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1.
Planta ; 259(5): 105, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551685

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Monoterpenes and phenolics play distinct roles in defending white spruce trees from insect defoliators. Monoterpenes contribute to the toxicity of the foliage, deterring herbivory, whereas phenolics impede budworm growth. This study demonstrates the complex interplay between monoterpenes and phenolics and their collective influence on the defense strategy of white spruce trees against a common insect defoliator. Long-lived coniferous trees display considerable variations in their defensive chemistry. The impact of these defense phenotype variations on insect herbivores of the same species remains to be thoroughly studied, mainly due to challenges in replicating the comprehensive defense profiles of trees under controlled conditions. This study methodically examined the defensive properties of foliar monoterpenes and phenolics across 80 distinct white spruce families. These families were subsequently grouped into two chemotypes based on their foliar monoterpene concentrations. To understand the separate and combined effects of these classes on tree defenses to the eastern spruce budworm, we conducted feeding experiments using actual defense profiles from representative families. Specifically, we assessed budworm response when exposed to substrates amended with phenolics alone or monoterpenes. Our findings indicate that the ratios and amounts of monoterpenes and phenolics present in the white spruce foliage influence the survival of spruce budworms. Phenotypes associated with complete larval mortality exhibited elevated ratios (ranging from 0.4 to 0.6) and concentrations (ranging from 1143 to 1796 ng mg-1) of monoterpenes. Conversely, families characterized by higher phenolic ratios (ranging from 0.62 to 0.77) and lower monoterpene concentrations (ranging from 419 to 985 ng mg-1) were less lethal to the spruce budworm. Both classes of defense compounds contribute significantly to the overall defensive capabilities of white spruce trees. Monoterpenes appear critical in determining the general toxicity of foliage, while phenolics play a role in slowing budworm development, thereby underscoring their collective importance in white spruce defenses.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Picea , Animais , Picea/genética , Mariposas/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Monoterpenos , Árvores , Fenóis
2.
J Insect Sci ; 24(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554055

RESUMO

Winter climate change constitutes not only a shift in chronic conditions (i.e., shorter length and warmer average temperatures) but will also influence the dynamics of extreme warming events. The latter may be particularly important for the performance and survival of insects, given their susceptibility to temperature variation. However, metabolic sensitivity changes over the course of winter diapause, and thus, insect responses to warming may vary depending on when the event occurs. To determine the influence of warm-up timing, we exposed the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana ((Clem.), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to acute warming events in early-, mid-, and late-dormancy and measured impacts on survival, performance, and biochemistry. While we did not observe any impacts of warm-up timing on performance, survival to the adult stage was significantly reduced in response to earlier warming. Additionally, glycogen concentration was significantly higher in response to early and late warming exposure. Collectively, these results suggest that the timing of extreme winter warming events matters, with consequences for both lethal and sublethal responses.


Assuntos
Diapausa , Mariposas , Picea , Animais , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17252, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501719

RESUMO

The synthesis of a large body of evidence from field experiments suggests more diverse plant communities are more productive as well as more resistant to the effects of climatic extremes like drought. However, this view is strongly based on data from grasslands due to the limited empirical evidence from tree diversity experiments. Here we report on the relationship between tree diversity and productivity over 10 years in a field experiment established in 2005 that was then affected by the 2018 mega-drought in central Europe. Across a number of years, tree species diversity and productivity were significantly positively related; however, the slope switched to negative in the year of the drought. Net diversity effects increased through time, with complementarity effects making greater contributions to the net diversity effect than selection effects. Complementarity effects were clearly positive in three- and five-species mixtures before the drought (2012-2016) but were found to decrease in the year of the drought. Selection effects were clearly positive in 2016 and remained positive in the drought year 2018 in two-, three-, and five-species mixtures. The survival of Norway spruce (Picea abies) plummeted in response to the drought, and a negative relationship between species diversity and spruce survival was found. Taken together, our findings suggest that tree diversity per se may not buffer communities against the impacts of extreme drought and that tree species composition and the drought tolerance of tree species (i.e., species identity) will be important determinants of community productivity as the prevalence of drought increases.


Assuntos
Picea , Árvores , Árvores/fisiologia , Secas , Florestas , Europa (Continente) , Picea/fisiologia
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17262, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546370

RESUMO

Current global climate change is expected to affect biodiversity negatively at all scales leading to mass biodiversity loss. Many studies have shown that the distribution of allele frequencies across a species' range is often influenced by specific genetic loci associated with local environmental variables. This association reflects local adaptation and allele changes at those loci could thereby contribute to the evolutionary response to climate change. However, predicting how species will adapt to climate change from this type of data alone remains challenging. In the present study, we combined exome capture sequences and environmental niche reconstruction, to test multiple methods for assessing local adaptation and climate resilience in two widely distributed conifers, Norway spruce and Siberian spruce. Both species are keystone species of the boreal forest and share a vast hybrid zone. We show that local adaptation in conifers can be detected through allele frequency variation, population-level ecological preferences, and historical niche movement. Moreover, we integrated genetic and ecological information into genetic offset predictive models to show that hybridization plays a central role in expanding the niche breadth of the two conifer species and may help both species to cope better with future changing climates. This joint genetic and ecological analysis also identified spruce populations that are at risk under current climate change.


Assuntos
Picea , Resiliência Psicológica , Traqueófitas , Árvores , Taiga , Mudança Climática , Hibridização Genética , Cycadopsida , Picea/genética
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(1): 169-176, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511453

RESUMO

Microbial residues are an important component of soil organic carbon (SOC). It is unclear how long-term thinning affects the accumulation characteristics of microbial residue carbon (C). We analyzed the differences in soil physicochemical properties, microbial communities, extracellular enzyme activities, and microbial residue C in topsoil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (20-30 cm) in Picea asperata plantation of non-thinned (control, 4950 trees·hm-2) and thinned for 14 years (1160 trees·hm-2) stands, aiming to reveal the regulatory mechanism of thinning on microbial residue C accumulation. The results showed that thinning significantly increased SOC content, total nitrogen content, available phosphorus content, the proportion of particulate organic C, soil water content, C-cycle hydrolase, and acid phosphatase activities, but significantly reduced the proportion of mineral-associated organic C. Thinning significantly affected the content of fungal and microbial residue C, and the contribution of microbial residue C to SOC, and these effects were independent of soil layer. The content of fungal and microbial residue C was 25.0% and 24.5% higher under thinning treatments. However, thinning significantly decreased the contribution of microbial residue C to SOC by 12.3%, indicating an increase in the proportion of plant-derived C in SOC. Stepwise regression analysis showed that total nitrogen and soil water content were key factors influencing fungal and micro-bial residue C accumulation. In summary, thinning promoted microbial residue C sequestration by altering soil pro-perties and changed the composition of SOC sources.


Assuntos
Picea , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Região dos Alpes Europeus , Minerais , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Água/análise
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130289, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378107

RESUMO

Using 7 % KOH, the polysaccharide PAK has been isolated from the coniferous greens of Norway spruce. PAK was found to contain predominantly arabinoglucuronoxylan, xyloglucan and arabinan, but also pectic polysaccharides, glucomannan and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), as determined by 1D/2D NMR analysis. It was found that fractionation of PAK on DEAE-cellulose resulted in simultaneous elution of pectins, arabinoglucuronoxylans and AGPs. It was evident that the content of 4-OMe-α-D-GlcpA and xylose, 1,4-ß-D-GlcpA, and T-ß-D-GlcpA increased with an increase in NaCl concentration. However, 1,4-α-D-GalpA content was almost independent of NaCl concentration, indicating unchanged pectic polysaccharide concentration. Interestingly, pectins extracted with 0.1-0.3 M NaCl solutions were richer in rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) than those extracted with water and 0.01 M NaCl. Conclusion: The content of RG-I, AGPs and arabinoglucuronoxylan rises with rising NaCl concentration. An intense signal indicating an intermolecular linkage between the xylan and RG-I domains, i.e. that part of the arabinoglucuronoxylan is covalently bound to RG-I, is observed in the HMBC spectra of the polysaccharides obtained. The discovery here of a new relationship between rhamnogalacturonan I and xylan contradicts the prevailing cell wall model.


Assuntos
Abies , Mucoproteínas , Picea , Xilanos , Abies/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio , Polissacarídeos/química , Pectinas/química , Proteínas de Plantas
7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 14(4)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366548

RESUMO

In species with large and complex genomes such as conifers, dense linkage maps are a useful resource for supporting genome assembly and laying the genomic groundwork at the structural, populational, and functional levels. However, most of the 600+ extant conifer species still lack extensive genotyping resources, which hampers the development of high-density linkage maps. In this study, we developed a linkage map relying on 21,570 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr.), a long-lived conifer from western North America that is widely planted for productive forestry in the British Isles. We used a single-step mapping approach to efficiently combine RAD-seq and genotyping array SNP data for 528 individuals from 2 full-sib families. As expected for spruce taxa, the saturated map contained 12 linkages groups with a total length of 2,142 cM. The positioning of 5,414 unique gene coding sequences allowed us to compare our map with that of other Pinaceae species, which provided evidence for high levels of synteny and gene order conservation in this family. We then developed an integrated map for P. sitchensis and Picea glauca based on 27,052 markers and 11,609 gene sequences. Altogether, these 2 linkage maps, the accompanying catalog of 286,159 SNPs and the genotyping chip developed, herein, open new perspectives for a variety of fundamental and more applied research objectives, such as for the improvement of spruce genome assemblies, or for marker-assisted sustainable management of genetic resources in Sitka spruce and related species.


Assuntos
Picea , Traqueófitas , Humanos , Picea/genética , Traqueófitas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 923: 171174, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402972

RESUMO

Understanding how trees prioritize carbon gain at the cost of drought vulnerability under severe drought conditions is crucial for predicting which genetic groups and individuals will be resilient to future climate conditions. In this study, we investigated variations in growth, tree-ring anatomy as well as carbon and oxygen isotope ratios to assess the sensitivity and the xylem formation process in response to an episode of severe drought in 29 mature white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) families grown in a common garden trial. During the drought episode, the majority of families displayed decreased growth and exhibited either sustained or increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), which was largely influenced by reduced stomatal conductance as revealed by the dual carbon­oxygen isotope approach. Different water-use strategies were detected within white spruce populations in response to drought conditions. Our results revealed intraspecific variation in the prevailing physiological mechanisms underlying drought response within and among populations of Picea glauca. The presence of different genetic groups reflecting diverse water-use strategies within this largely-distributed conifer is likely to lessen the negative effects of drought and decrease the overall forest ecosystems' sensitivity to it.


Assuntos
Picea , Traqueófitas , Humanos , Secas , Ecossistema , Árvores , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Carbono , Água , Isótopos de Oxigênio
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 226, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302669

RESUMO

In 2022, Europe emerged from eight of the hottest years on record, leading to significant spruce mortality across Europe. The particularly dry weather conditions of 2018 triggered an outbreak of bark beetles (Ips typographus), causing the loss of thousands of hectares of Norway spruce stands, including in Wallonia and North-eastern France. A methodology for detecting the health status of spruce was developed based on a dense time series of satellite imagery (Sentinel-2). The time series of satellite images allowed the modelling of the spectral response of healthy spruce forests over the seasons: a decrease in photosynthetic activity of the forest canopy causes deviations from this normal seasonal vegetation index trajectory. These anomalies are caused by a bark beetle attack and are detected automatically. The method leads in the production of an annual spruce health map of Wallonia and Grand-Est. The goal of this paper is to assess the damage caused by bark beetle using the resulting spruce health maps. A second objective was to compare the influence of basic variables on the mortality of spruce trees in these two regions. Lasted 6 years (2017-2022), bark beetle has destroyed 12.2% (23,674 ha) of the spruce area in Wallonia and Grand-Est of France. This study area is composed of three bioclimatic areas: Plains, Ardennes and Vosges, which have not been equally affected by bark beetle attacks. The plains were the most affected, with 50% of spruce forests destroyed, followed by the Ardennes, which lost 11.3% of its spruce stands. The Vosges was the least affected bioclimatic area, with 5.6% of spruce stands lost. For the most problematic sites, Norway spruce forestry should no longer be considered.


Assuntos
Abies , Besouros , Picea , Gorgulhos , Animais , Picea/fisiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Casca de Planta , Bélgica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Monitoramento Ambiental , Noruega , França , Surtos de Doenças , Árvores
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396714

RESUMO

The NAC family of transcription factors (TFs) regulate plant development and abiotic stress. However, the specific function and response mechanism of NAC TFs that increase drought resistance in Picea wilsonii remain largely unknown. In this study, we functionally characterized a member of the PwNAC family known as PwNAC31. PwNAC31 is a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity and contains an NAC domain that shows extensive homology with ANAC072 in Arabidopsis. The expression level of PwNAC31 is significantly upregulated under drought and ABA treatments. The heterologous expression of PwNAC31 in atnac072 Arabidopsis mutants enhances the seed vigor and germination rates and restores the hypersensitive phenotype of atnac072 under drought stress, accompanied by the up-regulated expression of drought-responsive genes such as DREB2A (DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN 2A) and ERD1 (EARLY RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION STRESS 1). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that PwNAC31 interacts with DREB2A and ABF3 (ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR 3). Yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase assays showed that PwNAC31, together with its interaction protein DREB2A, directly regulated the expression of ERD1 by binding to the DRE element of the ERD1 promoter. Collectively, our study provides evidence that PwNAC31 activates ERD1 by interacting with DREB2A to enhance drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Resistência à Seca , Picea , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Desidratação/genética , Resistência à Seca/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Picea/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo
11.
Plant Cell Environ ; 47(4): 1285-1299, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38213092

RESUMO

Using a unique 8-year data set (2010-2017) of phloem data, we studied the effect of temperature and precipitation on the phloem anatomy (conduit area, widths of ring, early and late phloem) and xylem-ring width in two coexisting temperate tree species, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica, from three contrasting European temperate forest sites. Histometric analyses were performed on microcores taken from tree stems in autumn. We found high interannual variability and sensitivity of phloem anatomy and xylem-ring widths to precipitation and temperature; however, the responses were species- and site-specific. The contrasting response of xylem and phloem-ring widths of the same tree species to weather conditions was found at the two Slovenian sites generally well supplied with precipitation, while at the driest Czech site, the influence of weather factors on xylem and phloem ring widths was synchronised. Since widths of mean annual xylem and phloem increments were narrowest at the Czech site, this site is suggested to be most restrictive for the radial growth of both species. By influencing the seasonal patterns of xylem and phloem development, water availability appears to be the most important determinant of tissue- and species-specific responses to local weather conditions.


Assuntos
Abies , Fagus , Picea , Pinus , Picea/fisiologia , Floema , Clima , Árvores/fisiologia
12.
Nat Plants ; 10(1): 53-65, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168607

RESUMO

The widespread use of plant grafting enables eudicots and gymnosperms to join with closely related species and grow as one. Gymnosperms have dominated forests for over 200 million years, and despite their economic and ecological relevance, we know little about how they graft. Here we developed a micrografting method in conifers using young tissues that allowed efficient grafting with closely related species and between distantly related genera. Conifer graft junctions rapidly connected vasculature and differentially expressed thousands of genes including auxin and cell-wall-related genes. By comparing these genes to those induced during Arabidopsis thaliana graft formation, we found a common activation of cambium, cell division, phloem and xylem-related genes. A gene regulatory network analysis in Norway spruce (Picea abies) predicted that PHYTOCHROME A SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION 1 (PAT1) acted as a core regulator of graft healing. This gene was strongly up-regulated during both spruce and Arabidopsis grafting, and Arabidopsis mutants lacking PAT genes failed to attach tissues or successfully graft. Complementing Arabidopsis PAT mutants with the spruce PAT1 homolog rescued tissue attachment and enhanced callus formation. Together, our data show an ability for young tissues to graft with distantly related species and identifies the PAT gene family as conserved regulators of graft healing and tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Picea , Arabidopsis/genética , Picea/genética , Xilema , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Floema , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17146, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273515

RESUMO

Temperate forests are undergoing significant transformations due to the influence of climate change, including varying responses of different tree species to increasing temperature and drought severity. To comprehensively understand the full range of growth responses, representative datasets spanning extensive site and climatic gradients are essential. This study utilizes tree-ring data from 550 sites from the temperate forests of Czechia to assess growth trends of six dominant Central European tree species (European beech, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, sessile and pedunculate oak) over 1990-2014. By modeling mean growth series for each species and site, and employing principal component analysis, we identified the predominant growth trends. Over the study period, linear growth trends were evident across most sites (56% increasing, 32% decreasing, and 10% neutral). The proportion of sites with stationary positive trends increased from low toward high elevations, whereas the opposite was true for the stationary negative trends. Notably, within the middle range of their distribution (between 500 and 700 m a.s.l.), Norway spruce and European beech exhibited a mix of positive and negative growth trends. While Scots pine growth trends showed no clear elevation-based pattern, silver fir and oaks displayed consistent positive growth trends regardless of site elevation, indicating resilience to the ongoing warming. We demonstrate divergent growth trajectories across space and among species. These findings are particularly important as recent warming has triggered a gradual shift in the elevation range of optimal growth conditions for most tree species and has also led to a decoupling of growth trends between lowlands and mountain areas. As a result, further future shifts in the elevation range and changes in species diversity of European temperate forests can be expected.


Assuntos
Fagus , Picea , Pinus sylvestris , Quercus , Árvores , Florestas , Picea/fisiologia , Noruega , Mudança Climática
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e17079, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273579

RESUMO

Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and severity of droughts, possibly causing sudden and elevated tree mortality. Better understanding and predictions of boreal forest responses to climate change are needed to efficiently adapt forest management. We used tree-ring width chronologies from the Swedish National Forest Inventory, sampled between 2010 and 2018, and a random forest machine-learning algorithm to identify the tree, stand, and site variables that determine drought damage risk, and to predict their future spatial-temporal evolution. The dataset consisted of 16,455 cores of Norway spruce, Scots pine, and birch trees from all over Sweden. The risk of drought damage was calculated as the probability of growth anomaly occurrence caused by past drought events during 1960-2010. We used the block cross-validation method to compute model predictions for drought damage risk under current climate and climate predicted for 2040-2070 under the RCP.2.6, RCP.4.5, and RCP.8.5 emission scenarios. We found local climatic variables to be the most important predictors, although stand competition also affects drought damage risk. Norway spruce is currently the most susceptible species to drought in southern Sweden. This species currently faces high vulnerability in 28% of the country and future increases in spring temperatures would greatly increase this area to almost half of the total area of Sweden. Warmer annual temperatures will also increase the current forested area where birch suffers from drought, especially in northern and central Sweden. In contrast, for Scots pine, drought damage coincided with cold winter and early-spring temperatures. Consequently, the current area with high drought damage risk would decrease in a future warmer climate for Scots pine. We suggest active selection of tree species, promoting the right species mixtures and thinning to reduce tree competition as promising strategies for adapting boreal forests to future droughts.


Assuntos
Picea , Pinus sylvestris , Secas , Mudança Climática , Adaptação Fisiológica , Estações do Ano
15.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 118, 2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281030

RESUMO

Conifers are long-lived and slow-evolving, thus requiring effective defences against their fast-evolving insect natural enemies. The copy number variation (CNV) of two key acetophenone biosynthesis genes Ugt5/Ugt5b and ßglu-1 may provide a plausible mechanism underlying the constitutively variable defence in white spruce (Picea glauca) against its primary defoliator, spruce budworm. This study develops a long-insert sequence capture probe set (Picea_hung_p1.0) for quantifying copy number of ßglu-1-like, Ugt5-like genes and single-copy genes on 38 Norway spruce (Picea abies) and 40 P. glauca individuals from eight and nine provenances across Europe and North America respectively. We developed local assemblies (Piabi_c1.0 and Pigla_c.1.0), full-length transcriptomes (PIAB_v1 and PIGL_v1), and gene models to characterise the diversity of ßglu-1 and Ugt5 genes. We observed very large copy numbers of ßglu-1, with up to 381 copies in a single P. glauca individual. We observed among-provenance CNV of ßglu-1 in P. glauca but not P. abies. Ugt5b was predominantly single-copy in both species. This study generates critical hypotheses for testing the emergence and mechanism of extreme CNV, the dosage effect on phenotype, and the varying copy number of genes with the same pathway. We demonstrate new approaches to overcome experimental challenges in genomic research in conifer defences.


Assuntos
Picea , Humanos , Picea/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , beta-Glucosidase/genética , Genômica , Transcriptoma
16.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 114, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242964

RESUMO

The naturally occurring bisexual cone of gymnosperms has long been considered a possible intermediate stage in the origin of flowers, but the mechanisms governing bisexual cone formation remain largely elusive. Here, we employed transcriptomic and DNA methylomic analyses, together with hormone measurement, to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying bisexual cone development in the conifer Picea crassifolia. Our study reveals a "bisexual" expression profile in bisexual cones, especially in expression patterns of B-class, C-class and LEAFY genes, supporting the out of male model. GGM7 could be essential for initiating bisexual cones. DNA methylation reconfiguration in bisexual cones affects the expression of key genes in cone development, including PcDAL12, PcDAL10, PcNEEDLY, and PcHDG5. Auxin likely plays an important role in the development of female structures of bisexual cones. This study unveils the potential mechanisms responsible for bisexual cone formation in conifers and may shed light on the evolution of bisexuality.


Assuntos
Picea , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Traqueófitas , Humanos , Filogenia , Bissexualidade , Picea/genética , Picea/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Traqueófitas/genética
17.
Tree Physiol ; 44(1)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861656

RESUMO

Conifers growing in temperate forests utilize sustained forms of thermal dissipation during winter to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from damage, which can be monitored via pronounced reductions in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) during winter. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea  glauca (Moench) Voss) are known to recover from winter stress at different rates, with pine recovering more slowly than spruce, suggesting different mechanisms for sustained dissipation in these species. Our objectives were to monitor pine and spruce throughout spring recovery in order to provide insights into key mechanisms for sustained dissipation in both species. We measured chlorophyll fluorescence, pigments, and abundance and phosphorylation status of key photosynthetic proteins. We found that both species rely on two forms of sustained dissipation involving retention of high amounts of antheraxanthin (A) + zeaxanthin (Z), one that is very slowly reversible and temperature independent and one that is more dynamic and occurs only on subzero days. Differences in protein abundance suggest that spruce, but not pine, likely upregulates cyclic or alternative pathways of electron transport involving the cytochrome b6f complex and photosystem I (PSI). Both species show an increased sustained phosphorylation of the D1 protein on subzero days, and spruce additionally shows dramatic increases in the sustained phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and other PSII core proteins on subzero days only, suggesting that a mechanism of sustained dissipation that is temperature dependent requires sustained phosphorylation of photosynthetic proteins in spruce, possibly allowing for direct energy transfer from PSII to PSI as a mechanism of photoprotection. The data suggest differences in strategy among conifers in mechanisms of sustained thermal dissipation in response to winter stress. Additionally, the flexible induction of sustained A + Z and phosphorylation of photosynthetic proteins in response to subzero temperatures during spring recovery seem to be important in providing photoprotection during transitional periods with high temperature fluctuation.


Assuntos
Picea , Pinus , Picea/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Pinus/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Temperatura , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Clorofila/metabolismo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 168561, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981128

RESUMO

Forest insect outbreaks cause significant reductions in the forest canopy through defoliation and tree mortality that modify the storage and flow of water, potentially altering catchment runoff and stream discharge patterns. Despite a growing understanding of the impacts of insect outbreaks on the hydrology of broadleaf forests, little is known about these impacts to catchment hydrology in northern conifer-dominated forests. We measured the effects of cumulative defoliation by spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) on stream discharge and runoff in 12 experimental catchments (6.33-9.85 km2) across the central Gaspé Peninsula in eastern Québec, Canada over a three-year period (2019-2021). Six catchments were aerially treated with BtK (Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki) insecticide to suppress the outbreak and six catchments were left untreated, leading to a defoliation gradient across the study sites. Stage-discharge relationships were established between June and October from 2019 to 2021. Stream volumetric discharge (r = 0.71, p < 0.01, t(34) = 5.85), runoff (r = 0.55, p < 0.01, t(34) = 3.81) and runoff ratios (r = 0.67, p < 0.01, t(33) = 5.19) were all strongly positively correlated with cumulative defoliation intensity, likely by reducing available water storage in the catchment and therefore enhancing runoff generation. Seasonally, volumetric discharge, runoff, and runoff ratios were more strongly correlated with defoliation in the summer than autumn months, likely because available catchment storage was more limited following the freshet. Overall, we found that insect defoliation impacts forested catchment hydrology similar to other landscape disturbances, and such consequences should be considered in forest management and the control of forest insect outbreaks.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Picea , Traqueófitas , Animais , Florestas , Água
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 254(Pt 3): 128000, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949276

RESUMO

Polymers containing arabinoglucuronoxylan, fucogalactoxyglucan, pectin and arabinogalactan proteins were obtained from PAK isolated from Norway spruce with 7 % KOH. The pectin core of PAK-I2-F-1 and PAK-I2-F-2 was dominated by RG-I, as treatment with 1,4-α-D-polygalacturonase resulted in almost complete removal of homogalacturonan. Interestingly, the above has not affected the co-fractionation of arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX), arabinogalactan proteins and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I). Since pectin was mainly represented by RG-I, we concluded that xylan is specifically associated with RG-I. Correlations in the HMBC spectrum demonstrate intermolecular interactions between the α-L-Rhap (RG-I) and the Xyl (xylan), indicating a covalently bound AGX:RG-I complex via the Xyl-(1→4)-Rha bond: …→2)-[(2,4-ß-D-Xylp)-(1→4)]-[(α-D-GalpA-(1→2)]-α-L-Rhap-(1→4)-α-D-GalpA-(1→…. In PAK-H1-1-F-1 and PAK-H1-1-F-2, parts of RG-I and xylan were removed by enzymolysis. Part of the xylan was probably attached to the above-mentioned RG-I blocks. The removal of part of RG-I, xylan and the disappearance of the signal in the HMBC spectrum indicating the bond between RG-I and xylan confirms that part of the arabinoglucuronoxylan is covalently bound to RG-I. The observed glycosidic linkage contradicts the dominant PCW model in which pectin and hemicellulose polysaccharide networks are considered as independent components. It can be concluded that alkali-soluble xylan from Norway spruce was detected both in the free state and covalently bound to pectin.


Assuntos
Abies , Picea , Xilanos/química , Abies/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Pectinas/química
20.
Tree Physiol ; 44(1)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070177

RESUMO

Beneficial and negative effects of species interactions can strongly influence water fluxes in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about how trees dynamically adjust their water use when growing with interspecific neighbours. Therefore, we investigated the interaction effects between Fagus sylvatica (European beech) and Picea abies (Norway spruce) on water-use strategies and aboveground structural characteristics. We used continuous in situ isotope spectroscopy of xylem and soil water to investigate source water dynamics and root water uptake depths. Picea abies exhibited a reduced sun-exposed crown area in equally mixed compared with spruce-dominated sites, which was further correlated to a reduction in sap flow of -14.5 ± 8.2%. Contrarily, F. sylvatica trees showed +13.3 ± 33.3% higher water fluxes in equally mixed compared with beech-dominated forest sites. Although a significantly higher crown interference by neighbouring trees was observed, no correlation of water fluxes and crown structure was found. High time-resolved xylem δ2H values showed a large plasticity of tree water use (-74.1 to -28.5‰), reflecting the δ2H dynamics of soil and especially precipitation water sources. Fagus sylvatica in equally mixed sites shifted water uptake to deeper soil layers, while uptake of fresh precipitation was faster in beech-dominated sites. Our continuous in situ water stable isotope measurements traced root water uptake dynamics at unprecedented temporal resolution, indicating highly dynamic use of water sources in response to precipitation and to neighbouring species competition. Understanding this plasticity may be highly relevant in the context of increasing water scarcity and precipitation variability under climate change.


Assuntos
Fagus , Picea , Picea/fisiologia , Fagus/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Água , Florestas , Árvores/fisiologia , Solo/química , Isótopos
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