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1.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(2): e13027, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439649

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the beaks of three species of birds using radiography and computed tomography (CT). The mean lengths of maxillary and mandibular rostra on radiographs were highest for toco toucan, followed by buff-necked ibis, and least for red-legged seriema birds. The height and width of maxillary and mandibular rostra measured on CT had mean values highest for toco toucans, followed by red-legged seriema, and least for buff-necked ibis. Except for the proximal region of the maxillary rostrum, the HU values were positive for other regions of the maxillary and mandibular rostra in the buff-necked ibis and red-legged seriema and negative in all for the toco toucan.


Assuntos
Bico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Aves , Mandíbula
2.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(8)2024 02 19.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445338

RESUMO

Beak fractures represent a rare subtype of calcaneal fractures with potential risk of soft tissue complications due to compromised local perfusion. Early diagnosis and timely intervention are crucial to prevent necrosis, infection, and soft tissue defects. This case report describes a 71-year-old male with a beak fracture and delayed intervention with reoccurring soft tissue defects. Given the rarity of the condition, atypical presentation and need for urgent intervention, this emphasizes the importance of awareness of beak fractures of the calcaneus.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Calcâneo , Fraturas Ósseas , Traumatismos do Joelho , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcâneo/cirurgia , Bico , Extremidade Inferior
3.
J Morphol ; 285(4): e21691, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555512

RESUMO

The feeding organ of cephalopod species, the beak, can be used to reveal important ecological information. In this study, geometric morphometric approaches were employed to investigate the phylogenetic relevance and classification effect of beak lateral profile shape. The two-dimensional beak morphologies of 1164 pairs of 24 species from 13 genera and five families were constructed, and their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status were confirmed using geometric morphometrics and molecular biology approaches. We also assessed the phylogenetic signals of beak shape. The analysis results show shape variation in the beak mainly in the rostrum, hood, and lateral wall. The overall shape parameters (all PCs) of the upper and lower beak are more useful for species identification. The shapes of the upper and lower beak show a strong phylogenetic signal, and the phenogram based on the beak shape basically reflected the families' taxonomic positions. We also hypothesized that the shape variation in the beaks of cephalopods may be ascribed to genetic and environmental differences. In summary, beaks are a reliable material for the classification of cephalopod species. Geometric morphometric approaches are a powerful tool to reveal the identification, phylogenetic relevance and phenotypic diversity of beak shape in cephalopods.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Humanos , Animais , Filogenia , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
4.
Br Poult Sci ; 65(2): 105-110, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334033

RESUMO

1. Using chicken models to avoid unnecessary harm, this study examined the relationship between naturally-occurring maxillary (top) beak shapes and their ability to cause pecking damage.2. A selection of 24 Lohmann Brown laying hens from a total population of 100 were sorted into two groups based on their maxillary beak shape, where 12 were classified as having sharp beaks (SB) and 12 as having blunt beaks (BB).3. All hens were recorded six times in a test pen which contained a chicken model (foam block covered with feathered chicken skin) and a video camera. During each test session, the number of feathers removed from the model, the change in skin and block weight (proxies for tissue damage) and the percentage of successful pecks (resulting in feather and/or tissue removal) were recorded.4. SB hens removed more feathers from the model and had a greater change in skin weight than BB hens. The mean number of pecks made at the model did not differ between the beak shape groups; however, SB hens had a greater percentage of successful pecks, resulting in feather and/or tissue removal, compared to BB hens.5. In conclusion, SB hens were more capable of removing feathers and causing damage. Birds performed more successful pecks resulting in feather and/or tissue removal as they gained experience pecking at the model.


Assuntos
Bico , Galinhas , Animais , Feminino , Comportamento Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Plumas
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 140, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167426

RESUMO

European starlings are one of the most abundant and problematic avian invaders in the world. From their native range across Eurasia and North Africa, they have been introduced to every continent except Antarctica. In 160 years, starlings have expanded into different environments throughout the world, making them a powerful model for understanding rapid evolutionary change and adaptive plasticity. Here, we investigate their spatiotemporal morphological variation in North America and the native range. Our dataset includes 1217 specimens; a combination of historical museum skins and modern birds. Beak length in the native range has remained unchanged during the past 206 years, but we find beak length in North American birds is now 8% longer than birds from the native range. We discuss potential drivers of this pattern including dietary adaptation or climatic pressures. Additionally, body size in North American starlings is smaller than those from the native range, which suggests a role for selection or founder effect. Taken together, our results indicate rapid recent evolutionary change in starling morphology coincident with invasion into novel environments.


Assuntos
Estorninhos , Animais , Bico , Adaptação Fisiológica , América do Norte , África do Norte
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2015): 20232480, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262606

RESUMO

Morphology is integral to body temperature regulation. Recent advances in understanding of thermal physiology suggest a role of the avian bill in thermoregulation. To explore the adaptive significance of bill size for thermoregulation we characterized relationships between bill size and climate extremes. Most previous studies focused on climate means, ignoring frequencies of extremes, and do not reflect thermoregulatory costs experienced over shorter time scales. Using 79 species (9847 museum specimens), we explore how bill size variation is associated with temperature extremes in a large and diverse radiation of Australasian birds, Meliphagides, testing a series of predictions. Overall, across the continent, bill size variation was associated with both climate extremes and means and was most strongly associated with winter temperatures; associations at the level of climate zones differed from continent-wide associations and were complex, yet consistent with physiology and a thermoregulatory role for avian bills. Responses to high summer temperatures were nonlinear suggesting they may be difficult to detect in large-scale continental analyses using previous methodologies. We provide strong evidence that climate extremes have contributed to the evolution of bill morphology in relation to thermoregulation and show the importance of including extremes to understand fine-scale trait variation across space.


Assuntos
Bico , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Temperatura , Austrália , Clima
8.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103266, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039827

RESUMO

Beak color in ducks is a primary characteristic of local breeds and genetic resources. Among them, black beaks, a rare packaging trait of high-quality duck products, have attracted much attention. In this study, Runzhou White Created ducks (black beak) and white-feathered Putian black ducks (yellow beak) were used to construct the F2 generation resource population to study the changing discipline of beak color combined with the beak color statistics of gray-beaked ducklings of Runzhou White Created ducks. Subsequently, transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify genetic markers related to beak color. To explore the rules of beak color change and its regulatory network, trends, and trend analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis(WGCNA)were performed. The screening results were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A large difference was observed between the beak colors of birds from the F1 generation at 0 and 42 d of age. The F2 generation results show that nearly half of the black-beaked ducklings become green-beaked; the proportion of black spots for gray- and patterned-beaked ducklings increases with age, with most becoming green-beaked. Moreover, the beak color darkened from the first day, and the gray color value decreased significantly from the second day. Transcriptome sequencing indicated that TYR was differentially expressed between black and yellow beaks at 4 to 6 wk of age, and trend and WGCNA analyses showed that EDNRB signaling pathway genes and MITF were highly expressed in the first week, and TYR, TYRP1, and DCT were highly expressed at 4 to 6 wk of age. Therefore, there is melanin synthesis and deposition after hatching for gray- and patterned-beaked ducklings, while the yellow pigment might be deposited in the epidermis of beaks for black-beaked ducklings. The EDNRB signaling pathway is probably involved in early melanosome maturation and melanin formation in duck beaks, and genes such as TYR can maintain the black-beak phenotype.


Assuntos
Patos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Patos/genética , Bico , Galinhas/genética , Melaninas/genética
9.
Biol Lett ; 19(11): 20230373, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37990562

RESUMO

Endotherms use their appendages-such as legs, tails, ears and bills-for thermoregulation by controlling blood flow to near-surface blood vessels, conserving heat when it is cold, and dissipating heat in hot conditions. Larger appendages allow greater heat dissipation, and appendage sizes vary latitudinally according to Allen's rule. However, little is known about the relative importance of different appendages for thermoregulation. We investigate physiological control of heat loss via bird bills and legs using infrared thermography of wild birds. Our results demonstrate that birds are less able to regulate heat loss via their bills than their legs. In cold conditions, birds lower their leg surface temperature to below that of their plumage surface, retaining heat at their core. In warm conditions, birds increase their leg surface temperature to above that of their plumage surface, expelling heat. By contrast, bill surface temperature remains approximately 2°C warmer than the plumage surface, indicating consistent heat loss under almost all conditions. Poorer physiological control of heat loss via bird bills likely entails stronger selection for shorter bills in cold climates. This could explain why bird bills show stronger latitudinal size clines than bird legs, with implications for predicting shape-shifting responses to climate change.


Assuntos
Bico , Somatotipos , Animais , Bico/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura
10.
Sci Adv ; 9(43): eadg1641, 2023 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37878701

RESUMO

Widely documented, megaevolutionary jumps in phenotypic diversity continue to perplex researchers because it remains unclear whether these marked changes can emerge from microevolutionary processes. Here, we tackle this question using new approaches for modeling multivariate traits to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of elaboration and innovation in the evolution of bird beaks. We find that elaboration, evolution along the major axis of phenotypic change, is common at both macro- and megaevolutionary scales, whereas innovation, evolution away from the major axis of phenotypic change, is more prominent at megaevolutionary scales. The major axis of phenotypic change among species beak shapes at megaevolutionary scales is an emergent property of innovation across clades. Our analyses suggest that the reorientation of phenotypes via innovation is a ubiquitous route for divergence that can arise through gradual change alone, opening up further avenues for evolution to explore.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves , Animais , Bico , Fenótipo , Filogenia
11.
Science ; 381(6665): eadf6218, 2023 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769091

RESUMO

A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Using whole-genome data of 3955 of Darwin's finches on the Galápagos Island of Daphne Major, we identified six loci of large effect that explain 45% of the variation in the highly heritable beak size of Geospiza fortis, a key ecological trait. The major locus is a supergene comprising four genes. Abrupt changes in allele frequencies at the loci accompanied a strong change in beak size caused by natural selection during a drought. A gradual change in Geospiza scandens occurred across 30 years as a result of introgressive hybridization with G. fortis. This study shows how a few loci with large effect on a fitness-related trait contribute to the genetic potential for rapid adaptive radiation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Bico , Tentilhões , Introgressão Genética , Especiação Genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Equador , Tentilhões/anatomia & histologia , Tentilhões/genética , Frequência do Gene , Metagenômica , Loci Gênicos
12.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 18(6)2023 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37714182

RESUMO

In nature, woodpeckers peck trees with no reported brain injury. A highly functional system comprising a hyoid bone, smooth skull, straight pointed beak with varying lengths of upper and lower beak bones, and rhamphotheca is one of the adaptations that enable efficient pecking. Soil penetration is an energy-intensive procedure used in civil infrastructure applications and is often followed by pushing, impact driving, and digging. This study uses discrete element modeling to evaluate the effect of woodpecker beak mimetic intruder tip design with wedge offsets on lift and drag forces during horizontal penetration into granular piles. The findings show that the wedge offsets of the intruder have a negligible effect on drag forces. By contrast, lift forces can be manipulated by adjusting the top and bottom offsets of the intruder, which can be used to guide the intruder upward, downwards, or horizontally. Furthermore, as the width of the intruder increased, the lift and drag forces also increased.


Assuntos
Bico , Biomimética , Animais , Cabeça , Osso Hioide , Crânio
13.
Evolution ; 77(12): 2533-2546, 2023 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37671423

RESUMO

Divergent natural selection should lead to adaptive radiation-that is, the rapid evolution of phenotypic and ecological diversity originating from a single clade. The drivers of adaptive radiation have often been conceptualized through the concept of "adaptive landscapes," yet formal empirical estimates of adaptive landscapes for natural adaptive radiations have proven elusive. Here, we use a 17-year dataset of Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza spp.) at an intensively studied site on Santa Cruz (Galápagos) to estimate individual apparent lifespan in relation to beak traits. We use these estimates to model a multi-species fitness landscape, which we also convert to a formal adaptive landscape. We then assess the correspondence between estimated fitness peaks and observed phenotypes for each of five phenotypic modes (G. fuliginosa, G. fortis [small and large morphotypes], G. magnirostris, and G. scandens). The fitness and adaptive landscapes show 5 and 4 peaks, respectively, and, as expected, the adaptive landscape was smoother than the fitness landscape. Each of the five phenotypic modes appeared reasonably close to the corresponding fitness peak, yet interesting deviations were also documented and examined. By estimating adaptive landscapes in an ongoing adaptive radiation, our study demonstrates their utility as a quantitative tool for exploring and predicting adaptive radiation.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Passeriformes , Animais , Tentilhões/genética , Seleção Genética , Fenótipo , Equador , Bico
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 85(11): 1190-1194, 2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37704451

RESUMO

To our knowledge, ours is the first case of applying a 3D-printed prosthetic beak to an Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana). A stork in captivity underwent several surgeries for beak fractures, but the lower-mandible fractures failed to be repaired. Therefore, we applied a patient-specific beak prosthesis of titanium alloy and nylon. Because the prosthetic beak could not be maintained due to mandible and soft-tissue inflammation, the stork was euthanized. Still, we confirmed typical behavior and feeding for ~3 months after surgery. This report highlights some of the challenges we encountered and identifies process improvements required for a more successful surgery.


Assuntos
Bico , Aves , Animais , Bico/cirurgia , Impressão Tridimensional
15.
J Morphol ; 284(10): e21638, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37708511

RESUMO

The neck is a critical portion of the avian spine, one that works in tandem with the beak to act as a surrogate forelimb and allows birds to manipulate their surroundings despite the lack of a grasping capable hand. Birds display an incredible amount of diversity in neck morphology across multiple anatomical scales-from varying cervical counts down to intricate adaptations of individual vertebrae. Despite this morphofunctional disparity, little is known about the drivers of this enormous variation, nor how neck evolution has shaped avian macroevolution. To promote interest in this system, I review the development, function and evolution of the avian cervical spine. The musculoskeletal anatomy, basic kinematics and development of the avian neck are all documented, but focus primarily upon commercially available taxa. In addition, recent work has quantified the drivers of extant morphological variation across the avian neck, as well as patterns of integration between the neck and other skeletal elements. However, the evolutionary history of the avian cervical spine, and its contribution to the diversification and success of modern birds is currently unknown. Future work should aim to broaden our understanding of the cervical anatomy, development and kinematics to include a more diverse selection of extant birds, while also considering the macroevolutionary drivers and consequences of this important section of the avian spine.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Membro Anterior , Animais , Pescoço , Bico , Aves
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(2007): 20230420, 2023 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752837

RESUMO

Adaptive avian radiations associated with the diversification of bird beaks into a multitude of forms enabling different functions are exemplified by Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers. To elucidate the nature of these radiations, we quantified beak shape and skull shape using a variety of geometric measures that allowed us to collapse the variability of beak shape into a minimal set of geometric parameters. Furthermore, we find that just two measures of beak shape-the ratio of the width to length and the normalized sharpening rate (increase in the transverse beak curvature near the tip relative to that at the base of the beak)-are strongly correlated with diet. Finally, by considering how transverse sections to the beak centreline evolve with distance from the tip, we show that a simple geometry-driven growth law termed 'modified mean curvature flow' captures the beak shapes of Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers. A surprising consequence of the simple growth law is that beak shapes that are not allowed based on the developmental programme of the beak are also not observed in nature, suggesting a link between evolutionary morphology and development in terms of growth-driven developmental constraints.


Assuntos
Bico , Tentilhões , Animais , Morfogênese , Evolução Biológica , Cabeça
17.
Nature ; 620(7974): 589-594, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37587301

RESUMO

Dinosaurs and pterosaurs have remarkable diversity and disparity through most of the Mesozoic Era1-3. Soon after their origins, these reptiles diversified into a number of long-lived lineages, evolved unprecedented ecologies (for example, flying, large herbivorous forms) and spread across Pangaea4,5. Recent discoveries of dinosaur and pterosaur precursors6-10 demonstrated that these animals were also speciose and widespread, but those precursors have few if any well-preserved skulls, hands and associated skeletons11,12. Here we present a well-preserved partial skeleton (Upper Triassic, Brazil) of the new lagerpetid Venetoraptor gassenae gen. et sp. nov. that offers a more comprehensive look into the skull and ecology of one of these precursors. Its skull has a sharp, raptorial-like beak, preceding that of dinosaurs by around 80 million years, and a large hand with long, trenchant claws that firmly establishes the loss of obligatory quadrupedalism in these precursor lineages. Combining anatomical information of the new species with other dinosaur and pterosaur precursors shows that morphological disparity of precursors resembles that of Triassic pterosaurs and exceeds that of Triassic dinosaurs. Thus, the 'success' of pterosaurs and dinosaurs was a result of differential survival among a broader pool of ecomorphological variation. Our results show that the morphological diversity of ornithodirans started to flourish among early-diverging lineages and not only after the origins of dinosaurs and pterosaurs.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Filogenia , Répteis , Animais , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/classificação , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/classificação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Esqueleto
18.
Aust Vet J ; 101(9): 366-372, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37497656

RESUMO

Emerging diseases are acknowledged as a growing threat to wildlife, with the continued identification of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic viruses in avian species resulting from ongoing advances in molecular diagnostic techniques. Parvoviruses under the genus Chaphamaparvovirus (subfamily Hamaparvovirinae) are highly divergent. The detection and characterisation of parvoviruses in psittacine birds is limited. This study reports a novel parvovirus, tentatively named psittaciform chaphamaparvovirus 3 (PsChV-3) under the genus Chaphamaparvovirus, identified in an Australian free-ranging little corella (Cacatua sanguinea). The PsChV-3 genome is 4277 bp in length and encompasses four predicted open-reading frames, including two major genes, a nonstructural replicase gene (NS1), and a structural capsid gene (VP1). The NS1 and VP1 genes showed the closest amino acid identities of 78.8% and 69.7%, respectively, with a recently sequenced psittaciform chaphamaparvovirus 2 from Australian Neophema species grass parrots. In addition, the presence of two complete novel beak and feather disease (BFDV) genomes, 1993 and 1868 nt in length, respectively, were detected from the same bird. Both these BFDV genomes contained two bidirectional ORFs encoding the putative Rep and Cap proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequenced novel BFDV genomes clustered in a distinct subclade with other BFDVs isolated from Australian cockatoos. This study contributes to the characterisation chaphamaparvoviruses and BFDV in Australian parrots and supports the need for ongoing monitoring and molecular studies into the avian virome in native Australian psittacine bird species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus , Cacatuas , Coinfecção , Papagaios , Parvovirus , Vírus , Animais , Circovirus/genética , Coinfecção/veterinária , Filogenia , Bico , Viroma , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Fígado , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1884): 20220147, 2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37427471

RESUMO

The evolution of behaviour can both influence, and be influenced by, morphology. Recent advances in methods and data availability have facilitated broad-scale investigations of physical form and behavioural function in many contexts, but the relationship between animal morphology and object manipulation-particularly objects used in construction-remains largely unknown. Here, we employ a new global database of nest materials used by 5924 species of birds together with phylogenetically informed random forest models to evaluate the link between beak shape and these nest-building materials. We find that beak morphology, together with species diet and access to materials, can predict nest-material use above chance and with high accuracy (68-97%). Much of this relationship, however, is driven by phylogenetic signal and sampling biases. We therefore conclude that while variation in nest material use is linked with that of beak shape across bird species, these correlations are modulated by the ecological context and evolutionary history of these species. This article is part of the theme issue 'The evolutionary ecology of nests: a cross-taxon approach'.


Assuntos
Bico , Aves , Animais , Filogenia , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Dieta , Comportamento de Nidação
20.
Evolution ; 77(9): 2000-2014, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37345732

RESUMO

The upper and lower jaws of some wrasses (Eupercaria: Labridae) possess teeth that have been coalesced into a strong durable beak that they use to graze on hard coral skeletons, hard-shelled prey, and algae, allowing many of these species to function as important ecosystem engineers in their respective marine habitats. While the ecological impact of the beak is well understood, questions remain about its evolutionary history and the effects of this innovation on the downstream patterns of morphological evolution. Here we analyze 3D cranial shape data in a phylogenetic comparative framework and use paleoclimate modeling to reconstruct the evolution of the labrid beak across 205 species. We find that wrasses evolved beaks three times independently, once within odacines and twice within parrotfishes in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. We find an increase in the rate of shape evolution in the Scarus+Chlorurus+Hipposcarus (SCH) clade of parrotfishes likely driven by the evolution of the intramandibular joint. Paleoclimate modeling shows that the SCH clade of parrotfishes rapidly morphologically diversified during the middle Miocene. We hypothesize that possession of a beak in the SCH clade coupled with favorable environmental conditions allowed these species to rapidly morphologically diversify.


Assuntos
Bico , Perciformes , Animais , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
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