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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127784, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613403

RESUMO

Importance: Currently, there are limited published data regarding resource use and spending on cancer care in the US. Objective: To characterize the most frequent medical services provided and the associated spending for privately insured patients with cancer in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the MarketScan database for the calendar year 2018 from a sample of 27.1 million privately insured individuals, including patients with a diagnosis of the 15 most prevalent cancers, predominantly from large insurers and self-insured employers. Overall societal health care spending was estimated for each cancer type by multiplying the mean total spending per patient (estimated from MarketScan) by the number of privately insured patients living with that cancer in 2018, as reported by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Analyses were performed from February 1, 2018, to July 8, 2021. Exposures: Evaluation and management as prescribed by treating care team. Main Outcomes and Measures: Current Procedural Terminology and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes based on cancer diagnosis code. Results: The estimated cost of cancer care in 2018 for 402 115 patients with the 15 most prevalent cancer types was approximately $156.2 billion for privately insured adults younger than 65 years in the US. There were a total of 38.4 million documented procedure codes for 15 cancers in the MarketScan database, totaling $10.8 billion. Patients with breast cancer contributed the greatest total number of services (10.9 million [28.4%]), followed by those with colorectal cancer (3.9 million [10.2%]) and prostate cancer (3.6 million [9.4%]). Pathology and laboratory tests contributed the highest number of services performed (11.7 million [30.5%]), followed by medical services (6.3 million [16.4%]) and medical supplies and nonphysician services (6.1 million [15.9%]). The costliest cancers were those of the breast ($3.4 billion [31.5%]), followed by lung ($1.1 billion [10.2%]) and colorectum ($1.1 billion [10.2%]). Medical supplies and nonphysician services contributed the highest total spent ($4.0 billion [37.0%]), followed by radiology ($2.1 billion [19.4%]) and surgery ($1.8 billion [16.7%]). Conclusions and Relevance: This analysis suggests that patients with breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers had the greatest number of services performed, particularly for pathology and laboratory tests, whereas patients with breast, lung, lymphoma, and colorectal cancer incurred the greatest costs, particularly for medical supplies and nonphysician services. The cost of cancer care in 2018 for the 15 most prevalent cancer types was estimated to be approximately $156.2 billion for privately insured adults younger than 65 years in the US.


Assuntos
Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/normas , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recommended in 2006 for girls and in 2011 for boys. The Healthy People 2020 goal for 2-dose HPV vaccination coverage is 80% by age 15 for girls and boys. We used nationwide population-based data to describe trends in HPV vaccination in children. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study nested within the MarketScan health care database between January 2003 and December 2017. Children were followed from the year they turned 9 until HPV vaccination, insurance disenrollment, or the end of the year when they turned 17, whichever came first. We estimated the cumulative incidence of at least 1- and 2-dose HPV vaccination, stratified by birth year, sex, and state. In secondary analyses, we evaluated the association between state-level vaccination policies and HPV vaccination coverage. RESULTS: This study included 7 837 480 children and 19.8 million person-years. The proportion of 15-year-old girls and boys with at least a 1-dose HPV vaccination increased from 38% and 5% in 2011 to 57% and 51% in 2017, respectively; the proportion with at least a 2-dose vaccination went from 30% and 2% in 2011 to 46% and 39% in 2017, respectively. By 2017, 2-dose HPV vaccination coverage varied from 80% in Washington, District of Columbia, among girls to 15% in Mississippi among boys and was positively correlated with legislation for HPV vaccine education and pediatrician availability. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing trends in uptake, HPV vaccine coverage among commercially insured children in the United States remains behind target levels, with substantial disparities by state.


Assuntos
Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/tendências , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 236-245, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to assess whether testosterone therapy (TT) alters prostate cancer risk using a large U.S. commercial insurance research database. METHODS: From the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD), we selected men ages 30 years or greater who were new users of TT during 2007 to 2015. We selected two comparison groups: (i) unexposed (matched 10:1) and (ii) new users of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i). Incident prostate cancer was defined as diagnosis of prostate cancer within 4 weeks following prostate biopsy. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weights were used in Poisson regression models to estimate adjusted incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup analyses included stratification by prostate cancer screening, hypogonadism, and follow-up time. RESULTS: The adjusted prostate cancer IRR was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.86) when comparing TT with the unexposed group and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79-0.91) in comparison with the PDE5i group. Inverse associations between TT and prostate cancer were observed in a majority of subgroup analyses, although in both comparisons estimates generally attenuated with increasing time following initial exposure. Among TT users, duration of exposure was not associated with prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Men who received TT did not have a higher rate of prostate cancer compared with the unexposed or PDE5i comparison groups. The inverse association between TT and prostate cancer could be the result of residual confounding, contraindication bias, or undefined biological effect. IMPACT: This study suggests that limited TT exposure does not increase risk of prostate cancer in the short term.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(6): 775-785, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in the U.S. but entail safety concerns, including dependency. In pediatrics, many indications lack trial data. Authors aimed to describe youth initiating prescription benzodiazepine treatment, identify potential indications and prescribing concerns, estimate the duration of treatment by potential indication, and identify factors that predict long-term use. METHODS: The study cohort included children (aged 3-12 years) and adolescents (aged 13-17 years) initiating prescription benzodiazepine treatment (≥3 days' supply) from January 2010 to September 2015 in a U.S. commercial claims database. Potential indications included selected ICD-9-CM diagnoses (≤30 days prior). Long-term (≥6 months) benzodiazepine treatment was estimated with Kaplan-Meier estimation and modified Poisson regression identified independent predictors of long-term benzodiazepine treatment (analysis completed in 2018). RESULTS: Of 24,504 children and 61,046 adolescents initiating benzodiazepines, 62% of the children and 68% of the adolescents had a potential indication. Anxiety disorders were the most common indication, with mental health indications more common among adolescents (45%) than children (23%) and epilepsy and movement disorders higher in children. Recent opioid prescriptions were common before benzodiazepine initiation (children, 22%; adolescents, 21%). Six percent of the initiators became long-term benzodiazepine users. Potential indication, provider contact, psychotropic medication, and chronic conditions independently predicted long-term benzodiazepine treatment in adolescents and children. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. children and adolescents are prescribed benzodiazepines for various mental health and other medical conditions, many lacking evidence of pediatric efficacy. Long-term benzodiazepine treatment, concurrent opioid prescriptions, psychotropic use, and prior substance use disorder diagnoses suggest safety risks among some youth prescribed benzodiazepines.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Benzodiazepinas/economia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/economia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(11): 1227-1237, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the approval of dabrafenib and trametinib in combination, there were no approved therapies in the adjuvant setting that target the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the budget impact of dabrafenib and trametinib in combination for adjuvant treatment of patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive resected Stage IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC melanoma from a U.S. commercial payer perspective using data from the COMBI-AD trial, as well as other sources. METHODS: The budget impact of dabrafenib and trametinib in combination for patients with BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive, resected Stage IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC melanoma was evaluated from the perspective of a hypothetical population of 1 million members with demographic characteristics consistent with those of a commercially insured U.S. insurance plan (i.e., adults aged less than 65 years) using an economic model developed in Microsoft Excel. The model compared melanoma-related health care costs over a 3-year projection period under 2 scenarios: (1) a reference scenario in which dabrafenib and trametinib are assumed to be unavailable for adjuvant therapy and (2) a new scenario in which the combination is assumed to be available. Treatments potentially displaced by dabrafenib and trametinib were assumed to include observation, high-dose interferon alpha-2b, ipilimumab, and nivolumab. Costs considered in the model include those of adjuvant therapies and treatment of locoregional and distant recurrences. The numbers of patients eligible for treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib were based on data from cancer registries, published sources, and assumptions. Treatment mixes under the reference and new scenarios were based on market research data, clinical expert opinion, and assumptions. Probabilities of recurrence and death were based on data from the COMBI-AD trial and an indirect treatment comparison. Medication costs were based on wholesale acquisition cost prices. Costs of distant recurrence were from a health insurance claims study. RESULTS: In a hypothetical population of 1 million commercially insured members, 48 patients were estimated to become eligible for treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib in combination over the 3-year projection period; in the new scenario, 10 patients were projected to receive such treatment. Cumulative costs of melanoma-related care were estimated to be $6.3 million in the reference scenario and $6.9 million in the new scenario. The budget impact of dabrafenib and trametinib in combination was an increase of $549 thousand overall and 1.5 cents per member per month. CONCLUSIONS: For a hypothetical U.S. commercial health plan of 1 million members, the budget impact of dabrafenib and trametinib in combination as adjuvant treatment for melanoma is likely to be relatively modest and within the range of published estimates for oncology therapies. These results may assist payers in making coverage decisions regarding the use of adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib in melanoma. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this research was provided to Policy Analysis Inc. (PAI) by Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Stellato, Moynahan, and Delea are employed by PAI. Ndife, Koruth, Mishra, and Gunda are employed by Novartis. Ghate was employed by Novartis at the time of this study and is shareholder in Novartis, Provectus Biopharmaceuticals, and Mannkind Corporation. Gerbasi was employed by PAI at the time of this study and is currently an employee, and stockholder, of Sage Therapeutics. Delea reports grant funding from Merck and research funding from Amgen, Novartis, Sanofi, Seattle Genetics, Takeda, Jazz, EMD Serono, and 21st Century Oncology, unrelated to this work.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imidazóis/economia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melanoma/economia , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Mutação , Oximas/economia , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/economia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/economia , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/economia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade
7.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(3): 394-402, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite healthcare reforms mandating expanded insurance coverage and reduced out-of-pocket costs for preventive care, cancer screening rates remain relatively static. No study has measured cancer screening rates for multiple tests among non-Medicare patients. METHODS: This retrospective, population-based claims analysis, conducted in 2016-2017, of commercially insured and Medicaid-insured women aged 30-59 years enrolled in IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases (containing approximately 90 and 17 million enrollees, respectively) during 2010-2015 describes screening rates for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Key outcomes were (1) proportion screened for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer among the age-eligible population compared with accepted age-based recommendations and (2) proportion with longer-than-recommended intervals between tests. RESULTS: One half (54.7%) of commercially insured women aged 40-59 years (n=1,538,444) were screened three or more times during the 6-year study period for breast cancer; for Medicaid-insured women (n=78,897), the rates were lower (23.7%). One third (43.4%) of commercially insured and two thirds (68.9%) of Medicaid-insured women had a >2.5-year gap between mammograms. Among women aged 30-59 years, 59.3% of commercially insured women and 31.4% of Medicaid-insured women received two or more Pap tests. The proportion of patients with a >3.5-year gap between Pap tests was 33.9% (commercially insured) and 57.1% (Medicaid-insured). Among women aged 50-59 years, 63.3% of commercially insured women and 47.2% of Medicaid-insured women were screened at least one time for colorectal cancer. Almost all women aged 30-59 years (commercially insured, 99.1%; Medicaid-insured, 98.9%) had at least one healthcare encounter. CONCLUSIONS: Breast and cervical cancer screenings remain underutilized among both commercially insured and Medicaid-insured populations, with lower rates among the Medicaid-insured population. However, almost all women had at least one healthcare encounter, suggesting opportunities for better coordinated care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/legislação & jurisprudência , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/normas , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicaid/normas , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia
8.
Liver Transpl ; 24(12): 1757-1761, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194815

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) was performed for the first time in Chile in 1969, but only since the 1990s has it been systematically performed. Our health system is strongly centralized, which is a severe limitation for the patients who need to be evaluated and subsequently listed. Although proper human and technological resources are available and our results are comparable to international outcomes (overall patient survival at 1, 5, and 10 years of 82%, 70%, and 64%, respectively), we are limited because of a severe scarcity of grafts, which translates into an availability of approximately 7 organs per million persons and a wait-list dropout rate of 40% every year. Thus, our main challenge for the next few years is to improve access to LT among the populations from the extreme regions of the country and overall to improve the availability of grafts by increasing the awareness of physicians in intensive care units and emergency departments, to develop living donor LT programs, to educate the population in order to decrease family refusal, and to reinforce the system of potential donor detection. Although hard work is mandatory for these improvements, none of these tasks seem to be unreachable in the midterm.


Assuntos
Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribuição , Chile/epidemiologia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/tendências , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/economia , Transplante de Fígado/história , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
9.
BMJ ; 362: k2833, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the rate and daily dose of opioids used among commercial and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries from 2007 to 2016. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of administrative claims data. SETTING: National database of medical and pharmacy claims for commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 48 million individuals with any period of insurance coverage between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016, including commercial beneficiaries, Medicare Advantage beneficiaries aged 65 years and over, and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries under age 65 years (eligible owing to permanent disability). MAIN ENDPOINTS: Proportion of beneficiaries with any opioid prescription per quarter, average daily dose in milligram morphine equivalents (MME), and proportion of opioid use episodes that represented long term use. RESULTS: Across all years of the study, annual opioid use prevalence was 14% for commercial beneficiaries, 26% for aged Medicare beneficiaries, and 52% for disabled Medicare beneficiaries. In the commercial beneficiary group, quarterly prevalence of opioid use changed little, starting and ending the study period at 6%; the average daily dose of 17 MME remained unchanged since 2011. For aged Medicare beneficiaries, quarterly use prevalence was also relatively stable, ranging from 11% at the beginning of the study period to 14% at the end. Disabled Medicare beneficiaries had the highest rates of opioid use, the highest rate of long term use, and the largest average daily doses. In this group, both quarterly use rates (39%) and average daily dose (56 MME) were higher at the end of 2016 than the low points observed in 2007 for each endpoint (26% prevalence and 53 MME). CONCLUSIONS: Opioid use rates were high during the study period of 2007-16, with the highest rates in disabled Medicare beneficiaries versus aged Medicare beneficiaries and commercial beneficiaries. Opioid use and average daily dose have not substantially declined from their peaks, despite increased attention to opioid abuse and awareness of their risks.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/tendências , Medicare Part C/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer ; 124(13): 2733-2739, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force recommendation against screening for prostate cancer has impacted rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and appears to be associated with declining prostate cancer incidence. Our objective was to characterize health care utilization that may explain these observed trends. METHODS: MarketScan claims, which capture >30 million privately insured patients in the United States, were queried for all men aged 40-64 years for the years 2008-2014. PSA testing, prostate biopsy, prostate cancer diagnosis, and definitive local treatment were determined using associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition codes. RESULTS: There were approximately 6 million qualifying men with a full year of data. PSA testing, prostate biopsy, and prostate cancer detection declined significantly between 2009 and 2014, most notably after 2011. The prostate biopsy rate per 100 patients with a PSA test decreased over the study period from 1.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-1.97) to 1.52 (95% CI, 1.50-1.54). Prostate cancer incidence per prostate biopsy increased over the study period from 0.36 (95% CI, 0.35-0.36) to 0.39 (95% CI, 0.39-0.40). Of new prostate cancer diagnoses, the proportion managed with definitive local treatment decreased from 69% (95% CI, 69%-70%) to 54% (95% CI, 53%-55%). Both PSA testing and prostate cancer incidence decreased significantly after 2011 (P < .001). CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of privately insured men, PSA testing, prostate biopsy, prostate cancer incidence, and local definitive treatment for prostate cancer decreased between 2008 and 2014, most notably after 2011. This decrease may be driven by differential referral patterns from primary care providers to urologists. Cancer 2018;124:2733-2739. © 2018 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Calicreínas/sangue , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biópsia/normas , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Biópsia/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Vaccine ; 36(23): 3381-3386, 2018 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination at age 11-12 years since 2006 for girls and since 2011 for boys. ACIP also recommends vaccination through age 26 for females and through age 21 for males; males may be vaccinated through age 26. We describe vaccine uptake in adolescents and young adults using data from MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters. METHODS: We analyzed data on persons aged 11-26 years on December 31, 2014 who were continuously enrolled in a MarketScan health plan from age 11 through year 2014, or from 2006 to 2014 if aged ≥11 years in 2006 (916,513 females, 951,082 males). Individuals were grouped based on their age (years) in 2014: 11-12 (born 2002-03), 13-14 (2000-01), 15-16 (1998-99), 17-18 (1996-97), 19-21 (1993-95), and 22-26 (1988-1992). We calculated cumulative coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose by sex, birth cohort, and calendar year. RESULTS: In females, the proportion initiating vaccination at age 11-12 years was low in 2008 and 2010 (12.6% and 11.1%) and higher in 2012 (15.7%) and 2014 (19.5%); in males, initiation at age 11-12 was 0.9% in 2010, 8.3% in 2012, and 15.1% in 2014. In females who aged into vaccine eligibility, cumulative coverage by 2014 was higher in older cohorts (17-18: 53%; 15-16: 47%; 13-14: 39%; 11-12: 19.5%). For males, cumulative coverage by 2014 was similar in those aged 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18 years (28.9%, 32.5%, 30.3%), and lower in those aged 11-12 (15.1%), 19-21 (18.4%), and 22-26 years (4.5%). CONCLUSION: The proportion of males and females initiating vaccination at the recommended ages was low. Although more females than males were vaccinated in all cohorts, the male-female differences were smaller in younger than older cohorts. The trajectory of male vaccination uptake could signal higher acceptability in males.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Pediatras , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/economia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mil Med ; 183(11-12): e354-e358, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547994

RESUMO

Introduction: We estimate the effect on health care spending of an option to change TRICARE. Under the option, which is based on a proposal made by the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission (MCRMC), most beneficiaries could choose from a range of commercial health networks instead of the current TRICARE plans. Military treatment facilities would become network providers under the commercial plans. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Department of Defense (DoD) to estimate the cost of providing the current health care benefit to working-age retirees and their dependents and survivors, and active duty family members. We then adjusted those data to estimate what the private insurance premiums would be for those groups. Greater details about the methodology can be found in earlier work by the Congressional Budget Office. Because payments by TRICARE to physicians and hospitals are tied to payments made by Medicare, we used the information from studies that compare Medicare payment rates to rates paid to doctors and hospitals by private insurance to estimate what it would cost private insurers to provide approximately the same level of care, with adjustments to account for the higher out-of-pocket costs that beneficiaries would pay under the option. We also made adjustments to account for the possibility that many beneficiaries would decrease their use of the MTFs in favor of private providers, which could increase the overall costs of DoD. We then estimated that increasing the cost sharing to a level found in popular civilian plans would lower overall demand for services by about 10% for military retiree households and about 18% for active duty family members. Results: We estimated that DoD would pay subsidies to retain about half of the excess capacity created by beneficiaries switching their care from MTFs to the private sector. Evaluated at the midpoint of the ranges, the net effect on DoD's budget would be approximately $0, we estimate, but costs could fall in a likely range from about $3 billion in annual savings to about $3 billion in annual costs. Thus, the MCRMC estimate of $3.2 billion implicitly assumed that no excess capacity would be retained by MTFs. In 2031, under current law, the average retiree family is expected to cost the federal government about $24,100 (in 2017 dollars) and that family's out-of-pocket costs are expected to amount to about $1,900. The option would reduce the government's costs for the average retiree family to $23,500, but retiree families could see their out-of-pocket costs rise to $7,500 per year. Conclusion: This article outlined a method of identifying two particular sources of that uncertainty: the extent to which people will receive care outside of MTFs and the extent to which the MTFs can adjust to reductions in demand. For one particular option, we demonstrate that the potential savings from changing the system depends on increasing the share of costs paid by beneficiaries - particularly working-age retirees - and on DoD's ability to reduce excess capacity in the system.


Assuntos
Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Planos de Seguro sem Fins Lucrativos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/normas , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro sem Fins Lucrativos/normas , Planos de Seguro sem Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Defense/organização & administração , United States Department of Defense/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Nephrol ; 31(4): 577-584, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417389

RESUMO

It is widely thought that patients with end-stage renal disease who remain vocationally active and/or commercially insured following dialysis initiation have better clinical outcomes and higher quality of life than those who do not. However, scientifically robust data are lacking. Here, we examined whether vocational status (active, N = 1848; inactive, N = 10,001) and, separately, insurance status (commercial, N = 4858; Medicare/self-pay, N = 13,329; Medicaid, N = 3528) were associated with clinical outcomes and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) scores among a cohort of patients who initiated dialysis at a large US dialysis organization during 2015-2016. Outcomes were considered from the day after index (31 days after dialysis initiation for vocational status and 1 day after initiation for insurance status) until the earliest of death, discontinuation of dialysis, transplant, loss to follow-up, or end of study (30 September 2016). Comparisons were made using intention-to-treat principles and generalized linear models adjusted for imbalanced patient characteristics, including sociodemographic variables. Vocational inactivity (vs. vocational activity) was independently associated with higher rates of mortality and hospitalization, lower rates of transplant, and lower KDQoL scores in 4 of 5 domains. Similar trends were observed when comparing Medicare/self-pay or Medicaid insurance to commercial insurance. Vocational activity, and separately, commercial insurance, were independently associated with better clinical and quality of life outcomes compared to other insurance and vocational categories. These findings may inform patient and physician education, and guide advocacy efforts.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Nephrol ; 31(1): 119-127, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28205136

RESUMO

In 2013, the Italian Society of Nephrology joined forces with Nephrocare-Italy to create a clinical research cohort of patients on file in the data-rich clinical management system (EUCLID) of this organization for the performance of observational studies in the hemodialysis (HD) population. To see whether patients in EUCLID are representative of the HD population in Italy, we set out to compare the whole EUCLID population with patients included in the regional HD registries in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and in Calabria (Southern Italy), the sole regions in Italy which have systematically collected an enlarged clinical data set allowing comparison with the data-rich EUCLID system. An analysis of prevalent and incident patients in 2010 and 2011 showed that EUCLID patients had a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer and other comorbidities and risk factors and a higher fractional urea clearance (Kt/V) than those in the Emilia Romagna and Calabria registries. Accordingly, survival analysis showed a lower mortality risk in the EUCLID 2010 and 2011 cohorts than in the combined two regional registries in the corresponding years: for 2010, hazard ratio (HR) EUCLID vs. Regional registries: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.90]; for 2011, HR: 0.76 [0.65-0.90]. However, this difference was nullified by statistical adjustment for the difference in comorbidities and risk factors, indicating that the longer survival in the EUCLID database was attributable to the lower risk profile of patients included in that database. This preliminary analysis sets the stage for future observational studies and indicates that appropriate adjustment for difference in comorbidities and risk factors is needed to generalize to the Italian HD population analyses based on the data-rich EUCLID database.


Assuntos
Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos , Nefropatias/terapia , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/economia , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal/economia , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(6): e173598, 2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121177

RESUMO

Importance: Oral anticancer medications are increasingly important but costly treatment options for patients with cancer. By early 2017, 43 states and Washington, DC, had passed laws to ensure patients with private insurance enrolled in fully insured health plans pay no more for anticancer medications administered by mouth than anticancer medications administered by infusion. Federal legislation regarding this issue is currently pending. Despite their rapid acceptance, the changes associated with state adoption of oral chemotherapy parity laws have not been described. Objective: To estimate changes in oral anticancer medication use, out-of-pocket spending, and health plan spending associated with oral chemotherapy parity law adoption. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of administrative health plan claims data from 2008-2012 for 3 large nationwide insurers aggregated by the Health Care Cost Institute. Data analysis was first completed in 2015 and updated in 2017. The study population included 63 780 adults living in 1 of 16 states that passed parity laws during the study period and who received anticancer drug treatment for which orally administered treatment options were available. Study analysis used a difference-in-differences approach. Exposures: Time period before and after adoption of state parity laws, controlling for whether the patient was enrolled in a plan subject to parity (fully insured) or not (self-funded, exempt via the Employee Retirement Income Security Act). Main Outcomes and Measures: Oral anticancer medication use, out-of-pocket spending, and total health care spending. Results: Of the 63 780 adults aged 18 through 64 years, 51.4% participated in fully insured plans and 48.6% in self-funded plans (57.2% were women; 76.8% were aged 45 to 64 years). The use of oral anticancer medication treatment as a proportion of all anticancer treatment increased from 18% to 22% (adjusted difference-in-differences risk ratio [aDDRR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.96-1.13; P = .34) comparing months before vs after parity. In plans subject to parity laws, the proportion of prescription fills for orally administered therapy without copayment increased from 15.0% to 53.0%, more than double the increase (12.3%-18.0%) in plans not subject to parity (P < .001). The proportion of patients with out-of-pocket spending of more than $100 per month increased from 8.4% to 11.1% compared with a slight decline from 12.0% to 11.7% in plans not subject to parity (P = .004). In plans subject to parity laws, estimated monthly out-of-pocket spending decreased by $19.44 at the 25th percentile, by $32.13 at the 50th percentile, and by $10.83 at the 75th percentile but increased at the 90th ($37.19) and 95th ($143.25) percentiles after parity (all P < .001, controlling for changes in plans not subject to parity). Parity laws did not increase 6-month total spending for users of any anticancer therapy or for users of oral anticancer therapy alone. Conclusions and Relevance: While oral chemotherapy parity laws modestly improved financial protection for many patients without increasing total health care spending, these laws alone may be insufficient to ensure that patients are protected from high out-of-pocket medication costs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Benefícios do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/legislação & jurisprudência , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/economia , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Benefícios do Seguro/economia , Seguradoras , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Health Econ ; 57: 75-88, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182936

RESUMO

In exchange for tax exemptions, Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) health insurers were expected to provide health insurance to the "bad risks," those for whom coverage was unavailable from other insurers. I present evidence that five years after a BCBS plan converted to for-profit status, the probability of having insurance was 1.4 percentage points higher, a 9% reduction in the uninsured. The increase in coverage does not mask reductions among populations often targeted by public policies. However, there is evidence of increased risk selection which suggests that the bad risks might have been worse off after a conversion.


Assuntos
Planos de Seguro Blue Cross Blue Shield/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Planos de Seguro Blue Cross Blue Shield/organização & administração , Planos de Seguro Blue Cross Blue Shield/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/organização & administração , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/organização & administração , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/organização & administração , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
18.
Issue Brief (Commonw Fund) ; 2017: 1-9, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020733

RESUMO

Issue: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed the market for individual health insurance, so it is not surprising that insurers' transition was not entirely smooth. Insurers, with no previous experience under these market conditions, were uncertain how to price their products. As a result, they incurred significant losses. Based on this experience, some insurers have decided to leave the ACA's subsidized market, although others appear to be thriving. Goals: Examine the financial performance of health insurers selling through the ACA's marketplace exchanges in 2015--the market's most difficult year to date. Method: Analysis of financial data for 2015 reported by insurers from 48 states and D.C. to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Findings and Conclusions: Although health insurers were profitable across all lines of business, they suffered a 10 percent loss in 2015 on their health plans sold through the ACA's exchanges. The top quarter of the ACA exchange market was comfortably profitable, while the bottom quarter did much worse than the ACA market average. This indicates that some insurers were able to adapt to the ACA's new market rules much better than others, suggesting the ACA's new market structure is sustainable, if supported properly by administrative policy.


Assuntos
Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trocas de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Trocas de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos/tendências , Previsões , Trocas de Seguro de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/tendências , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/tendências , Estados Unidos
19.
Stroke ; 48(11): 3161-3164, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid artery stenting may be an economically attractive procedure for hospitals and physicians. We sought to identify the association of hospital ownership (nonprofit versus for-profit) on carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy utilization in US hospitals. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample admissions for cerebrovascular disease from 2008 to 2011, we identified all private, nonfederal US hospitals performing at least 20 carotid revascularization procedures annually, including carotid artery stenting (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision 00.63) or carotid endarterectomy (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision 38.12). We used a multilevel multivariable logistic regression controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics, to assess the effect of hospital ownership on CAS use. RESULTS: Across 723 hospitals (600 nonprofit, 123 for-profit), 66 731 carotid revascularization admissions were identified. Approximately 1 in 5 (n=11 641; 17.4%) revascularizations received CAS. The mean CAS rate among nonprofit hospitals was 17.5 per 100 revascularizations (median, 11.5; interquartile range, 5.2-24.5), and the mean CAS rate among for-profit hospitals was 24.2 per 100 revascularizations (median, 16.0; interquartile range, 6.7-33.3; P<0.001). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, for-profit hospital designation was associated with greater odds of CAS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: For-profit hospital ownership is associated with a higher rate of CAS compared to nonprofit hospitals in those receiving carotid revascularization. Further research is needed to understand the individual- and system-level factors driving this difference.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Revascularização Cerebral/economia , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos , Hospitais , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
20.
Clin Biochem ; 50(15): 822-827, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28483406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical laboratory tests ordered redundantly represent one of the targets for reducing diagnostic testing without negatively, and possibly positively, affecting patient care. We study a clearly defined category of excessive laboratory utilization for nine analytes where inappropriate diagnostic testing is defined in terms of the time interval between tests; that is, ordering a test too soon following the previous order of the same test. METHODS: Population data from the near universal public Ontario Health Insurance Plan for the years 2006-2010 are employed where the tests are fulfilled by community medical laboratories. The analytes selected for consideration are thyroid stimulating hormone, hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation, quantitative immunoglobulins, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, and folate. RESULTS: For the nine analytes studied, the percentage of inappropriate tests ranged from 6% to 20%. Large proportions of these inappropriate tests were completed >2weeks prior to the minimum threshold to reorder defined by practice guidelines and/or were repeated excessively within a year. Between 60% and 85% of the time, the ordering physician of an inappropriate test was the same physician who ordered the previous test. Specialists were more likely than primary care physicians to order repeat tests too soon. CONCLUSIONS: A sizeable proportion of testing for these analytes was inappropriate according to practice guidelines. It is recommended that systems for preventing unnecessary repeat testing are investigated by the funding agencies and that reducing inappropriate testing be considered as a design element for electronic medical records and related information technology systems.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Planos de Seguro com Fins Lucrativos , Testes Hematológicos , Erros Médicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos
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