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1.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 83(4): 92-98, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585287

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral infection that sexually active females and males may be exposed to in their lifetime. The HPV vaccine is highly recommended especially among children to protect them before their anticipated exposure to HPV, however, vaccination uptake in Hawai'i remains low. As of 2017, legislation allows pharmacists to vaccinate for adolescent vaccines with the potential to increase access and opportunities for patients to complete the HPV vaccine series. Physicians in Hawai'i were surveyed to examine physicians' awareness of this law, their perceptions of the role of pharmacists, and willingness to send adolescent patients to pharmacies; 137 responses were received and analyzed. Overall, 72% (n=99) of respondents were willing while 28% (n=38) were unwilling to send patients to pharmacies for vaccines. Physicians view pharmacists' role as helpful but have concerns regarding correct administration and tracking doses given. Results show potential for more physician-pharmacist collaborations through further education and trainings for pharmacists and health providers to increase physician referrals for adolescent vaccine services in pharmacies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Havaí , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 309, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls and fall-related injuries are very common among older adults, and the risk of falls increases with the aging process. The lack of awareness of falls and fall-related injuries among older adults can contribute to an increasing risk of falls. Hence, a study was carried out to improve the knowledge, attitude, and perception of falls and fractures among older adults in a primary care setting in Gemas, a rural area of the Selangor state of Malaysia. METHOD: A structured educational intervention was provided to older adults who visited the primary care setting in Gemas and provided written informed consent to participate in the study. A total of 310 older adult patients was included in the study using a convenience sampling technique. RESULTS: Before the intervention, 74.84% of the respondents (n = 232) agreed that falls and related fractures are the leading causes of hospital admission among older adults. In post-intervention, the number of respondents who agreed with this statement increased to 257 (82.91%). At baseline, 28 respondents (9.03%) had poor knowledge, 160 respondents (51.61%) had average knowledge levels, and 122 respondents (39.35%) had good knowledge. In post-intervention, respondents with poor and average knowledge reduced to 1.93% (n = 6) and 29.35% (n = 91) respectively. A majority of respondents' knowledge levels improved significantly after the intervention (n = 213; 68.71%). About eight respondents (2.58%) had a negative perception of falls. In post-intervention, the percentage reduced to 0.65% as only two respondents had a negative perception. A total of 32 types of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) have been prescribed to the respondents. A strong correlation (r = 0.89) between pre- and post-intervention knowledge was shown among the respondents. Paired t-test analysis showed a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: The pharmacist-led educational intervention significantly improved the knowledge, attitude, and perception of falls among older adults. More structured and periodical intervention programmes are warranted to reduce the risk of falls and fractures among older adults.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Idoso , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 35, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is considered a key prevention strategy in addressing the worldwide concern of accelerating antimicrobial resistance. Limited research is available regarding healthcare providers' knowledge and attitude toward antimicrobial stewardship and the barriers for its implementation. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on pharmacists and healthcare prescribers (HCPs) in different hospital sites across Jordan. A validated survey was used to evaluate HCPs and pharmacists' knowledge, and attitudes towards ASP and the barriers for its implementation. Logistic and linear regression were conducted to identify the factors associated with knowledge and attitude toward ASP, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 603 participants, 69 (11.4%) pharmacists and 534 (88.6%) HCPs completed the study questionnaire, with a response rate of 80.4%. The overall mean knowledge about ASP was 7.16 out of 10, ranging from 0 to 10 (SD 2.22). Being a pharmacist and increased awareness/familiarity about ASP were associated with improved ASP knowledge. The overall average attitude score was = 3.8 ± 0.49 (range: 1.8-4.8). Results revealed that being a pharmacist and improved knowledge were associated with improved attitude toward ASP. Lack of specialized staff with expertise in ASP and lack of access to education and training programs were the major barriers hinder ASP implementation. CONCLUSION: Despite the reasonable knowledge and the positive attitude toward the ASP, several barriers were reported, particularly by the pharmacists. Therefore, promoting the presence of adequately skilled healthcare personnel, creating easily accessible online courses, and establishing a comprehensive database of ASP resources are all suggested approaches to improve the application of ASP in healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde
4.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 103, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization supports interprofessional collaboration in primary care. On over the past 20 years, community pharmacists had been taking a growing number of new responsibilities and they are recognized as a core member of collaborative care teams as patient-centered care providers. This systematic review aimed to describe interprofessional collaboration in primary care involving a pharmacist, and its effect on patient related outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials cited in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL in English and French was conducted from inception to November 2022. Studies were included if they described an intervention piloted by a primary care provider and included a pharmacist and if they evaluated the effects of intervention on a disease or on patient related outcomes. The search generated 3494 articles. After duplicates were removed and titles and abstracts screened for inclusion, 344 articles remained. RESULTS: Overall, 19 studies were included in the review and assessed for quality. We found 14 studies describing an exclusive collaboration between physician and pharmacist with for all studies a three-step model of pharmacist intervention: a medication review, an interview with the patient, and recommendations made to physician. Major topics in the articles eligible for inclusion included cardiovascular diseases with blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Positive effects concerned principally blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Collaboration involving pharmacists is mainly described in relation to cardiovascular diseases, for which patient-centered indicators are most often positive. It underscores the need for further controlled studies on pharmacist-involved interprofessional collaboration across various medical conditions to improve consensus on core outcomes measures.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Médicos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241246464, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581250

RESUMO

The concept of pharmacovigilance (PV) is currently highlighted after emergency authorization and worldwide distribution of the urgently launched COVID-19 novel vaccinations. As they typically serve as the initial point of patient contact for medication-related issues, understanding the knowledge, perspectives, and attitudes of community pharmacists in PV and reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is crucial to improving the healthcare system and public health policies. However, previous studies in Jordan have not focused entirely on community pharmacists. This study aimed to assess community pharmacists' knowledge, perspectives, and attitudes on PV and ADRs reporting in Jordan. The applied methodology in this study was based on a cross-sectional study design using a validated questionnaire distributed to a convenient sample of Jordanian community pharmacists. Seventeen questions were designed from different pieces of literature relating to knowledge, perspectives, and attitudes of PV among community pharmacists. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) were used to report the results data. The study questionnaire was completed by 180 of 325 community pharmacists willing to participate (a response rate of 55.4%). Of them (n = 132, 73%) were aware of the concept of PV. Additionally (n = 84, 47%) of the community pharmacists would use the concept and policy of PV in their everyday work. Nevertheless, only (n = 36, 20.0%) of the community pharmacists thought an ADR should be reported if seen, and approximately 120 pharmacists (67.0%) believed it was essential to report ADRs as patient health matters. Although community pharmacists in Jordan showed a considerable awareness level of PV, they demonstrated a low level of its application. Thus, ADR reporting is not considered a mainstay among them, and the implementation of PV is not yet addressed. The results from this study shed light on community pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes regarding ADR reporting and PV.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Farmacovigilância , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298109, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573999

RESUMO

Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services (PIVAS) are places dedicated to the centralized dispensing of intravenous drugs, usually managed and operated by professional pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, and are an integral part of modern healthcare. However, the workflow of PIVAS has some problems, such as low efficiency and error-prone. This study aims to improve the efficiency of drug dispensing, reduce the rate of manual misjudgment, and minimize drug errors by conducting an in-depth study of the entire workflow of PIVAS and applying image recognition technology to the drug checking and dispensing process. Firstly, through experimental comparison, a target detection model suitable for drug category recognition is selected in the drug-checking process of PIVAS, and it is improved to improve the recognition accuracy and speed of intravenous drug categories. Secondly, a corner detection model for drug dosage recognition was studied in the drug dispensing stage to further increase drug dispensing accuracy. Then the PIVAS drug category recognition system and PIVAS drug dosage recognition system were designed and implemented.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Farmácia , Humanos , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301525, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality globally. The impact of cardiovascular diseases can be minimized by addressing modifiable risk factors at primary health care level. Community pharmacists are well-positioned to identify patients at risk of cardiovascular diseases for early detection and initiation of treatment. However, the role of Lesotho community pharmacists in preventing and controlling cardiovascular diseases is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the Lesotho community pharmacists' role in preventing and controlling cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: The methodological reporting of this study was guided by the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies. A list of registered community pharmacists was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Pharmacists were selected based on their close proximity to the researcher and invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Five themes were identified namely: 1) Current roles 2) Future role 3) Facilitators, 4) Barriers, and 5) Community pharmacists' perceptions of their roles. Generally, community pharmacists were involved in medication counselling, health promotion, and referral of patients. Lack of support from government, patients' lack of adherence, poor interprofessional relationship, and lack of clear community pharmacy practice guidelines were identified as barriers. Despite the challenges, community pharmacists are motivated by patients' gratitude for their services. CONCLUSIONS: Lesotho community pharmacists can potentially improve cardiovascular diseases' health outcomes at primary healthcare level through early detection of CVD risk factors, and health promotion.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lesoto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Papel Profissional
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301417, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578732

RESUMO

Medication therapy management (MTM) refers to the activities provided by pharmacists that patients recognize as evidence of care being provided. It encompasses the services that patients value and consider valuable. Many developing nations like Yemen have had poor implementation of MTM services. Thus, this research assessed the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of Yemen pharmacists regarding MTM. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among pharmacists in Sana'a, Yemen. They were recruited through convenience sampling. The alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) pharmacists completed the questionnaire. About 70% were working in community pharmacies and 57.3% had (1-5) years of experience in pharmacy practice. The younger pharmacists had a higher level of knowledge than pharmacists with older age with median and IQR of 1.2(1.2-1.4) and 1.2(1-1.4) respectively (p < 0.001). Yemen pharmacists have positive attitudes toward MTM indicating a moderated level of attitudes with a median and IQR of 3.8(3.5-4). Hospital pharmacists expressed more positive attitudes toward MTM (P < 0.001) than pharmacists from other areas of practice. Only 11% of sampled pharmacists frequently offered MTM services. The top MTM service reported by Yemen pharmacists was "Performing or obtaining necessary assessments of the patient's health status". However, "Formulating a medication treatment plan" received the least provided MTM service among Yemen pharmacists. Even though MTM services are not commonly utilized in pharmacy practice, Yemeni pharmacists have positive attitudes concerning MTM. Efforts are needed to enhance their MTM knowledge and the value of providing MTM services as well as to develop a culture of continuing pharmacy education about MTM among pharmacists.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Estudos Transversais , Iêmen , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
9.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(4): E327-333, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564748

RESUMO

This article argues that drug shortages should be addressed as crises that exacerbate already compromised US health care infrastructure. Clinicians, especially pharmacists, can help limit threats that shortages pose to patients. For example, pharmacists can canvass procurement options, consolidate inventory, and prepare medications to prevent need for some clinical interventions. This article describes how pharmacists' preparation and training equip them to help clinical teams navigate shortages by equitably rationing limited medicines, suggesting appropriate therapeutic alternatives, modifying drug administration routes, or delaying interventions. Pharmacists' roles can be key, since good management of supplies during drug shortages can mitigate risk of worse-than-usual clinical outcomes, mitigate risk of medication errors, and reduce some financial burdens on the overall health care system.


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Hospitais
10.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 27, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy-based screening and brief interventions (SBI) offer opportunities to identify opioid misuse and opioid safety risks and provide brief interventions that do not overly burden pharmacists. Currently, such interventions are being developed without patient input and in-depth contextual data and insufficient translation into practice. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively explore and compare patient and pharmacist perceptions and needs regarding a pharmacy-based opioid misuse SBI and to identify relevant SBI features and future implementation strategies. METHODS: Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 8 patients and 11 pharmacists, to explore needs and barriers to participating in a pharmacy-based SBI. We recruited a purposive sample of English-speaking patients prescribed opioids for chronic or acute pain and pharmacists practicing in varied pharmacies (small independent, large-chain, specialty retail) settings. We used an inductive content analysis approach to analyze patient interview data. Then through a template analysis approach involving comparison of pharmacist and patient themes, we developed strategies for SBI implementation. RESULTS: Most patient participants were white, older, described living in suburban areas, and were long-term opioid users. We identified template themes related to individual, interpersonal, intervention, and implementation factors and inferred applications for SBI design or potential SBI implementation strategies. We found that patients needed education on opioid safety and general opioid use, regardless of opioid use behaviors. Pharmacists described needing patient-centered training, protocols, and scripts to provide SBI. A short-self-reported screening and brief interventions including counseling, naloxone, and involving prescribers were discussed by both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Through this implementation-focused qualitative study, we identified patient needs such as opioid safety education delivered in a private and convenient format and pharmacist needs including training, workflow integration, protocols, and a time-efficient intervention for effective pharmacy-based SBI. Alternate formats of SBI using digital health technologies may be needed for effective implementation. Our findings can be used to develop patient-centered pharmacy-based SBI that can be implemented within actual pharmacy practice.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Farmácias , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Intervenção na Crise , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e083726, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical pharmacy services often involve multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions. However, current pharmacy practice models vary across different countries. Despite the documented benefits of clinical pharmacy services, the characteristics of pharmacist-led interventions in different countries have not yet been adequately explored and described. Therefore, this protocol outlines the methodology for a proposed scoping review aiming to investigate various types of multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions and the outcomes used to evaluate their effectiveness within secondary care settings. Additionally, the scoping review will map the current evidence surrounding the characteristics of interventions and outcomes reported across various countries of socioeconomic status. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be conducted according to the JBI Methodology for Scoping Reviews and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Extension for Scoping Reviews. We will systematically search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Embase (embase.com), Scopus (scopus.com), Cochrane Library (cochranelibrary.com) and APA PsycInfo (Ovid). Additionally, the reference lists of identified reviews and included full texts will be searched for relevant papers. Grey literature sources, such as International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) website, will be searched. We will include primary studies published in the English language from January 2013 to December 2023, involving secondary care multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions. Two independent reviewers will screen studies against eligibility criteria and use a piloted data extraction form to extract relevant information. We will extract relevant data, complete a tabular summary from each included publication and analyse it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as we will be using data from publicly available literature sources. Findings will be disseminated in publications and presentations with relevant stakeholders. We aim to map available evidence across the breadth of studies that have reported multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions and their outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Farmácia , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 390, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes recently has been identified as a growing epidemic. Although insulin's vital role in both types of diabetes, it is considered one of the harmful medications if used incorrectly. In Egypt, effective usage of insulin remains a challenge due to insufficient knowledge of insulin and diabetes management, leading to errors in insulin therapy. As pharmacists are experts in pharmacological knowledge, they are uniquely situated to assess adherence to treatment regimens, the effect of drug therapy, or potential alterations in drug therapy to meet patient goals. To provide effective patient education and counseling, community pharmacists in Egypt should be efficiently knowledgeable about diabetes and insulin. OBJECTIVE: To identify the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacists and patients about insulin. To identify pharmacists' educational preparedness and confidence in counseling diabetic patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with two knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys. This study was carried out from September 2016 to February 2023. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients, and a paper-based questionnaire was administered to pharmacists. The two questionnaires were adapted from previous studies. RESULTS: A total of 492 patients and 465 pharmacists participated in this study. The mean knowledge score of correct answers among patients and pharmacists was 10.67 ± 1.9 and 15 ± 3.6. Most of the patients and pharmacists had a positive attitude regarding insulin's role in improving health and to better control blood glucose. On the negative side, around half of the patients reported that they believe that regular use of insulin leads to addiction, while only 14.5% of the pharmacists believed that insulin could cause addiction. Self-confidence scores for pharmacists differed statistically with sex, years of experience, and pharmacist's direct exposure to diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovers considerable deficiencies in patients' and pharmacists' knowledge about insulin therapy. This study also strongly recommends higher education and a more structured pharmacist training schedule.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 435, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being a global public health concern, there is a research gap in analyzing implementation strategies for managing off-label drug use in children. This study aims to understand professional health managers' perspectives on implementing the Guideline in hospitals and determine the Guideline's implementation facilitators and barriers. METHODS: Pediatric directors, pharmacy directors, and medical department directors from secondary and tertiary hospitals across the country were recruited for online interviews. The interviews were performed between June 27 and August 25, 2022. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was adopted for data collection, data analysis, and findings interpretation to implement interventions across healthcare settings. RESULTS: Individual interviews were conducted with 28 healthcare professionals from all over the Chinese mainland. Key stakeholders in implementing the Guideline for the Management of Pediatric Off-Label Use of Drugs in China (2021) were interviewed to identify 57 influencing factors, including 27 facilitators, 29 barriers, and one neutral factor, based on the CFIR framework. The study revealed the complexity of the factors influencing managing children's off-label medication use. A lack of policy incentives was the key obstacle in external settings. The communication barrier between pharmacists and physicians was the most critical internal barrier. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study significantly reduces the implementation gap in managing children's off-label drug use. We provided a reference for the standardized management of children's off-label use of drugs.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Uso Off-Label , Humanos , Criança , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Farmacêuticos , Atenção à Saúde
14.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(4): 771-784, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583948

RESUMO

No progress has been made in using remote communication tools for less urgent but equally important health support services, such as preventive medicine and health education. In this study, we developed a remote health support program by pharmacists for community residents and conducted a randomized controlled study on its effectiveness in proper self-medication through pharmacists. People over the age of 20 years who lived in the vicinity of Gifu City, Japan were eligible to participate in this study. Participants were recruited using posters and brochures. This program comprised a lecture, based on the health belief model and behavioral economics, and access to remote health support. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: the medicine/health class only (control) and the medicine/health class along with the program (intervention) groups. The participants were administered questionnaire surveys immediately before (the first survey) and 2 months after (the second survey) the medicine/health class, which allowed us to compare the changes in the two groups' behavior regarding performing proper self-medication through pharmacists. The percentage of individuals who started consulting pharmacists about self-medication in the intervention group (63.9%, 23/36) was significantly higher than that in the control group (15.2%, 5/33; p < 0.001). The percentage of individuals who started recording information about their self-medication in their medication notebooks in the intervention group (16.7%, 6/36) was significantly higher than that in the control group (0%, 0/33; p = 0.026). We clarified the effectiveness of this program for behavioral changes toward proper self-medication using support from pharmacists.


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos , Automedicação , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Japão
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e246018, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598235

RESUMO

Importance: Nearly half of US states have restricted abortion access. Policy makers are exploring pathways to increase access to abortion and reproductive health care more broadly. Since 2016, California pharmacists could prescribe hormonal birth control, providing an opportunity to learn about the implementation of pharmacist-provided reproductive health care. Objective: To explore the feasibility of broadening pharmacist scope of practice to include prescribing medication abortion. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from October 11 to December 20, 2022, among a convenience sample of California licensed community pharmacists to examine their attitudes toward, knowledge of, and confidence in prescribing hormonal birth control and reports of pharmacy-level practices. Main Outcomes and Measures: Descriptive analyses and log-binomial regression models were used to compare medication abortion and contraceptive provision attitudes by pharmacist and pharmacy characteristics. Results: Among the 316 pharmacists included in the analysis who worked at community pharmacies across California (mean [SD] age, 40.9 [12.0] years; 169 of 285 [59.3%] cisgender women; and 159 of 272 [58.5%] non-Hispanic Asian individuals), most (193 of 280 [68.9%]) indicated willingness to prescribe medication abortion to pharmacy clients if allowed by law. However, less than half were confident in their knowledge of medication abortion (139 of 288 [48.3%]) or their ability to prescribe it (115 of 285 [40.4%]). Pharmacists who indicated that providing access to hormonal birth control as a prescribing provider was important (263 of 289 [91.0%]) and were confident in their ability to prescribe it (207 of 290 [71.4%]) were 3.96 (95% CI, 1.80-8.73) times and 2.44 (95% CI, 1.56-3.82) times more likely to be willing to prescribe medication abortion and to express confidence in doing so, respectively. Although most pharmacists held favorable attitudes toward hormonal birth control, less than half (144 of 308 [46.8%]) worked in a pharmacy that provided prescriptions for hormonal birth control, and 149 who did not reported barriers such as lack of knowledge or training (65 [43.6%]), insufficient staff or time to add new services (58 [38.9%]), and lack of coverage for services (50 [33.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional survey study of California pharmacists suggest that most pharmacists were willing to prescribe medication abortion. However, future efforts to expand pharmacists' scope of practice should include training to increase knowledge and confidence in prescribing medication abortion. Pharmacy-level barriers to hormonal birth control prescription, such as insurance coverage for pharmacist effort, should also be addressed, as they may serve as barriers to medication abortion access.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Farmácia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Farmacêuticos , Estudos Transversais , California
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 189, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug use during pregnancy can cause unfavorable fetal and maternal outcomes. Information sharing is essential for pharmacists' role within intricate, modern healthcare systems. Community pharmacists (CPs) have demonstrated unsatisfactory knowledge across various pharmacological domains in most developing countries. This study aimed to explore the knowledge and practices of CPs regarding medications and herb safety during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a developing country using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of CPs working in the northern governorates of the West Bank was selected by convenience sampling. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, practices and knowledge. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 207 questionnaires were completed. Most respondents had only a bachelor's degree (89.9%) but did not participate in continuous professional development (CPD) (71.0%). Almost one-third of the CP workload involved dispensing drugs to pregnant women. The majority of the participants reported that they inquire about pregnancy status (59.9%), refer to scientific sources (82.6%), and contact a prescribing physician (51.2%) in cases of uncertainty. A higher knowledge score was associated with receiving a master's degree and CPD programs. Most CPs identified folic acid, paracetamol and amoxicillin as safe, while tetracycline, isotretinoin, enalapril, pseudoephedrine and ibuprofen were among the drugs mostly reported as unsafe. Castor oil, Senna, St. John's wort and ginseng were the most frequently reported herbs as unsafe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the gaps in knowledge about herb pharmacology, CPs demonstrated acceptable knowledge and practice regarding drug safety during pregnancy. CPD is recommended for addressing gaps in knowledge and practice. Future research evaluating knowledge and practice may benefit from developing a specific, accurate, validated instrument.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(3): 115-122, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471090

RESUMO

Long-acting cabotegravir/rilpivirine (LA-CAB/RPV) is the first complete injectable antiretroviral for patients living with HIV. To facilitate patient access to long-acting injectable treatment, a system-wide, pharmacist-led, LA-CAB/RPV transition program was developed at four health system-based New York clinics. Provider referrals were received across four clinics between January 22nd, 2021, and December 31st, 2022. All referrals were evaluated by a pharmacist for clinical eligibility and medication access. The primary outcome was the treatment retention rate defined as the percentage of patients who remained on LA-CAB/RPV at 3 months post-transition. A total of 171 referrals were received, with 73 patients (43%) initiating LA-CAB/RPV. Baseline demographics included a median age of 38 years, 81% patients were male, 41% were African American, and 49% had commercial insurance coverage. The treatment retention rate was 90% at 3 months post-transition. By the end of the study period, 84% of patients who transitioned remained on LA-CAB/RPV. Treatment was discontinued due to reasons such as viral breakthrough (4%), emergence of mutations (4%), and intolerable side effects (4%). Injection site reactions were commonly reported (51%), but only resulting in treatment discontinuation for one patient. A pharmacist-led program can transition a diverse population of patients living with HIV to LA-CAB/RPV. Results from this study further add to clinical experiences with LA-CAB/RPV, demonstrating real-world treatment retention despite more frequent clinic visits for patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Dicetopiperazinas , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Piridonas , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Rilpivirina/efeitos adversos , HIV-1/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , New York , Farmacêuticos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 59, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While community pharmacies have been successful in providing harm reduction support for illicit substance consumers, little research has explored their role in addressing the needs of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) consumers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to triangulate the attitudes and experiences of AAS consumers and community pharmacist's regarding AAS harm reduction. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with AAS consumers (n = 8) and community pharmacists (n = 15) between December 2022 and August 2023 in Australia. Interview data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: While consumers emphasised easy access to pharmacies, particularly in urban areas, challenges were noted in rural regions. AAS consumers expressed a preference for community pharmacies, perceiving them as less confronting and a feasible avenue for accessing professional advice, highlighting the potential role of pharmacists in nurturing therapeutic alliances with AAS consumers. Similarly, pharmacists expressed receptivity to providing harm reduction information but acknowledged knowledge gaps, suggesting a need for tailored education programs to support AAS consumers effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacies can be an important environment for AAS harm reduction. Strategies include utilising private spaces for open discussions with AAS consumers and enhancing pharmacists' understanding of AAS to foster trust and support. Further research is needed to address knowledge gaps and training needs for pharmacy staff, with the aim of creating a safer environment for AAS consumers.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmácias , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Esteróides Androgênicos Anabolizantes , Redução do Dano , Papel Profissional , Esteroides
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 24(1): 8687, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pharmacists serve an important role in rural communities, and in some cases they may be the only health professional available. Their recruitment and retention is a major concern for rural communities and health services; however, a deeper understanding regarding the advantages and challenges of sustaining a rural pharmacy workforce is somewhat limited. The aim of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of pharmacists' perspectives about factors influencing pharmacist recruitment and retention to rural and remote communities. METHODS: The exploratory study, carried out in rural Tasmania and rural Western Victoria, used a qualitative descriptive design. Structured interviews, lasting between 30-60 minutes, were conducted by a single researcher using the Pharmacist Community Apgar Questionnaire via face-to-face, telephone or videoconferencing technology. Data were analysed thematically using verbatim transcription, extraction of significant statements and identification of similarities in formulated meanings, grouping the similar meanings and significant statements that pertained to the phenomena of interest. Specifically, qualitative data were used to provide a deeper understanding of factors identified as key assets, capabilities, or those most challenging for pharmacist recruitment and retention. RESULTS: The advantages and disadvantages rural communities face in recruiting and retaining pharmacists are presented. These insights are linked to the advantages of financial income, incentives and moving allowance. Further advantages include the degree of practice autonomy, breadth of tasks, the perception of the community, loyalty to the pharmacy and its pharmacists, along with community recognition. Challenges associated with the recruitment and retention of pharmacists centred on the need for spousal or partner employment opportunities, having greater proximity to schools, access to social or cultural opportunities, along with good transport connections. Further challenges included housing, the cost of schooling for children, having adequate locum or peer coverage and opportunities to host interns. DISCUSSION: The study provides a deeper exploration of the meaning and experiences of factors that previous research has shown are considered advantageous or challenging to the recruitment and retention of pharmacists in rural areas. Through the voices of pharmacists living and working in a rural area, the findings further enlighten our understanding regarding how the multifaceted and complex nature of health workforce planning may be addressed. As such, greater pharmacist recruitment and retention is enabled through adequate financial compensation and incentives, along with additional tax incentives for business and health services. Further, innovation is required to enhance economic sustainability. Locum coverage and intern opportunities also require innovative approaches to address concerns among potential candidates. Lastly, efforts to enable and support social connections such as schooling and spousal employment, while building community connection and a sense of rural community belonging, remain essential to recruit and retain pharmacists. CONCLUSION: Rural pharmacist recruitment and retention is complex, requiring a multi-pronged approach to implement practical solutions. Given this complexity and the unique features of each rural community, solutions require whole-of-community ownership to create innovative solutions. Recognition of specific advantages and challenges can address key driving factors for pharmacist recruitment and retention in rural communities.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Assistência Farmacêutica , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Criança , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , População Rural , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Emprego
20.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 79, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identifies pharmacists as a key resource in palliative care. However, the roles of these professionals in end-of-life care at home remain poorly understood, and community pharmacists themselves sometimes struggle to recognize their true role in this care. The aim of our study was to analyze community pharmacists' representations of their roles in palliative care at home in France. METHODS: The methodology was qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists (n = 26). The analysis of the interviews was carried out using a qualitative content approach with thematic and lexical analysis. RESULTS: Three main elements of the community pharmacist's role were identified: drug expertise, care management, and psychosocial support for patients and their families. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a wide variety of roles adopted by French community pharmacists in palliative care at home. Some of these roles, which are in line with WHO recommendations on palliative care, have been little described to date. These roles of community pharmacists in home-based palliative care could be better recognized, and the players better integrated into end-of-life care systems at home, in order to improve such care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This work was carried out within the framework of a call for projects from the Fondation de France and has received the approval of the University Clermont Auvergne Research Ethics Committee (no. IRB00011540-2021-60).


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Papel Profissional
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