personality is not able to strengthen employee creativity. This indicates that employees' behavior at work is sometimes different from the personality. This study is the first to look at news reporters' employee creativity using the suggested model. As a result, organizations can use the study's findings as a starting point to determine the best strategy for fostering creativity within their workforce.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Personalidade , Humanos , Indústrias , Engajamento no Trabalho , Transtornos da Personalidade
12.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 15(1): 43-52, enero 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214648

RESUMO

Background: Child-to-parent violence is a family issue that needs a systemic and integral approach for its evaluation. The main objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the moderating effects of adolescents’ borderline personality and psychopathic traits (grandiose-manipulative, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions) in the predictive association between inadequate parental strategies (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, and ignoring misbehavior) and child-to-parent violence. Sex differences were analyzed. Method: The community sample comprised 671 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years old (Mage = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% girls, 47.7% boys, and 1.5% non-binary), assessed twice, six months apart from each other. Results: Results showed slightly different patterns of violence towards fathers and mothers – ignoring misbehavior predicted aggression toward mothers, while psychological aggression predicted aggression toward fathers. Moderation analyses showed that the predictive association from ignoring misbehavior to both child-to-father violence (CFV) and child-to-mother violence (CMV) was only significant for adolescents who were high in the psychopathic trait of callous-unemotional, and the predictive association from psychological aggression to CFV was only significant in those adolescents who scored low in the borderline personality trait. Some sex specificities emerged. Conclusions: These findings support the relevance of working on parents’ discipline strategies and add the need to work on adolescents’ emotional regulation to prevent or deal with child-to-parent violence. (AU)


Antecedentes: La violencia filioparental (VFP) es una problemática familiar cuya evaluación requiere una perspectiva sistémica e integral. El objetivo principal de este estudio longitudinal fue evaluar los efectos moderadores de los rasgos límite y psicopáticos (dimensiones grandiosa-manipulativa, fría-insensible e impulsiva-irresponsable) en adolescentes en la relación predictiva entre estrategias inadecuadas parentales (agresión psicológica, castigo físico e ignorar el mal comportamiento) y la VFP. Se analizaron diferencias por sexo de los adolescentes. Método: La muestra comunitaria estuvo compuesta por 671 adolescentes, de edades comprendidas entre 12 y 17 años (Medad = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% chicas, 47.7% chicos y 1.5% no binarios), evaluadas en dos momentos con seis meses de diferencia. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron patrones ligeramente diferentes en la violencia hacia padres y madres: ignorar el mal comportamiento predijo la violencia hacia los madres, mientras que la agresión psicológica predijo la la violencia hacia los padres. Los análisis de moderación mostraron que la asociación predictiva entre ignorar el mal comportamiento y la violencia hacia ambos progenitores era significativa solo en adolescentes con rasgos elevados de frialdad emocional y que la relación predictiva entre agresión psicológica y violencia hacia el padre fue significativa solamente en adolescentes con bajos niveles de rasgos límite. Se observaron algunas especificidades según el sexo de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Estos resultados abundan en la importancia de trabajar en las estrategias de disciplina parentales y en la regulación emocional de los adolescentes en la prevención de la VFP o en su intervención. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica , Personalidade , Adolescente , Comportamento
13.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 21-37, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214807

RESUMO

La ira en el deporte parece ser, aparentemente, una característica intrínseca en el desarrollo de este, sobre todo cuando es la competición la que marca el contexto en el que se desarrolla. Se inicia así, un trabajo de revisión sistemática cuyo objetivo fue conocer el estudio de la ira en deportistas y su relación con variables de personalidad, que pudiesen estar en el origen de aquella o que en cierta medida pudiesen explicar comportamientos violentos. En primer lugar, se seleccionaron las palabras clave (ira, personalidad y deporte) y a continuación se buscaron y seleccionaron en las bases de datos “Web of Science”, “SCOPUS”, “Dialnet”, PsycInfo”, “Psicodoc”, “PubMed” y “SPORTDiscus” aquellos artículos que tuvieran relación con esa temática, obteniendo tras la depuración descrita en el apartado de metodología, un total de 10 artículos, pudiendo señalar como más relevante la conclusión de que, entre otras, existe una estrecha relación entre determinados patrones de personalidad y comportamientos agresivos en el contexto deportivo. A partir de ahí se han discutido las principales aportaciones que han realizado los investigadores pudiendo establecer, como futuras líneas de investigación y aplicación práctica, la utilización de muestra femenina con el fin de generalizar a la totalidad de la población, la creación de cuestionarios estándar que midan las variables de la misma forma y, sobre todo, la instauración de programas de gestión emocional para controlar esos patrones desadaptativos. (AU)


Anger in sport seems to be, apparently, an intrinsic characteristic in the development of sport, especially when it is the competition that marks the context in which it develops. I began a systematic review of the study of anger in athletes and its relationship with personality variables, which could be at the origin of this explain violent behavior. The procedure we followed was firstly, selection of the key words (anger, personality and sport) and then we searched and selected in the databases "Web of Science", "SCOPUS", "Dialnet", "PsycInfo", "Psicodoc", "PubMed" and "SPORTDiscus" those articles that were related to this topic. After thefiltering described in the methodology section, a total of 10 articles were obtained. The most relevant conclusion was that there is a close relationship between certain personality patterns and aggressive and/or unsportsmanlike behavior in the sports context. The main contributions made by the researchers have been establishing as future lines of research and practical application the use of a female sample to be able to generalize to the whole population, the creation of standard questionnaires that measure the variables in the same way and, above all, the creation of emotional management programs to control these maladaptive patterns. (AU)


A raiva no desporto parece ser, aparentemente, uma característica intrínseca no desenvolvimento do desporto, especialmente quando é a competição que marca o contexto em que este se desenvolve. Assim, eu comencei uma revisão sistemática do estudo da raiva nos atletas e da sua relação com as variáveis de personalidade que poderiam estar na origem da mesma ou que, até certo ponto, poderiam explicar comportamentos violentos. Primeiro, foram selecionadas as palavras-chave (raiva, personalidade e desporto) e depois as bases de dados "Web of Science", "SCOPUS", "Dialnet", "PsycInfo", "Psicodoc", "PubMed" e "SPORTDiscus" foram pesquisadas e selecionadas para os artigos relacionados com este assunto, Após a filtragem descrita na secção de metodologia, foi obtido um total de 10 artigos, sendo a conclusão mais relevante que, entre outros, existe uma relação estreita entre certos padrões de personalidade e comportamentos agressivos no contexto desportivo. A partir daí, foram discutidas as principais contribuições feitas pelos investigadores, estabelecendo como linhas futuras de investigação e aplicação prática a utilização de uma amostra feminina a fim de generalizar a toda a população, a criação de questionários padrão que medem as variáveis da mesma forma e, sobretudo, o estabelecimento de programas de gestão emocional para controlar estes padrões maladaptados. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia do Esporte , Ira , Personalidade , Comportamento
14.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678289

RESUMO

Gambling Disorder (GD) has a complex etiology that involves biological and environmental aspects. From a genetic perspective, neurotrophic factors (NTFs) polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of developing GD. The aim of this study was to assess the underlying mechanisms implicated in GD severity by considering the direct and mediational relationship between different variables including genetic, psychological, socio-demographic, and clinical factors. To do so, we used genetic variants that were significantly associated with an increased risk for GD and evaluated its relationship with GD severity through pathway analysis. We found that the interaction between these genetic variants and other different biopsychological features predicted a higher severity of GD. On the one hand, the presence of haplotype block 2, interrelated with haplotype block 3, was linked to a more dysfunctional personality profile and a worse psychopathological state, which, in turn, had a direct link with GD severity. On the other hand, having rs3763614 predicted higher general psychopathology and therefore, higher GD severity. The current study described the presence of complex interactions between biopsychosocial variables previously associated with the etiopathogenesis and severity of GD, while also supporting the involvement of genetic variants from the NTF family.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/genética , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Personalidade/genética , Psicopatologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 57, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of care and access to effective interventions have been widely criticised as limited for people diagnosed with 'personality disorder' or who have comparable needs (described in some recent papers as "Complex Emotional Needs" (CEN). It is important to identify effective interventions and the optimal context and mode of delivery for people with CEN. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions delivered in community and outpatient settings in treating symptoms associated with 'personality disorder', and the moderating effects of treatment-related variables. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA for articles published in English, from inception to November 23, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials examining interventions provided in community or outpatient settings for CEN. The primary outcome was 'personality disorder' symptoms, while secondary outcomes included anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and global psychiatric symptoms. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for each outcome, and meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the moderating effects of treatment characteristics. The quality of the studies and the degree of publication bias was assessed. RESULTS: We included 54 trials (n = 3716 participants) in the meta-analysis. We found a large effect size (g = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.01, p < 0.0001) favoring interventions for 'borderline personality disorder' (BPD) symptoms over Treatment as Usual or Waitlist (TAU/WL), and the efficacy was maintained at follow-up (g = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.37 to 1.65, p = 0.002). Interventions effectively reduced anxiety symptoms (g = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.95, p = 0.002), depressive symptoms (g = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.83, p < 0.0001), and global psychiatric symptoms (g = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.66, p < 0.0001) compared to TAU/WL. The intervention types were equally effective in treating all symptom categories assessed. Treatment duration and treatment intensity did not moderate the effectiveness of the interventions for any outcome. CONCLUSIONS: People with a 'personality disorder' diagnosis benefited from psychological and psychosocial interventions delivered in community or outpatient settings, with all therapeutic approaches showing similar effectiveness. Mental health services should provide people with CEN with specialised treatments in accordance with the availability and the patients' preferences.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Ansiedade/terapia , Personalidade
16.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 18, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residual depression can cause functional impairment. This study aimed to assess personality traits among individuals with depression, to compare the results with personality traits found in outpatients without psychiatric disorders recruited from general practitioner settings, and to study the association between personality traits and the age-onset of depression, duration of treatment, and the presence of depressive residual symptoms. METHODS: A case-control study surveyed Thai individuals with depression and outpatients without psychiatric disorders recruited from general practitioner settings at an outpatient clinic of Songklanagarind hospital, in 2022. The questionnaires were: (1) demographic data, (2) the PHQ-9 Thai version, and (3) the International Personality Item Pool-NEO (IPIP-NEO) Thai version. The difference between personality traits and the assigned clinical group were analyzed using the Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A generalized linear model was performed to examine differences of personality traits between the assigned clinical group (case-control), and the presence of depressive residual symptoms. The association between personality traits and treatment profiles was assessed by using an analysis of the variance test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: In regards to 73 individuals with depression in the case group, and 73 gender-and age-matched outpatients without psychiatric disorders recruited from general practitioner settings in the control group; 78.1% of cases and 82.2% of controls were female. Thirty-eight (52.1%) cases had depressive residual symptoms. Regarding the IPIP-NEO Thai version, there was a statistically significant difference in Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness domains between the case and the control groups. In comparison to the control group, the case group scored higher on the Neuroticism domain, and lower on the Extraversion and Conscientiousness domains. Every 0.18-point reduction in the Neuroticism score and every 0.09-point increment in regards to the Openness score were associated with a 1-year increment of age-onset of depression. This study found an association between a higher score of Neuroticism and a lower score of Conscientiousness with the presence of depressive residual symptoms. CONCLUSION: Different personality profiles were found between individuals with depression and outpatients without psychiatric disorders recruited from general practitioner settings. Individuals with depressive residual symptoms featured a higher score of Neuroticism and a lower score of Conscientiousness. A higher score of Neuroticism and a lower score of Openness were associated with age-onset of depression, but no personality traits were associated with treatment duration.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Neuroticismo , Inventário de Personalidade
17.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615900

RESUMO

There is rising concern about population mental health. Personality and mental health traits manifest early. Sufficient nutrition is fundamental to early development. However, little is known about early life dietary impact on later mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of exposure to a healthy and sustainable antenatal and early childhood diet with personality traits and symptoms of depression and anxiety measured at 8 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and uses data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) including 40,566 participants. Mental health measures and personality traits were assessed at 8 years. Dietary data from pregnancy, child age 6 and 18 months and 3 and 7 years were used. With few exceptions, inverse associations were observed between healthier diet at all time points and depression and anxiety symptom scores at age 8. We found positive associations between diet scores at almost all time points and extraversion, benevolence, conscientiousness and imagination. Inverse associations were observed between diet scores and neuroticism. Combined, these findings underpin a probable impact of both maternal pregnancy diet and early childhood diet on several aspects of child mental health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Mães , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Gravidez , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Mães/psicologia , Dieta , Personalidade , Pai , Noruega/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613142

RESUMO

Unsafe behaviors, such as violations and human errors, have long been recognized as the main causes of accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs). However, personal factors that influence unsafe behaviors among NPP workers have not been well examined, especially in an integrated model. This study proposes an integrated contextual mediated model to examine personality, cognitive and attitudinal predictors of unsafe behaviors among commissioning workers at NPPs. The model was verified using structural equation modeling technique with survey data from 177 commissioning workers in two Chinese NPPs. Results show that personality traits (i.e., conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness and agreeableness), executive function and safety attitudes exerted significant effects on unsafe behaviors. In addition, the effects of agreeableness and executive function were partly mediated by safety attitudes. Both conscientiousness and neuroticism indirectly influenced unsafe behaviors through the mediating role of executive function. The findings shed light on the design of evidence-based interventions for safety performance in NPPs.


Assuntos
Centrais Nucleares , Personalidade , Humanos , Cognição , Transtornos da Personalidade
19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 18(1): 9, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631837

RESUMO

Although neurological manifestations and changes in brain volumes have been described in Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), it remains unknown whether ECD may be associated with psychiatric symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. We assessed the presence of psychiatric disorders, changes in temperaments and characters, and neuropsychological performances in 32 ECD patients (mean age = 59) younger than 70, not treated with interferon alpha during the last 6 months, and without other serious illnesses. ECD patients exhibited high level of past depressive disorder (80%) and anxiety disorder, especially agoraphobia (29%). They revealed personality changes, especially with high agreeableness (t = 3.18, p < 0.005) and high conscientiousness (t = 3.81, p < 0.001). Neuropsychological assessments showed impairments in attention (GZ: t = 16.12, p < 0.0001, KL: t = 37.01, p < 0.0001) and episodic memory performances (STIR: t = - 3.01, p = 0.006, LTFR: t = - 2.87, p = 0.008, LTIR: t = - 3.63, p = 0.001). Executive functions, such as flexibility, inhibitory control, were unimpaired. Although it remains to be clarified whether these psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairments may impact the daily functioning and the quality of life, the present study highlights the need to consider cognitive and emotional states in ECD management.


Assuntos
Doença de Erdheim-Chester , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Interferon-alfa , Personalidade
20.
Addict Behav ; 139: 107603, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608593

RESUMO

Social networking sites are widespread worldwide, and Facebook is the leading platform in terms of the number of users, laying the ground for potential problematic use. However, problematic Facebook use does not occur for most users but only for a minority. Previous research has found an association between the Big-five personality traits and problematic Facebook use, but the direction of these associations remains controversial. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge through a systematic review and meta-analysis comprising 425 effect-sizes (78 studies) and 39,930 individuals (females = 33 % to 89 %; age range = 17 to 48 years). Extraversion and neuroticism were associated with higher daily and weekly hours spent on Facebook, while conscientiousness was negatively associated with higher daily hours and not weekly hours. However, when time spent on Facebook was assessed by validated questionnaires, different patterns of associations were observed. Except for the non-significant role of extraversion, the other personality traits were negatively associated with problematic Facebook use, while neuroticism was positively associated. When using different assessment tools was considered, extraversion remained non-significant, but different association patterns were observed. Moreover, for compensatory Facebook use, all personality traits were negatively associated with it, whereas neuroticism exhibited a positive association. Different patterns of associations in terms of strength and direction were observed depending on samples and measures characteristics; thus, definitive conclusions on the direction of the associations are impossible to draw at present. A more robust conceptualization and assessment of problematic Facebook use, as well as time spent on it, is required. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Mídias Sociais , Feminino , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Rede Social
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