Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 39.219
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303379, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728293

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aim of the present study was to assess personality and psychopathological characteristics in patients with functional movement disorders (FMDs) compared to patients with other neurological disorders (OND). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients affected by clinically established FMDs and OND who attended the Neurologic Unit of the University-Hospital "Policlinico-San Marco" of Catania from the 1st of December 2021 to the 1st of June 2023 were enrolled. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Rorschach test coded according to Exner's comprehensive system and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-II). RESULTS: Thirty-one patients with FMDs (27 women; age 40.2±15.5 years; education 11.7±3.2 years; disease duration 2.3±2.5 years) and 24 patients affected by OND (18 women; age 35.8±16.3 years; education 11.9±2.9 years; disease duration 3.4±2.8 years) were enrolled. At the Rorschach, FMDs presented a significantly higher frequency of Popular (P) and sum of all Human content codes (SumH>5) responses and avoidant coping than OND. CONCLUSION: FMDs presented "conformity behaviors", excessive interest in others than usual a maladaptive avoidant style of coping and a difficulty in verbalizing emotional distress. These psychopathological characteristics may favor the occurrence of FMDs.


Assuntos
Transtornos dos Movimentos , Personalidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos dos Movimentos/psicologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adaptação Psicológica
2.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 49: 67-72, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734457

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the effect of digital games on the creativity of adolescents. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study using simple random sampling following the STROBE checklist. It was conducted with 384 adolescents between January and June 2022. Data were collected using the Digital Game Addiction Scale for Children and the Creative Personality Traits Scale. RESULTS: The adolescents were at risk for digital game addiction and had moderate creativity levels. The adolescents who had a male sex, had mothers who received primary education, started playing digital games before the age of 6 years, were using the internet for >5 h a day, had no activity other than playing digital games, and preferred action, adventure, and fighting games had higher digital game addiction levels than the other adolescents. In addition, the male adolescents had higher creativity levels than the female adolescents. There was a significant negative relationship between digital game addiction and creative personality traits among the adolescents. Digital game addiction had a negative effect on creativity. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents are at risk for digital game addiction and have moderate creativity levels. Digital game addiction negatively affects the development of creative personality traits. Interventions should be planned to prevent digital game addiction among adolescents, and adolescents should be guided to increase awareness of the effects of digital games on their creativity.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Personalidade , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia
3.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(5): e13702, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that negative emotions and personality traits are related to psoriasis, though few have provided causal evidence. METHODS: Our analysis utilized 15 genome-wide association study datasets to identify instrumental variables associated with negative emotions, personality traits and psoriasis vulgaris. Two-sample Mendelian randomization was conducted to identify the causal associations of negative emotions and personality traits with psoriasis vulgaris. To mitigate bias from multiple tests, we adjusted p-values using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. RESULTS: Our study revealed causal links between negative emotions and psoriasis vulgaris, including depressed affect, worry too long, feeling hurt, guilty feelings, mood swings, unenthusiasm, miserableness, fed-up feelings. However, there was no significant evidence of a causal relationship between feeling lonely and psoriasis vulgaris. Additionally, personality traits including neuroticism and openness to experience were found to have causal effects on psoriasis vulgaris. However, no significant evidence supported a causal relationship between agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion with psoriasis vulgaris. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that experiencing negative emotions including depressed affect, worrying excessively, feeling hurt, guilty feelings, mood swings, lack of enthusiasm, miserableness and fed-up feelings may pose risks for psoriasis vulgaris. Additionally, neuroticism is associated with a risk of psoriasis vulgaris. Conversely, the openness trait may serve a protective role against psoriasis vulgaris.


Assuntos
Emoções , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Personalidade , Psoríase , Humanos , Psoríase/psicologia , Psoríase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303474, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743742

RESUMO

The previous studies have found an association between Big Five personality traits and postpartum depression in women. The present study aimed to find out an association between Big Five personality traits and postpartum depression in a sample of Pakistani fathers. A total of 400 Pakistani fathers who had birth of a child in the past 1 month to 1 year period and had been living with their married partners were recruited purposively by using Google Form based survey from the major cities of Pakistan. The Urdu translated versions of Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used as the main outcome measures to assess the relationship between personality traits and postpartum depression. The results found a significant negative and moderate association between Big Five personality traits and paternal postpartum depression except openness which had a weak association and neuroticism which had a positive and moderate association with PPPD (r(398) = .45). The multiple linear regression analysis found that Big Five personality traits significantly predicted paternal postpartum depression (F(5, 394) = 53.33, p = .001) except openness (B = .007, p = .98). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in paternal postpartum depression for age of father (F(2, 397) = 6.65, p = .001, ηp2 = .03), spouse age (F(2, 393) = 5.97, p = .003, ηp2 = .02), employment type (F(2, 395) = 9.69, p = .001, ηp2 = .04) and time spent at home (F(2, 397) = 6.23, p = .002, ηp2 = .03) while there were found no significant differences for education (F(2, 397) = 1.29, p = .27, ηp2 = .006), marital duration (F(2, 397) = 2.17, p = .11, ηp2 = .01), and birth number of recent child (F(2, 397) = 1.48, p = .22, ηp2 = .007). The study concluded that Big Five personality traits are significantly correlated with and predict paternal postpartum depression except openness which did not predict paternal postpartum depression. The occurrence of paternal postpartum depression varied significantly for age of father, age of spouse, type of employment and time spent at home.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Pai , Personalidade , Humanos , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Inventário de Personalidade
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10884, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740864

RESUMO

Maladaptive personality traits, such as 'dark personalities' are found to result in a diverse set of negative outcomes, including paraphilic interests and associated (illegal) behaviors. It is however unclear how these are exactly related, and if related, if then only those individuals higher on dark personality traits and higher impulsivity engage in paraphilic behaviors. In the current study, 50 participants were recruited to investigate the relationship between Dark Tetrad personality traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and everyday sadism), paraphilic interests (arousal and behavior) and the moderating role of impulsivity. Personality and paraphilic interests were investigated through self-report questionnaires. Impulsivity was measured both through self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity and the P3 event related potential using electroencephalography during the Go/No-Go task (i.e. response inhibition). The results showed that there was a positive association between psychopathy, sadism and paraphilic interests. Whereas everyday sadism was associated with paraphilic (self-reported) arousal, psychopathy was associated with paraphilic behavior. Although P3 amplitude was not associated with paraphilic interests, self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity was associated with paraphilic behavior specifically. However, there was no moderating role of dysfunctional impulsivity and response inhibition (P3) in the relationship between psychopathy and paraphilic behavior. Findings indicate that the relation between specific dark personalities and paraphilic interests may be more complex than initially thought. Nevertheless, risk assessment and intervention approaches for paraphilia and related behavior both may benefit from incorporating Dark Tetrad and impulsivity measurements.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Sadismo/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato
6.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 267, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to analyze whether the personality factors included in the Big Five model differentially predict the self-regulation and affective states of university students and health. METHODS: A total of 637 students completed validated self-report questionnaires. Using an ex post facto design, we conducted linear regression and structural prediction analyses. RESULTS: The findings showed that model factors were differential predictors of both self-regulation and affective states. Self-regulation and affective states, in turn, jointly predict emotional performance while learning and even student health. These results allow us to understand, through a holistic predictive model, the differential predictive relationships of all the factors: conscientiousness and extraversion were predictors regulating positive emotionality and health; the openness to experience factor was non-regulating; nonregulating; and agreeableness and neuroticism were dysregulating, hence precursors of negative emotionality and poorer student health. CONCLUSIONS: These results are important because they allow us to infer implications for guidance and psychological health at university.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Personalidade , Autocontrole , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
7.
PeerJ ; 12: e17373, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708348

RESUMO

Background: Chronic time pressure represents a prevalent concern within modern society, and effective measurement is crucial for research advancement. The Chronic Time Pressure Inventory (CTPI) has thus far demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. However, only two studies have examined the measure and evidence of its validity is limited. Accordingly, the current investigation, via two independent studies, assessed the factorial composition and validity (convergent/discriminant) of the CTPI. Methods: Study 1 (N = 398) examined competing factorial models and validity in relation to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness). Study 2 (N = 358) replicated the analysis of factor structure and assessed validity in comparison with five time perspectives (Past Negative, Present Fatalistic, Future, Past Positive, Present Hedonistic). Participants across both studies completed standardized self-report measures capturing the variables. Results: Comparison of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) factor solutions indicated that an ESEM bifactor model provided the strongest data-model fit. This included a general chronic time pressure component alongside specific subfactors of Feeling Harried and Cognitive Awareness of Time Shortage. All scale items reflected the general factor; however, some items loaded weakly on the intended specific factor. The CTPI is thus a robust indicator of chronic time pressure but needs refinement as a measure of the specific factors. Convergent/discriminant validity analyses inferred that the CTPI captured chronic time pressure as a related, but distinct, construct to perceived stress, and evidenced a relationship with theoretically associated constructs (Big Five personality traits and time perspective). Overall, the CTPI is a sound measure of chronic time pressure and has the potential to further cohesive research efforts on the contribution of this construct to various life domains.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicometria/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Adulto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Adulto Jovem , Inventário de Personalidade , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Idoso
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10195, 2024 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702496

RESUMO

Interest in psychedelics is increasing due to the potential for improved mental health and quality of life. However, adverse effects on mental health are still a concern. Personality traits have been suggested to both influence the psychedelic experience and mental health, and even be changed by psychedelic use. The present study describes for the first time a national sample of Swedish psychedelic users (n = 400) compared to a sex and age-matched control-group of non-users (n = 400) regarding mental health variables (depression, insomnia, problematic alcohol and drug use, and dissociation) and personality (Big Five). Data was collected in an online survey including individuals from 16 years of age who had at least one psychedelic experience. The main results reported psychedelic users as less depressed (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9) (d = - 0.29) and having more use of drugs (Drug Use Disorders Identification Test; DUDIT) (d = 1.27). In the Big Five personality traits, openness differed notably (d = 1.72), and the between-group effects in PHQ-9 were explained by lower neuroticism. Our findings reveal that psychedelic users report less depression and higher drug use, and this is partly due to personality traits. These results have implications on how we view psychedelic users and the use of psychedelic drugs.


Assuntos
Depressão , Alucinógenos , Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Personalidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Suécia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde Mental
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10261, 2024 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704441

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested behavioral patterns, such as visual attention and eye movements, relate to individual personality traits. However, these studies mainly focused on free visual tasks, and the impact of visual field restriction remains inadequately understood. The primary objective of this study is to elucidate the patterns of conscious eye movements induced by visual field restriction and to examine how these patterns relate to individual personality traits. Building on previous research, we aim to gain new insights through two behavioral experiments, unraveling the intricate relationship between visual behaviors and individual personality traits. As a result, both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 revealed differences in eye movements during free observation and visual field restriction. Particularly, simulation results based on the analyzed data showed clear distinctions in eye movements between free observation and visual field restriction conditions. This suggests that eye movements during free observation involve a mixture of conscious and unconscious eye movements. Furthermore, we observed significant correlations between conscious eye movements and personality traits, with more pronounced effects in the visual field restriction condition used in Experiment 2 compared to Experiment 1. These analytical findings provide a novel perspective on human cognitive processes through visual perception.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Personalidade , Campos Visuais , Humanos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302429, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696501

RESUMO

Personality questionnaires stand as crucial instruments in personnel selection but their limitations turn the interest towards alternatives like game-related assessments (GRAs). GRAs developed for goals other than fun are called serious games. Within them, gamified assessments are serious games that share similarities with traditional assessments (questionnaires, situational judgment tests, etc.) but they incorporate game elements like story, music, and game dynamics. This paper aims to contribute to the research on serious games as an alternative to traditional personality questionnaires by analyzing the characteristics of a gamified assessment called VASSIP. This gamified assessment, based on an existing measure of the Big Five personality traits, incorporates game elements such as storyfication, immersion, and non-evaluable gamified dynamics. The study performed included 98 university students (77.6% with job experience) as participants. They completed the original personality measure (BFI-2-S), the gamified evaluation of personality (VASSIP), a self-report measure of the main dimensions of job performance (task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behaviors), and measures of applicant reactions to BFI-2-S and VASSIP. Results showed that the gamified assessment behaved similarly to the original personality measure in terms of reliability and participants' scores, although the scores in Conscientiousness were substantially higher in VASSIP. Focusing on self-reports of the three dimensions of job performance, regression models showed that the gamified assessment could explain all of them. Regarding applicant reactions, the gamified assessment obtained higher scores in perceptions of comfort, predictive validity, and attractiveness, although the effect size was small except for the latter. Finally, all applicant reactions except for attractiveness were related to age and personality traits. In conclusion, gamified assessments have the potential to be an alternative to traditional personality questionnaires but VASSIP needs more research before its application in actual selection processes.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
PeerJ ; 12: e17145, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699191

RESUMO

Background: Suggestibility is a personality trait that reflects a general tendency to accept messages. The Multidimensional Iowa Suggestibility Scale (MISS) is a self-report scale developed to measure the degree of individuals' perceptions of their suggestibility. This study aimed to adapt the MISS in an Italian sample. Methods: We conducted two studies. In the first study, 345 subjects (270 females (78%), mean age = 36.21 years ± 14.06 SD) completed the translated Italian version of the MISS, composed of five subscales (consumer suggestibility; persuadability; sensation contagion; physiological reactivity; peer conformity). We investigated the structural validity of the scale through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) testing four measurement models (unidimensional, four-factor, hierarchical four factors, and bifactor) and explored reliability in terms of internal consistency through the McDonald's omega. In the second study, we cross-validated the MISS on a new independent sample. We enrolled 277 participants (196 females (71%), mean age 30.56, SD = 12.58) who underwent the new version of the scale. We performed factor analyses to test structural validity and compared four measurement models. Then, we investigated reliability and conducted a latent variable analysis to explore divergent validity. Results: The CFA in the first study revealed a bifactor solution of the MISS. This structure was interpretable and provided an adequate fit for the data. The final version of the scale was reduced to forty-six items with globally good indices of adaptation. The scale also demonstrated acceptable reliability in terms of internal consistency through the McDonald's Hierarchical Omega. In the second study, we found that the bifactor structure was confirmed. Factor loadings inspection revealed that there was no justification to report only the separate scores for the subscales. We also found that the scale showed good internal consistency, but mixed evidence for divergent validity. Conclusions: In the end, the Italian version of the MISS demonstrated good psychometric properties which will be discussed in detail below.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Itália , Adulto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Sugestão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1294, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few longitudinal studies on Chinese bus drivers and the individual differences in the relationships between organizational justice and job satisfaction. This study examined the organizational justice and job satisfaction in bus drivers and the individual differences in this relationship. METHODS: A two-wave longitudinal study design was employed. A first survey was conducted on 513 Chinese bus drivers in October 2021 that collected socio-demographic information and asked about their perceptions of organizational fairness. A second survey was conducted six months later that asked about role overload and job satisfaction and assessed their proactive personality type. An effect model was then used to explore the moderating effects of role overload and proactive personality type on the relationships between organizational justice and job satisfaction. RESULTS: Both procedural and interactive justice predicted the bus drivers' job satisfaction. Proactive personalities and role overload were found to enhance this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Organizations could benefit from screening at the recruitment stage for drivers with highly proactive personalities. Relevant training for drivers with low proactive personalities could partially improve employee job satisfaction. When viewed from a Chinese collectivist cultural frame, role overload could reflect trust and a sense of belonging, which could enhance job satisfaction. Finally, to improve employee job satisfaction, organizations need to ensure procedural and interactive justice.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Cultura Organizacional , Personalidade , Justiça Social , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , China , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Appl Nurs Res ; 76: 151781, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working in the perioperative context is complex and challenging. The continual evaluation in this environment underscores the need for adaptability to technological advancements, and requires substantial allocation of resources for training and education. This study aimed to explore personality characteristics of nurse anesthetists and surgical nurses that are instrumental for sustainable employability in technologically advanced environment. METHODS: Exploratory, cross-sectional survey study including nurse anesthetists and surgical nurses, both certified and in training, and a sample of the normative Dutch population. Personality characteristics were identified with the Big Five Inventory, which consisted of 60 items answered on a five-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). RESULTS: Specific personality traits were found for nurse anesthetists and surgical nurses when compared to the normative Dutch population. Traits of both nurse anesthetists and surgical nurses differed significantly on all domains of the Big Five Inventory, with the largest differences found within the dimension negative emotionally. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of specific personality traits in maintaining employability within the rapidly evolving and technologically advanced landscape of healthcare. It emphasizes the relationship between individual traits and professional excellence, being crucial educational strategies for overall improvement in healthcare.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Enfermeiros Anestesistas , Humanos , Enfermeiros Anestesistas/educação , Enfermeiros Anestesistas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Personalidade
14.
J Affect Disord ; 356: 535-544, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: History of suicide attempt (SA) is the strongest predictor of a new SA and suicide. It is primordial to identify additional risk factors of suicide re-attempt. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of suicide re-attempt in patients with recent SA followed for 2 years. METHODS: In this multicentric cohort of adult inpatients, the median of the index SA before inclusion was 10 days. Clinicians assessed a large panel of psychological dimensions using validated tools. Occurrence of a new SA or death by suicide during the follow-up was recorded. A cluster analysis was used to identify the dimensions that best characterized the population and a variable "number of personality traits" was created that included the three most representative traits: anxiety, anger, and anxious lability. Risk factors of re-attempt were assessed with adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS: Among the 379 patients included, 100 (26.4 %) re-attempted suicide and 6 (1.6 %) died by suicide. The two major risk factors of suicide re-attempt were no history of violent SA and presenting two or three personality traits among trait anxiety, anger and anxious lability. LIMITATIONS: It was impossible to know if treatment change during follow-up occur before or after the re-attempt. DISCUSSION: One of the most important predictors of re-attempt in suicide attempters with mood disorders, was the presence of three personality traits (anger, anxiety, and anxious lability). Clinicians should provide close monitoring to patients presenting these traits and proposed treatments specifically targeting these dimensions, especially anxiety.


Assuntos
Ira , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Recidiva , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia
15.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(5): 157-164, 2024 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An exploration of the interrelationships between central psychodynamic constructs in adolescents with mental health problems was conducted. METHODS: 230 adolescents (Mage=18.0±1.9) were assessed using the Structure and the Conflict Questionnaire of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis System in Childhood and Adolescence and the Defense Style Questionnaire for Adolescents. RESULTS: Controlling for the influence of gender, age, and socioeconomic status, low to moderate associations were revealed between increased psychodynamic conflict levels and immature defense styles (r=0.20 to 0.39, p<0.05 to 0.001) as wells as deficits in the personality structure and increased psychodynamic conflict levels (r=0.15 to 0.55, p<0.05 to p<0.001) or immature defense styles (r=0.30 to 0.69, p<0.001). Psychodynamic conflicts as well as defense styles could be predicted by the structural dimensions as well as age and sex (R2=0 .04 to 0.49, p<0.05 to 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Theory-compliant correlations were demonstrated. The findings are particularly relevant against the background of the revision of the classification of personality functioning (ICD-11) in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtornos Mentais , Personalidade , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9905, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688968

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop the Global Assessment of Active Trolling and Passive Bystanderism (GAATPB) scale and investigate the influence of personality traits on trolling behaviors. Focusing on the Dark Tetrad (DT) traits and agreeableness, the present study examined their associations and predictive utility on active trolling and passive bystanderism. Participants were recruited from social networking sites (SNSs), and eligibility criteria included active SNS usage and engagement in online interactions. A total of 797 healthy adult students participated in the study, with data from 300 used for the initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining 497 (Mage = 22.25 years, SD = 3.37) for the subsequent analyses. Results indicated a significant correlation between DT traits and agreeableness across both active trolling and passive bystanderism, revealing a shared personality profile. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that narcissism, Machiavellianism, and trait sadism were predictors of active trolling, with psychopathy being the strongest predictor. However, psychopathy did not emerge as a predictor for passive bystanderism. The study also highlighted that DT traits mediated the relationship between lower agreeableness and overall trolling behavior, suggesting that trolling manifests from lower agreeableness through the instigation of callous-unemotional, manipulative, and self-centered traits inherent in DT.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Maquiavelismo , Adolescente , Narcisismo , Estudantes/psicologia
17.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 40(1): 1-18, Abr. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-27

RESUMO

For decades researchers have explored the link between the Big Five personality traits and job performance, conducting studies across various contexts and sectors. The study seeks to test the link between the Big Five dimensions of personality and job performance in Türkiye, for which an integration of 38 studies involving 18,021 participants was performed. By using psychometric meta-analysis, the study compares and evaluates the similarities and differences among the Türkiye studies and the broader literature on this topic. Additionally, this study is among the first to address the moderating effect of evaluators and sectors on the relationship between Big Five personality traits and job performance dimensions. The findings suggest that there are differences between the Turkish studies and the existing literature, which could be explained by cultural differences and social norms specific to collectivist countries like Türkiye.(AU)


Los investigadores han explorado durante decenios la relación entre los rasgos de personalidad de los cinco grandes factores y el desempeño en el trabajo, mediante estudios en diversos contextos y sectores. El estudio pretende probar el vínculo entre las dimensiones de personalidad de los cinco grandes y el rendimiento laboral en Turquía, para lo que se llevó a cabo la integración de 38 estudios en los que participaron un total de 18,021 sujetos. Mediante meta-análisis psicométricos el estudio compara y valora las semejanzas y diferencias entre los estudios de Turquía y las publicaciones más amplias sobre el tema. Además el estudio es uno de los primeros que aborda el efecto moderador de los evaluadores y sectores en la relación entre los rasgos de personalidad de los cinco grandes y las dimensiones del desempeño en el trabajo. Los resultados indican que hay diferencias entre los estudios turcos y otros estudios, lo que podría explicarse por las diferencias culturales y las normas sociales específicas de países colectivistas como Turquía.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Organizações/organização & administração , Engajamento no Trabalho , Desempenho Profissional , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Eficiência Organizacional , Turquia , Psicologia
18.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 40(1): 51-60, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-31

RESUMO

Substantial evidence supports the idea that engaged workers reach high performance levels. Nevertheless, most research does not take into account that job performance is multidimensional. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between work engagement and performance (task performance, contextual performance, counterproductive work behaviors, and adaptive performance) and determine whether work engagement provides incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits in the prediction of performance. A questionaire with the variables of interest was filled in by 365 workers. Regression analyses revealed that work engagement plays a role in all dimensions of job performance. Results also revealed the differential functioning of work engagement dimensions, with vigor as the main predictor of task performance and the second predictor of adaptive performance, even when considering personality. High absorption decreases task performance but increases contextual performance, while dedication mediates between personality (i.e., agreeableness and extraversion) and CWB.(AU)


Existe una evidencia sólida sobre el hecho de que los trabajadores comprometidos alcanzan altos niveles de desempeño. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las investigaciones no tienen en cuenta que el desempeño laboral es multidimensional. El presente estudio tiene como objetivos investigar la relación entre el compromiso laboral y el desempeño (de tarea, contextual, conductas contraproductivas y adaptativo) y determinar si el compromiso laboral aumenta la validez predictiva de los cinco grandes rasgos de personalidad en la predicción del desempeño. Se administró un cuestionario con las variables de interés a 365 trabajadores. Los análisis de regresión muestran que el compromiso laboral juega un papel en la predicción de todas las dimensiones del desempeño laboral. Los resultados también revelaron el funcionamiento diferencial de las dimensiones del compromiso laboral, siendo el vigor el principal predictor del desempeño de tarea y el segundo predictor del desempeño adaptativo, incluso cuando se controlan los rasgos de personalidad. Una gran absorción disminuye el desempeño de tarea, pero aumenta el contextual, mientras que la dedicación actúa como variable mediadora entre la personalidad (amabilidad y extraversión) y las conductas contraproductivas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Engajamento no Trabalho , Desempenho Profissional , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610382

RESUMO

In organisational contexts, professionals are required to decide dynamically and prioritise unexpected external inputs deriving from multiple sources. In the present study, we applied a multimethodological neuroscientific approach to investigate the ability to resist and control ecological distractors during decision-making and to explore whether a specific behavioural, neurophysiological (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta EEG band), or autonomic (i.e., heart rate-HR, and skin conductance response-SCR) pattern is correlated with specific personality profiles, collected with the 10-item Big Five Inventory. Twenty-four participants performed a novel Resistance to Ecological Distractors (RED) task aimed at exploring the ability to resist and control distractors and the level of coherence and awareness of behaviour (metacognition ability), while neurophysiological and autonomic measures were collected. The behavioural results highlighted that effectiveness in performance did not require self-control and metacognition behaviour and that being proficient in metacognition can have an impact on performance. Moreover, it was shown that the ability to resist ecological distractors is related to a specific autonomic profile (HR and SCR decrease) and that the neurophysiological and autonomic activations during task execution correlate with specific personality profiles. The agreeableness profile was negatively correlated with the EEG theta band and positively with the EEG beta band, the conscientiousness profile was negatively correlated with the EEG alpha band, and the extroversion profile was positively correlated with the EEG beta band. Taken together, these findings describe and disentangle the hidden relationship that lies beneath individuals' decision to inhibit or activate intentionally a specific behaviour, such as responding, or not, to an external stimulus, in ecological conditions.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Personalidade , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca
20.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 223, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in medical students was greater than in the general population. Knowing of predictive factors for depression among medical students is useful. The objectives of this study included the assessment of personality traits as well as the association between the personality traits and the presence of symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among medical students covering several regions of Thailand. METHODS: From April to July 2023, a cross-section study was conducted. The participants included first to sixth-year medical students studying at three Faculties of Medicine in Thailand; Prince of Songkla University; Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University; and Chiang Mai University. Using the online process, the questionnaires were composed of three sections; demographic data; the International Personality Item Pool-NEO (IPIP-NEO), Thai version; and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Thai version. Demographics, personality traits, depression, and suicidal ideation were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were presented as frequency, mean, and standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range (IQR). The association between independent variables and the presence of depression was identified using binary logistic regression analysis, and the association with suicidal ideation was identified using ordinal logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The 868 medical students participated in this study. Most of them were female (63.5%), Buddhist (82.0%), and first-year medical students (31.8%). The mean age (SD) was 20.8 (2.2) years, and the mean cumulative Grade Point Average (SD) was 3.5 (0.4). They reported the median (IQR) score of PHQ-9 as 6.0 (3.0-9.0), 238 participants (27.4%) presented with depression, and 138 (15.9%) participants reported suicidal ideation. According to the IPIP-NEO, participants with depression or suicidal ideation had higher Neuroticism scores and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness scores compared to those without such issues. An increase in the Neuroticism score was linked to higher odds of depression, while an increase in the Conscientiousness score was associated with lower odds of depression. Suicidal ideation significantly increased with higher Neuroticism scores and the presence of a psychiatric illness. CONCLUSIONS: More than a quarter of Thai medical students reported depression. A higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness scores related to depression. Therefore, medical schools may benefit from knowing medical students' personality traits, to identify coping mechanisms and predict those at a higher risk of developing depression in the future.


Assuntos
Depressão , Personalidade , Estudantes de Medicina , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Universidades , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , População do Sudeste Asiático
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...