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1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 46(2): 18, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587716

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to elucidate the vital meaning and strategic role that nutrition holds in Claude Bernard's  "biological philosophy", in the sense Auguste Comte gave to this expression, i.e. the theoretical part of biology. I propose that Bernard's nutritive perspective on life should be thought of as an  "interfield" object, following Holmes' category. Not only does nutrition bridge disciplines like physiology and organic chemistry, as well as levels of inquiry ranging from special physiology to the organism's total level, including the cell and protoplasm, but it also forms the genetic and structural foundation for Bernard's two fundamental axioms in general physiology: the necessary complementarity of destruction and creation (1) and the uniformity of this physiological law across all life forms, be it plants or animals (2). Because Bernard's nutritive theory is a major pivot for the re-ordering of life and its characterization, I argue that it must be located and understood in the scientific and metaphysical context of his time, of which he claims to be the heir and challenger-what I propose to characterize as the  "epistemic space" of nutrition, on the background of which Bernard builds his own  "logic". I then set out this logic of nutrition, focusing on three interrelated bernardian theses: the establishment of the theory of indirect nutrition as the basis for the notion of  "milieu intérieur"; the enduring conception of nutrition as a continuous generation; the emphasis on nutrition as a way of reshaping the form/matter relationship.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Filosofia , Animais , Masculino
2.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 60(2): e22307, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607694

RESUMO

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Gertrude Buck and collaborators developed a sociologically and pragmatist-informed approach to language that has been neglected in later scholarship. Buck approached the study of language from the standpoint of pragmatist functional psychology, which is indebted to John Dewey's pragmatism at the University of Michigan, and which views language as a normal, dynamic action of human organisms engaged in necessary cooperative relations with one another. Her approach overcomes the small-minded pragmatism that would criticize figurative or poetic language as impractical, and instead shows how figuration is essential to the particular ways in which language is action that conveys meaning to others and serves broader social functions. Buck's forgotten work helps overcome criticisms of the application of pragmatic action theory to language and literature, sketching how language structure may be explained on the basis of language as a natural social-communicative act, how figurative language is inherent in the normal act of communicating situated bodily experiences to others, and how rhetorical speech and writing contributes to participation in democratic social processes. This paper also indicates how Buck's work has been partially rediscovered in Composition Studies, as well as prefigures later reader-response esthetics and feminist analyses of language.


Assuntos
Idioma , Filosofia , Humanos , Feminino , Michigan , Comunicação , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 19(1): 5, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594714

RESUMO

Medicine is faced with a number of intractable modern challenges that can be understood in terms of hyper-intellectualization; a compassion crisis, burnout, dehumanization, and lost meaning. These challenges have roots in medical philosophy and indeed general Western philosophy by way of the historic exclusion of human emotion from human reason. The resolution of these medical challenges first requires a novel philosophic schema of human knowledge and reason that incorporates the balanced interaction of human intellect and human emotion. This schema of necessity requires a novel extension of dual-process theory into epistemology in terms of both intellect and emotion each generating a distinct natural kind of knowledge independent of the other as well as how these two forms of mental process together construct human reason. Such a novel philosophic schema is here proposed. This scheme is then applied to the practice of medicine with examples of practical applications with the goal of reformulating medical practice in a more knowledgable, balanced, and healthy way. This schema's expanded epistemology becomes the philosophic foundation for more fully incorporating the humanities in medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina , Filosofia , Humanos , Filosofia Médica , Emoções , Conhecimento
4.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 148, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486343

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of Philosophy-Based Language Teaching (PBLT) on the critical thinking skills and learner engagement of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. A concurrent mixed-methods approach, including semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and academic achievement tests, was employed with an experimental group (EG) exposed to PBLT and a control group (CG) receiving traditional instruction. The results reveal a substantial positive effect of PBLT on the critical thinking abilities of EFL learners, as evidenced by thematic analyses of interviews and document content. Themes include heightened critical thinking awareness, collaborative knowledge construction, and increased learner engagement. Academic achievement tests further demonstrate significant improvement in the experimental group's performance. A comparison with existing literature underscores the novelty of our mixed-methods approach. Implications for language teachers, materials developers, syllabus designers, and policy-makers are discussed, highlighting the potential of PBLT in cultivating critical thinking and learner engagement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Humanos , Idioma , Estudantes , Filosofia , Pensamento
5.
Health Policy ; 142: 105031, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428058

RESUMO

What do we owe other persons? Are we as much obliged to promote their wellbeing as we are to reduce their suffering? This question is crucial for a range of social institutions and welfare services, and especially for the health services. To address this question the article investigates prominent positions and arguments in moral philosophy. It finds that while classical utilitarianism claims that there is symmetry in the moral obligation with respect to peoples' wellbeing and their suffering, a wide range of other positions and perspectives argue for an asymmetric relationship with stronger moral obligations towards other persons' suffering than towards their wellbeing. This difference in obligations is supported ontologically by basic differences inherent in wellbeing and suffering and axiologically by a relative (gradual) difference in value. The many well-founded arguments for stronger moral obligations towards other persons' suffering than towards their wellbeing has important implications for health policy; especially for priority setting. Avoiding and reducing suffering should have priority to the promotion and enhancement of wellbeing.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Filosofia , Teoria Ética
6.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 104: 48-60, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460348

RESUMO

Hermann Weyl's philosophical reflections remain a topic of considerable interest in the history and philosophy of science. In particular, Weyl's commitment to a form of idealism, as it pertains to his reading of Husserl and Fichte, has garnered much discussion. However, much less attention has been given to Weyl's later, and at that only partial, turn towards a form of empiricism (i.e. from the late 1920s onward). This lack of focus on Weyl's later philosophy has tended to obscure some of the most significant lessons that Weyl sought to draw from his decades of research in the foundations of mathematics and physics. In this paper, I develop some aspects of what I will term as Weyl's 'modest' empiricism. I will argue that Weyl's turn toward empiricism can be read in the context of a development of Helmholtz's epistemological program and his unique form of 'Kantianism'. The hope is that this reading will not only provide a better understanding of Weyl's later thought, especially his (1954) criticism of Cassirer, but that it may also provide the basis for a novel 'Weylian' account of the mathematization of nature underwriting the group-theoretic methodology of parts of modern physics.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Física , Humanos , Matemática , Conhecimento , Empirismo
7.
J Affect Disord ; 354: 673-678, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508454

RESUMO

This paper attempts to provide a characterisation of it from a first-person perspective of dysphoria, answering the question 'how it feels like to be dysphoric?'. Starting with a definition of emotions as embodied phenomena that provide the person with a felt motivation to move, a rich characterisation of dysphoria is provided centred on the coenesthetic and kinesthetic feelings inherent to this emotion. To fulfil this task, a selected choice of literary, poetic, theatrical and philosophical texts is used to compensate for the quasi-ineffability of the contrasting feelings inherent to dysphoria. Current definitions of dysphoria only highlight the 'negative' side of dysphoria, including irritability, discontent, surrender and interpersonal resentment. A more accurate characterisation necessitates the recognition of the 'positive' side of dysphoria and the ambiguities and contradictions inherent in this emotion. Dysphoric persons feel burdened by a weight that prevents them from moving and simultaneously incites movement. The inertia that accompanies dysphoria is inextricably tied in with a vital urge, however disordered and purposeless. Dysphoria is experienced both as a deadly stagnation and as a chaotic, wild impulse that brings with it an inane aspiration to explore the darkest parts of one's self in search of a glimmer of meaning and authenticity. This characterisation of dysphoria can help to differentiate it from other emotions such as sadness, anger, anxiety and anguish, and thus to identify it more precisely within the spectrum of mood disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Emoções , Humanos , Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Humor Irritável , Filosofia
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 46(1): 15, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478178

RESUMO

This article analyses the evolutionist discourses on the senses that emerged in the late 19th century, when theories on the evolution of species were in full sway. Drawing on newspapers, essays and medical literature, this article aims to set face to face the two currents of thought that I have identified regarding sensory evolution: the one that stressed the value of the progressive specialisation of the senses as evidence for human evolution mainly supported by Max Nordau, and the one which regarded the sensory regrouping, exemplified by the phenomenon of synaesthesia, as the true symptom of evolution, strongly supported by Victor Segalen. A close examination of their arguments will provide clues concerning their relative position vis-à-vis the theory that stressed the exceptional nature of humankind among all living beings. Based on newspapers, essays and medical literature, this paper, which straddles several fields (history of science, philosophy, cultural history and aesthetics) aims to set both positions face to face, examining their arguments in detail and establishing their genealogies. This will lead to a better understanding of the scope and range of evolutionist discourses in the fin de siècle culture and on their impact upon artistic practices.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Humanos , Filosofia/história , Estética
9.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 38, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539209

RESUMO

In line with recent proposals for experimental philosophy and philosophy of science in practice, we propose that the philosophy of medicine could benefit from incorporating empirical research, just as bioethics has. In this paper, we therefore take first steps towards the development of an empirical philosophy of medicine, that includes investigating practical and moral dimensions. This qualitative study gives insight into the views and experiences of a group of various medical professionals and patient representatives regarding the conceptualization of health and disease concepts in practice and the possible problems that surround them. This includes clinical, epistemological, and ethical issues. We have conducted qualitative interviews with a broad range of participants (n = 17), working in various health-related disciplines, fields and organizations. From the interviews, we highlight several different practical functions of definitions of health and disease. Furthermore, we discuss 5 types of problematic situations that emerged from the interviews and analyze the underlying conceptual issues. By providing theoretical frameworks and conceptual tools, and by suggesting conceptual changes or adaptations, philosophers might be able to help solve some of these problems. This empirical-philosophical study contributes to a more pragmatic way of understanding the relevance of conceptualizing health and disease by connecting the participants' views and experiences to the theoretical debate. Going back and forth between theory and practice will likely result in a more complex but hopefully also better and more fruitful understanding of health and disease concepts.


Assuntos
Bioética , Filosofia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Atenção à Saúde
10.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(1): 61-70, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467446

RESUMO

The notion of human dignity remains a relatively complex concept that has roots in classical Greek and Roman antiquity and links to religious teachings and Kantian philosophical notions. From the Latin dignitas, human dignity means worth and implies excellence and distinction. Human dignity, also found in 20th century constitutions and international declarations, has been considered in bioethics, general medicine, and psychiatry. The application of dignity to forensic psychiatry practice has received less attention. Through a review of texts in medicine and related fields, such as philosophy and anthropology, we aim to clarify the concept of human dignity and its application in forensic psychiatry practice. We first outline the historical origins of the term. We then consider several varieties of human dignity applied in medical ethics and psychiatry. We review individuals' lived experiences of indignity and dignity's place in forensic practice in different loci. We present recent scholarship related to human dignity and highlight the importance of dignity in forensic practice. Focusing on dignity in evaluator-evaluee and doctor-patient relationships should improve forensic work. Training in dignity-imbued forensic practice should remind us of the human dimensions of those we serve in the forensic arena.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Respeito , Humanos , Filosofia
11.
J Anal Psychol ; 69(1): 27-50, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321836

RESUMO

In the introduction to The Psychology of the Transference (1946), Carl Jung sketched out a theory of "erotic phenomenology" which condenses his teaching about sexuality and romantic love into a very concise summary. But the meaning of this passage is obscured in the English translation given in the Collected Works of C. G. Jung. I propose here a new translation which makes Jung's meaning clearer, along with a commentary which explains it in the context of Freudian drive theory and German 19th century philosophy. Invoking the concepts of instinct, mind, and Eros (both the passion and the divine figure), Jung's theory says that male sexual desire can be cultivated or repressed in four distinct ways, each associated with a female symbolic figure or anima image: Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia.


Dans son introduction à La Psychologie du Transfert (1946), Carl Jung esquisse une « phénoménologie érotique ¼ qui condense ses enseignements sur la sexualité et le désir en un résumé très concis. Mais le sens de ce passage est brouillé dans la traduction anglaise des Collected Works of C.G. Jung. Je propose ici une nouvelle traduction qui rend l'argument de Jung plus clair, suivie d'un commentaire qui l'explique dans le contexte de la théorie freudienne des pulsions et de la philosophie allemande du XIXe siècle. Invoquant les concepts d'instinct, d'esprit et d'Eros (en tant que passion ainsi que figure divine), la théorie de Jung dit que le désir sexuel masculin peut être cultivé ou réprimé de quatre manières distinctes, chacune associée à une figure symbolique féminine ou image de l'anima: Eve, Hélène, Marie et Sophia.


En la introducción a La Psicología de la Transferencia (1946), Carl Jung esbozó una "fenomenología erótica" que condensa sus enseñanzas sobre la sexualidad y el amor romántico en un resumen muy conciso. Pero el significado de este pasaje queda opacado en la traducción inglesa de las Obras Completas de C.G. Jung. Propongo aquí una nueva traducción que aclara el significado de Jung, junto con un comentario que lo explica en el contexto de la teoría freudiana de la pulsión y la filosofía alemana del siglo XIX. Invocando los conceptos de instinto, mente y Eros (tanto la pasión como la figura divina), la teoría de Jung expresa que el deseo sexual masculino puede cultivarse o reprimirse de cuatro maneras distintas, cada una asociada a una figura simbólica femenina o imagen del ánima: Eva, Helena, María y Sofía.


Assuntos
Teoria Junguiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Emoções , Teoria Freudiana , Filosofia
12.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 43, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the spiritual environment of parents of children receiving palliative care in Southern European countries, which are mostly characterized by secularization (or the abandonment of traditional religiosity) and an increase of cultural and religious diversities resulting in a much broader spectrum of spiritual and religious beliefs. This study aimed to explore the parents' own spirituality, religiosity, and philosophy of life in coping with the care of their child with palliative needs. METHODS: Qualitative interviews of 14 parents of children included in a palliative care program in a pediatric hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were parents of children who have been cared for the palliative care program for a minimum of 3 months and who displayed a willingness to talk about their personal experiences and gave written consent. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed by an independent service, and analyzed on a case-by-case basis using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. RESULTS: The three domains identified were life philosophy, relational, and transcendent. Life philosophy included principles that guided parents' decision-making, and how the onset of their child's serious illness had promoted a change in their values. Relational was focused on how they perceived themselves (e.g. motherhood), others (e.g. one's own child exceptionality), and the way they believed others perceived and supported them (e.g. relatives, friends, and healthcare providers). The transcendent domain involved God-related concepts, divinity and divine intervention (e.g. a miracle as an interpretive framework for that which cannot be explained within scientific knowledge limitations). CONCLUSIONS: Inflexible categories identifying parents as having a particular religious faith tradition are not sufficient to capture the interrelation of knowledges (ethical, religious, scientific) that each parent generates when faced with their child receiving palliative care. Clinicians should explore parents' spirituality in an individualized way that responds to the uniqueness of their experiential process.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Espiritualidade , Criança , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Religião , Pais , Filosofia
13.
Lancet ; 403(10427): 615-616, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368007
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 345: 116640, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359526

RESUMO

While medical sociology has long incorporated insights from pragmatist philosophy, recent contributions call for a more explicit engagement with this tradition. Complementing Greenhalgh and Engebretsen's (2022) call for a pragmatist analysis of public health policymaking and crisis, we systemize medical sociology's engagement with pragmatism. We suggest three precepts of pragmatist philosophy as they relate to medical sociology: First, a focus on consequences in action, or understanding medical phenomena through what is done rather than established definitions; Second, problem solving, or how medical actors move between habit and creativity; And third, negotiation of meaning, or analyzing patient-provider communication through ongoing action and interpretation. Such systematization, we argue, would enrich both new and existing topics in medical sociology, from medicalization to mask-wearing.


Assuntos
Sociologia Médica , Sociologia , Humanos , Filosofia , Saúde Pública , Formulação de Políticas
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(8): 5030-5044, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359354

RESUMO

Aggregate is one of the most extensive existing modes of matters in the world. Besides the research objectives of inanimate systems in physical science, the entities in life science can be regarded as living aggregates, which are far from being thoroughly understood despite the great advances in molecular biology. Molecular biology follows the research philosophy of reductionism, which generally reduces the whole into parts to study. Although reductionism benefits the understanding of molecular behaviors, it encounters limitations when extending to the aggregate level. Holism is another epistemology comparable to reductionism, which studies objectives at the aggregate level, emphasizing the interactions and synergetic/antagonistic effects of a group of composed single entities in determining the characteristics of a whole. As a representative of holism, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) materials have made great achievements in the past two decades in both physical and life science. In particular, the unique properties of AIE materials endow them with in situ and real-time visual methods to investigate the inconsistency between microscopic molecules and macroscopic substances, offering researchers excellent toolkits to study living aggregates. The applications of AIE materials in life science are still in their infancy and worth expanding. In this Perspective, we summarize the research progress of AIE materials in unveiling some phenomena and processes of living systems, aiming to provide a general research approach from the viewpoint of holism. At last, insights into what we can do in the near future are also raised and discussed.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular , Filosofia
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 46(1): 13, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372821

RESUMO

This article investigates the origins of the experiences involved in the diagnostics (detection and normative evaluation) of biological entities in image-based medical praxis. Our specific research aim presupposes a vast discussion regarding the origins of knowledge in general, but is narrowed down to the alternatives of anthropomorphism and biomorphism. Accordingly, in the subsequent chapters we will make an attempt to investigate and illustrate what holds the diagnostic experiential situation together-biological regularities, manifestation via movement, conscious synthesis, causal categories, or something else. We argue that as long as knowledge originates out of practices, a promising way forward is to oscillate between the prominent although controversial ideas of the history of philosophy and observations of concrete human practices, such as, in our chosen example, image-based medical diagnostics of biological pathologies. Although a number of thinkers are involved in the discussion, Aristotle and Husserl are most important here as the representatives of historical paradigms on the matter. The body in this research was not taken solely as the physical entity (Körper) but rather as a transcendental, constitutive structure where diagnostic and biological processes synchronize in teleological movement (Leib). However, philosophical speculations are illustrated by actual radiograms, the interpretation of which brings us back to the aforementioned question of primacy regarding cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conhecimento , Humanos , Filosofia
17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 8(5): 379-384, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408455

RESUMO

The paradigm of values adopted by the global health community has a palpable, albeit often unseen, impact on patient health care. In this Viewpoint, we investigate an inherent tension in the core values of medical ethics and clinical practice that could explain why paediatric health care faces resource constraints despite compelling economic and societal imperatives to prioritise child health and wellbeing. The dominant narrative in the philosophy of medicine tends to disproportionately underscore values of independence and self-determination, which becomes problematic in the context of paediatric patients, who by their very nature epitomise vulnerability and dependence. A double-jeopardy situation arises when disadvantaged children see their inherent dependence leveraged against them. We illustrate this predicament through specific examples relating to rights and obligations and to autonomy. Alternative value perspectives-communitarianism and relational autonomy-might offer more robust protection for vulnerable children. A shift away from the dominant narrative towards a more explicit and inclusive discussion of values is necessary. Such a shift requires giving a legitimate platform to diverse perspectives, with the presumption that collective moral progress is possible; this endeavour is embodied by global bioethics. Successful implementation of global bioethics, in turn, hinges on close collaboration between practicing clinicians and bioethicists. Taking global bioethics seriously and actively pursuing collaboration could help the global health community achieve more equitable health care.


Assuntos
Bioética , Humanos , Criança , Ética Médica , Princípios Morais , Filosofia , Atenção à Saúde
18.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 104: 3-11, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359523

RESUMO

A growing literature in philosophy of science focuses on the role of aesthetics in scientific practice, with the experiment recently recognized for its aesthetic value. However, the literature on aesthetics in experimentation grows out of case studies from the history of science, leaving open the question as to how contemporary scientists experience aesthetics in their experimental work. In this paper we offer the first qualitative, empirical analysis of aesthetic experiences regarding experimental practice, drawing from in-depth interviews with 215 scientists in four countries. We identify six categories of aesthetic experience we find in experimentation, their function, and new questions emerging from our study.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Estética , Pesquisa Empírica
19.
Neuroradiol J ; 37(2): 135-136, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387867

Assuntos
Filosofia , Humanos
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