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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475147

RESUMO

The safeguarding of plant health is vital for optimizing crop growth practices, especially in the face of the biggest challenges of our generation, namely the environmental crisis and the dramatic changes in the climate. Among the many innovative tools developed to address these issues, wearable sensors have recently been proposed for monitoring plant growth and microclimates in a sustainable manner. These systems are composed of flexible matrices with embedded sensing elements, showing promise in revolutionizing plant monitoring without being intrusive. Despite their potential benefits, concerns arise regarding the effects of the long-term coexistence of these devices with the plant surface. Surprisingly, a systematic analysis of their influence on plant physiology is lacking. This study aims to investigate the effect of the color and geometric features of flexible matrices on two key plant physiological functions: photosynthesis and transpiration. Our findings indicate that the negative effects associated with colored substrates, as identified in recent research, can be minimized by holing the matrix surface with a percentage of voids of 15.7%. This approach mitigates interference with light absorption and reduces water loss to a negligible extent, making our work one of the first pioneering efforts in understanding the intricate relationship between plant wearables' features and plant health.


Assuntos
Transpiração Vegetal , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Transporte Biológico , Água , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
2.
Curr Biol ; 34(5): R204-R206, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471450

RESUMO

A recent study spotlights B-RAF kinases as central mediators of rapid auxin responses across diverse plant species. Coupled with other current studies, this discovery illuminates the essential role of B-RAF kinases in orchestrating growth, stress responses, and various other biological processes in plants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Transdução de Sinais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(14): 20772-20791, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393568

RESUMO

Light is a basic requirement to drive carbon metabolism in plants and supports life on earth. Spectral quality greatly affects plant morphology, physiology, and metabolism of various biochemical pathways. Among visible light spectrum, red, blue, and green light wavelengths affect several mechanisms to contribute in plant growth and productivity. In addition, supplementation of red, blue, or green light with other wavelengths showed vivid effects on the plant biology. However, response of plants differs in different species and growing conditions. This review article provides a detailed view and interpretation of existing knowledge and clarifies underlying mechanisms that how red, blue, and green light spectra affect plant morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters to make a significant contribution towards improved crop production, fruit quality, disease control, phytoremediation potential, and resource use efficiency.


Assuntos
60495 , Plantas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Luz
4.
Sci Adv ; 10(7): eadk7488, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363835

RESUMO

Real-time in situ monitoring of plant physiology is essential for establishing a phenotyping platform for precision agriculture. A key enabler for this monitoring is a device that can be noninvasively attached to plants and transduce their physiological status into digital data. Here, we report an all-organic transparent plant e-skin by micropatterning poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. This plant e-skin is optically and mechanically invisible to plants with no observable adverse effects to plant health. We demonstrate the capabilities of our plant e-skins as strain and temperature sensors, with the application to Brassica rapa leaves for collecting corresponding parameters under normal and abiotic stress conditions. Strains imposed on the leaf surface during growth as well as diurnal fluctuation of surface temperature were captured. We further present a digital-twin interface to visualize real-time plant surface environment, providing an intuitive and vivid platform for plant phenotyping.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Pele
5.
Biomolecules ; 14(1)2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254690

RESUMO

Ethylene is an essential plant hormone, critical in various physiological processes. These processes include seed germination, leaf senescence, fruit ripening, and the plant's response to environmental stressors. Ethylene biosynthesis is tightly regulated by two key enzymes, namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO). Initially, the prevailing hypothesis suggested that ACS is the limiting factor in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Nevertheless, accumulating evidence from various studies has demonstrated that ACO, under specific circumstances, acts as the rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene production. Under normal developmental processes, ACS and ACO collaborate to maintain balanced ethylene production, ensuring proper plant growth and physiology. However, under abiotic stress conditions, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, or pathogen attack, the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis becomes critical for plants' survival. This review highlights the structural characteristics and examines the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulation of ACS and ACO and their role under abiotic stress conditions. Reviews on the role of ethylene signaling in abiotic stress adaptation are available. However, a review delineating the role of ACS and ACO in abiotic stress acclimation is unavailable. Exploring how particular ACS and ACO isoforms contribute to a specific plant's response to various abiotic stresses and understanding how they are regulated can guide the development of focused strategies. These strategies aim to enhance a plant's ability to cope with environmental challenges more effectively.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases , Liases , Óxido Nítrico Sintase , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Etilenos , Estresse Fisiológico , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/genética
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 329: 121781, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286551

RESUMO

Arabinogalactan (AG), a biologically active substance found abundantly in plants, is of significant interest in plant physiology due to its unique physicochemical properties. Yariv reagent, widely utilized in AG-II related applications, forms insoluble precipitates when bound to AG-II. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the synthesis methods, physicochemical properties, and various dissociation methods of the Yariv reagent to enhance its utility in AG-II studies. Furthermore, the review explores the binding mechanisms and applications of the Yariv reagent, highlighting the advancements in studying the Yariv-AG complex in plant physiology. The aim of this review is to inspire new research ideas and foster novel applications of the Yariv reagent from synthesis to implementation.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Floroglucinol , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Floroglucinol/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 260(Pt 2): 129595, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253138

RESUMO

Lignin and Casparian strips are two essential components of plant cells that play critical roles in plant development regulate nutrients and water across the plants cell. Recent studies have extensively investigated lignin diversity and Casparian strip formation, providing valuable insights into plant physiology. This review presents the established lignin biosynthesis pathway, as well as the developmental patterns of lignin and Casparian strip and transcriptional network associated with Casparian strip formation. It describes the biochemical and genetic mechanisms that regulate lignin biosynthesis and deposition in different plants cell types and tissues. Additionally, the review highlights recent studies that have uncovered novel lignin biosynthesis genes and enzymatic pathways, expanding our understanding of lignin diversity. This review also discusses the developmental patterns of Casparian strip in roots and their role in regulating nutrient and water transport, focusing on recent genetic and molecular studies that have identified regulators of Casparian strip formation. Previous research has shown that lignin biosynthesis genes also play a role in Casparian strip formation, suggesting that these processes are interconnected. In conclusion, this comprehensive overview provides insights into the developmental patterns of lignin diversity and Casparian strip as apoplastic barriers. It also identifies future research directions, including the functional characterization of novel lignin biosynthesis genes and the identification of additional regulators of Casparian strip formation. Overall, this review enhances our understanding of the complex and interconnected processes that drive plant growth, pathogen defense, regulation and development.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Lignina , Lignina/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
8.
New Phytol ; 241(2): 578-591, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897087

RESUMO

Leaf dark respiration (Rd ) acclimates to environmental changes. However, the magnitude, controls and time scales of acclimation remain unclear and are inconsistently treated in ecosystem models. We hypothesized that Rd and Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax ) at 25°C (Rd,25 , Vcmax,25 ) are coordinated so that Rd,25 variations support Vcmax,25 at a level allowing full light use, with Vcmax,25 reflecting daytime conditions (for photosynthesis), and Rd,25 /Vcmax,25 reflecting night-time conditions (for starch degradation and sucrose export). We tested this hypothesis temporally using a 5-yr warming experiment, and spatially using an extensive field-measurement data set. We compared the results to three published alternatives: Rd,25 declines linearly with daily average prior temperature; Rd at average prior night temperatures tends towards a constant value; and Rd,25 /Vcmax,25 is constant. Our hypothesis accounted for more variation in observed Rd,25 over time (R2 = 0.74) and space (R2 = 0.68) than the alternatives. Night-time temperature dominated the seasonal time-course of Rd , with an apparent response time scale of c. 2 wk. Vcmax dominated the spatial patterns. Our acclimation hypothesis results in a smaller increase in global Rd in response to rising CO2 and warming than is projected by the two of three alternative hypotheses, and by current models.


Assuntos
Respiração Celular , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
9.
Genetics ; 226(3)2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142447

RESUMO

Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping mechanisms that coordinate internal physiological responses with the external environment. EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR9), and PRR7 are essential components of the plant circadian clock and facilitate entrainment of the clock to internal and external stimuli. Previous studies have highlighted a critical role for ELF3 in repressing the expression of PRR9 and PRR7. However, the functional significance of activity in regulating circadian clock dynamics and plant development is unknown. To explore this regulatory dynamic further, we first employed mathematical modeling to simulate the effect of the prr9/prr7 mutation on the elf3 circadian phenotype. These simulations suggested that simultaneous mutations in prr9/prr7 could rescue the elf3 circadian arrhythmia. Following these simulations, we generated all Arabidopsis elf3/prr9/prr7 mutant combinations and investigated their circadian and developmental phenotypes. Although these assays could not replicate the results from the mathematical modeling, our results have revealed a complex epistatic relationship between ELF3 and PRR9/7 in regulating different aspects of plant development. ELF3 was essential for hypocotyl development under ambient and warm temperatures, while PRR9 was critical for root thermomorphogenesis. Finally, mutations in prr9 and prr7 rescued the photoperiod-insensitive flowering phenotype of the elf3 mutant. Together, our results highlight the importance of investigating the genetic relationship among plant circadian genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Relógios Circadianos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Plant Signal Behav ; 18(1): 2277578, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051638

RESUMO

For a long time, electrical signaling was neglected at the expense of signaling studies in plants being concentrated with chemical and hydraulic signals. Studies conducted in recent years have revealed that plants are capable of emitting, processing, and transmitting bioelectrical signals to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions. Many important biological and physiological phenomena are accompanied by these cellular electrical manifestations, which supports the hypothesis about the importance of bioelectricity as a fundamental 'model' for response the stresses environmental and for activities regeneration of these organisms. Electrical signals have also been characterized and discriminated against in genetically modified plants under stress mediated by sucking insects and/or by the application of systemic insecticides. Such results can guide future studies that aim to elucidate the factors involved in the processes of resistance to stress and plant defense, thus aiding in the development of successful strategies in integrated pest management. Therefore, this mini review includes the results of studies aimed at electrical signaling in response to biotic stress. We also demonstrated how the generation and propagation of electrical signals takes place and included a description of how these electrical potentials are measured.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/fisiologia
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1): e53522, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1550728

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Epiphytes (vascular and non-vascular) are one of the most diverse groups in the Neotropics, but despite their importance in the functioning of many ecosystems, much of their taxonomy and ecology is still unknown in the dry forest of Colombia. Objective: To compare the diversity patterns and species composition of vascular and non-vascular epiphytes along tropical dry forest remnants of Cauca Valley, Colombia. Methods: Ten permanent plots (50 x 20 m2) were established in tropical dry forest remnants. The epiphytes were sampled in 40-50 trees per plot. Alpha and gamma diversity were calculated using the richness (q0) and Shannon index (q1) (alpha was estimated as the average for phorophytes). Beta diversity was measured using the Whitaker index. To evaluate the relationship between diversities and environmental variables, GLM analysis was used. Results: We found 50 morphospecies of vascular epiphytes, 77 of bryophytes and 290 of lichens. The 𝛼 and 𝛾 diversity of bryophytes from each remnant was significantly explained by temperature. The abundance of lichens per tree was significantly related with the DBH and tree height of each remnant. The 𝛼 diversity of vascular epiphytes shown can be explained by temperature and precipitation. The 𝛾 diversity was strongly influenced by the beta diversity in bryophytes and lichens. This pattern is because the sites with high disturbance present a lower diversity, as a consequence of a homogenizing effect, that is, a low turnover of species between sampling units. Conclusions: Precipitation and temperature affected the diversity of bryophytes and vascular epiphytes, while it did not show a relationship with the lichen's diversity, for which there is not a high congruence between the diversity and composition of these epiphytes.


Resumen Introducción: Los epífitos (vasculares y no vasculares) son uno de los más diversos grupos de plantas en el Neotrópico, pero a pesar de su importancia para el funcionamiento de varios ecosistemas, existen grandes vacíos en su conocimiento taxonómico y ecológico en el bosque seco de Colombia. Objetivo: Comparar los patrones de diversidad y composición de especies de epífitas vasculares y no vasculares a lo largo de remanentes de bosque seco tropical del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Métodos: Se establecieron diez parcelas permanentes (50 x 20 m2) en remanentes de bosque seco tropical. Las epífitas se muestrearon en 40-50 árboles por parcela. La diversidad alfa y gamma se calculó utilizando la riqueza (q0) y el índice de Shannon (q1) (alfa se estimó como el promedio para los forófitos). La diversidad beta se midió utilizando el índice de Whitaker. Para evaluar la relación entre diversidades y variables ambientales se utilizó el análisis GLM. Resultados: Se encontraron 50 morfoespecies de epífitas vasculares, 77 de briófitas y 290 de líquenes. La diversidad de 𝛼 y 𝛾 de briófitas de cada remanente fue explicada significativamente por la temperatura. La abundancia de líquenes por árbol se relacionó significativamente con el DAP y la altura del árbol de cada remanente. La diversidad 𝛼 de epífitas vasculares que se muestra puede explicarse por la temperatura y la precipitación. La diversidad 𝛾 estuvo fuertemente influenciada por la diversidad beta en briófitas y líquenes. Este patrón se debe a que los sitios con alta perturbación presentan una menor diversidad, como consecuencia de un efecto homogeneizador, es decir, un bajo recambio de especies entre unidades de muestreo. Conclusiones: La precipitación y la temperatura afectaron la diversidad de briófitas y epífitas vasculares, mientras que no mostró relación con la diversidad de líquenes, por lo que no existe una alta congruencia entre la diversidad y composición de estas epífitas.


Assuntos
Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Líquens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colômbia
13.
Toxicon ; 236: 107333, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951248

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria produce a variety of oligopeptides beyond microcystins and other metabolites. Their biological activities are not fully recognized especially to aquatic plants. Acute toxicity tests on Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna minor exposed to a range of concentrations of cyanobacterial metabolites: anabaenopeptins (ANA-A, ANA-B), aeruginosins 98 (Aer-A, Aer-B), microginin-FR1 (MG-FR1), microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (Cyl) were carried out to compare their influence on plant physiology. Effects of their binary mixtures were determined by isobole approach and calculation of the combination index (CI) that indicates a type of metabolites' interaction. Cyclic oligopeptides microcystin-LR and anabaenopeptin-A revealed the strongest inhibition of S. polyrhiza growth while other metabolites appeared less toxic. Oxygen evolution was inhibited by Cyl, MC-LR, ANA-A, ANA-B, while both variants of aeruginosins and MG-FR1 did not affect this process. Photosynthetic pigments' contents decreased in S. polyrhiza exposed to ANA-A and Cyl, while MC-LR and Aer-A caused their slight increase. 96 h-EC50 values showed that the growth of L. minor was more sensitive to MC-LR, ANA-A, MG-FR1 and Cyl than the growth of S. polyrhiza. In S. polyrhiza synergistic effects of all the binary mixtures of peptides with MC-LR on oxygen evolution were observed, while antagonistic one on the growth of S. polyrhiza exposed to the mixtures with aeruginosins and ANA-A. The mixtures of MC-LR and MG-FR1 with cylindrospermopsin revealed synergistic effects on the growth but antagonistic one to the O2 evolution. Quadruple mixtures (ANA-A + MC-LR + MG-FR1+Cyl) did not reveal any inhibitive effect on the plant growth and very slight on the oxygen evolution, irrespectively of their total concentrations. Various effects caused by ANA-A and ANA-B suggest the importance of molecule structures of metabolites for toxicity. Composition of the mixtures of cyanobacterial metabolites was essential for the observed effects.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Nature ; 624(7990): 109-114, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37938778

RESUMO

There are two main life cycles in plants-annual and perennial1,2. These life cycles are associated with different traits that determine ecosystem function3,4. Although life cycles are textbook examples of plant adaptation to different environments, we lack comprehensive knowledge regarding their global distributional patterns. Here we assembled an extensive database of plant life cycle assignments of 235,000 plant species coupled with millions of georeferenced datapoints to map the worldwide biogeography of these plant species. We found that annual plants are half as common as initially thought5-8, accounting for only 6% of plant species. Our analyses indicate that annuals are favoured in hot and dry regions. However, a more accurate model shows that the prevalence of annual species is driven by temperature and precipitation in the driest quarter (rather than yearly means), explaining, for example, why some Mediterranean systems have more annuals than desert systems. Furthermore, this pattern remains consistent among different families, indicating convergent evolution. Finally, we demonstrate that increasing climate variability and anthropogenic disturbance increase annual favourability. Considering future climate change, we predict an increase in annual prevalence for 69% of the world's ecoregions by 2060. Overall, our analyses raise concerns for ecosystem services provided by perennial plants, as ongoing changes are leading to a higher proportion of annual plants globally.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Mapeamento Geográfico , Filogeografia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Aclimatação , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Clima Desértico , Atividades Humanas , Região do Mediterrâneo , Plantas/classificação , Chuva , Temperatura
15.
Curr Biol ; 33(21): R1144-R1145, 2023 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935125

RESUMO

For decades, the function of epidermal bladder cells in quinoa and iceplant was thought to be physiological because of their function in a related species. Exciting new research carefully demolishes that assumption, suggesting that these structures serve primarily biotic defense roles, setting up a great many interesting, important questions.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Bexiga Urinária , Cloreto de Sódio , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Células Epidérmicas
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 205: 108135, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37979572

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is detrimental to both plants and humans. Maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes exhibit variations in Cd accumulations. This study examined variations in Cd accumulation and tolerance among four maize genotypes with contrasting root morphology. The four maize genotypes were cultivated in a semi-hydroponic system with three Cd concentrations (0, 10, 20 µmol L-1). The effects of Cd on plant growth and physiology were assessed 39 days after transplanting. Results showed that root characteristics were positively correlated with root Cd accumulation and the bioconcentration factor under Cd20 treatment. Genotypes Shengrui999 and Zhengdan958 exhibited higher total Cd content than Xundan29 and Zhongke11 under Cd20 conditions. Cd toxicity led to membrane degradation of chloroplast mesophyll cells, loosening and swelling of grana lamella, and reduced starch reserves. The greater tolerance of Shengrui999 and Zhengdan958 was contributed to factors such as root biomass, shallower root depth, higher Cd content, accumulation of osmolyte such as soluble protein, antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), and the presence of phytohormone gibberellic acid. The study establishes a link between root morphology, Cd accumulation, and tolerance in maize plants, as demonstrated by the higher Cd accumulation and shallower root system in Cd-tolerant genotypes. This research provides a foundation for breeding maize cultivars better suited for adaptation to moderate Cd-contaminated environments.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Zea mays , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 204: 108124, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897889

RESUMO

Plants possess the ability to adapt to osmotic stress by adjusting their physiology and morphology and by cooperating with their root-associated (rhizosphere and endosphere) microbial communities. However, the coordination of host self-regulation with root-associated microorganisms at the community level, especially for desert plants, remains unclear. This study investigated the morphophysiological responses of seedlings from the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia Shap to osmotic stress, as well as the relationships between these adaptations and their root-associated bacterial communities. The results indicated that osmotic stress contributed to a reduction in height and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In response, A. sparsifolia exhibited a series of morphophysiological adjustments, including increased ratio of root to shoot biomass (R/S) and the number of root tip, enhanced vitality, high levels of peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione (GSH), as well as osmolytes (proline, soluble protein, and soluble sugar) and modification in phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA)). Additionally, osmotic stress resulted in alterations in the compositions and co-occurrence patterns of root-associated bacterial communities, but not α-diversity (Chao1). Specifically, the rhizosphere Actinobacteria phylum was significantly increased by osmotic stress. These shifts in root-associated bacterial communities were significantly correlated with the host's adaptation to osmotic stress. Overall, the findings revealed that osmotic stress, in addition to its impacts on plant physiology, resulted in a restructuring of root-associated microbial communities and suggested that the concomitant adjustment in plant microbiota may potentially contribute to the survival of desert plants under extreme environmental stress.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Plântula , Pressão Osmótica , Bactérias/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Cells ; 12(20)2023 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37887289

RESUMO

The complexities of translational strategies make this stage of implementing genetic information one of the most challenging to comprehend and, simultaneously, perhaps the most engaging. It is evident that this diverse range of strategies results not only from a long evolutionary history, but is also of paramount importance for refining gene expression and metabolic modulation. This notion is particularly accurate for organisms that predominantly exhibit biochemical and physiological reactions with a lack of behavioural ones. Plants are a group of organisms that exhibit such features. Addressing unfavourable environmental conditions plays a pivotal role in plant physiology. This is particularly evident with the changing conditions of global warming and the irrevocable loss or depletion of natural ecosystems. In conceptual terms, the plant response to abiotic stress comprises a set of elaborate and intricate strategies. This is influenced by a range of abiotic factors that cause stressful conditions, and molecular genetic mechanisms that fine-tune metabolic pathways allowing the plant organism to overcome non-standard and non-optimal conditions. This review aims to focus on the current state of the art in the field of translational regulation in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Different regulatory elements and patterns are being assessed chronologically. We deem it important to focus on significant high-performance techniques for studying the genetic information dynamics during the translation phase.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plantas , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
19.
Nitric Oxide ; 140-141: 58-76, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848156

RESUMO

The natural environment of plants comprises a complex set of various abiotic stresses and their capability to react and survive under this anticipated changing climate is highly flexible and involves a series of balanced interactions between signaling molecules where nitric oxide becomes a crucial component. In this article, we focussed on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in various signal transduction pathways of plants and its positive impact on maintaining cellular homeostasis under various abiotic stresses. Besides this, the recent data on interactions of NO with various phytohormones to control physiological and biochemical processes to attain abiotic stress tolerance have also been considered. These crosstalks modulate the plant's defense mechanism and help in alleviating the negative impact of stress. While focusing on the diverse functions of NO, an effort has been made to explore the functions of NO-mediated post-translational modifications, such as the N-end rule pathway, tyrosine nitration, and S-nitrosylation which revealed the exact mechanism and characterization of proteins that modify various metabolic processes in stressed conditions. Considering all of these factors, the present review emphasizes the role of NO and its interlinking with various phytohormones in maintaining developmental processes in plants, specifically under unfavorable environments.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Elife ; 122023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819030

RESUMO

Experiments on tropical trees suggest that new mutations in plants are driven by age rather than number of cell divisions during growth.


Assuntos
Mutação , Senescência Vegetal , Árvores , Mutação/genética , Mutação/fisiologia , Plantas/genética , Árvores/genética , Árvores/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/genética , Clima Tropical , Divisão Celular/genética , Senescência Vegetal/genética
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