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1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2024: 8128813, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827814

RESUMO

The genus Hypericum comprises a large number of species. The flower, leaf, stem, and root of the Hypericum species are widely used in traditional medicine in different cultures. Many Hypericum species have been well investigated phytochemically and pharmacologically. However, only a few reports are available on the H. cordifolium native to Nepal. The present study aims to evaluate the phytochemical composition of different extracts, qualitative analysis of methanol extract of the flower and leaf using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and the antioxidant properties of components by the TLC-DPPH. assay. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated in different extracts of the leaf and stem, and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities were evaluated. In the phytochemical screening, phenolics and flavonoids were present in ethyl acetate, methanol, and 50% aq methanol extracts of both the leaf and stem. In TLC analysis, the methanol extract of flowers showed the presence of 11 compounds and the leaf extract showed the presence of 8 compounds. Both extracts contained chlorogenic acid and mangiferin. Hyperoside and quercetin were present only in the flower extract. In the TLC-DPPH. assay, almost all of the flower extracts and 5 compounds of the leaf extract showed radical scavenging potential. Estimation of phenolics and flavonoids showed that all the leaf extracts showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than stem extracts. Among leaf extracts, greater amounts of phenolics were detected in 50% aqueous methanol extract (261.25 ± 1.66 GAE/g extract) and greater amounts of flavonoids were detected in methanol extract (232.60 ± 10.52 CE/g extract). Among stem extracts, greater amounts of flavonoids were detected in the methanol extract (155.12 ± 4.30 CE/g extract). In the DPPH radical scavenging assay, the methanol extract of the leaf showed IC50 60.85 ± 2.67 µg/ml and 50% aq. methanol extract of the leaf showed IC50 63.09 ± 2.98 µg/ml. The methanol extract of the stem showed IC50 89.39 ± 3.23 µg/ml, whereas ethyl acetate and 50% aq. methanol extract showed IC50 > 100 µg/ml. In the antibacterial assay, the methanol extract of the leaf showed the inhibition zone of 12-13 mm and the stem extract showed the inhibition zone of 7-11 mm against S. aureus, E. coli, and S. sonnei, whereas both extracts were inactive against S. typhi. The findings of this study support the traditional use of this plant in Nepal for the treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections. The present study revealed that the underutilized anatomical parts of H. cordifolium could be the source of various bioactive phytochemicals like other Hypericum species.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Hypericum , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Hypericum/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Cromatografia em Camada Fina , Caules de Planta/química
2.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 37(2(Special)): 451-458, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822549

RESUMO

The research aimed to explore the antioxidant potential of extracts from different parts of Clinacanthus nutans growing in Vietnam, a member of the Acanthaceae family. The plant's roots, stem and leaves were extracted using 96% ethanol. The antioxidant actions of these extracts were evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay on thin-layer plates and 96 well plates. The extract with the most potent activity was applied for distribution extraction with solvents with different polarities, including dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. Dry column vacuum chromatography was utilized to obtain the most antioxidant-potent extract fractions. The stem extract had the lowest IC50 value of 6.85µg/mL, showing the most potent antioxidant activity. The ethyl acetate fraction from the stem extract expressed the lowest IC50 value of 9.67µg/mL. Meanwhile, fraction 5, separated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the stem extract, had the lowest IC50 value of 9.89µg/mL. In conclusion, the extracts from different parts of Clinacanthus nutans all expressed antioxidant action at different levels, in which the stem extract, the ethyl acetate fraction and fraction 5 from the ethyl acetate fraction displayed the most effective actions. These findings highlight the promising potential of Clinacanthus nutans in treating oxidative stress-associated diseases, inspiring further research and exploration in this area.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae , Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais , Acanthaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Picratos/química
3.
Science ; 384(6701): 1241-1247, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870308

RESUMO

Plant stems comprise nodes and internodes that specialize in solute exchange and elongation. However, their boundaries are not well defined, and how these basic units arise remains elusive. In rice with clear nodes and internodes, we found that one subclade of class I knotted1-like homeobox (KNOX1) genes for shoot meristem indeterminacy restricts node differentiation and allows internode formation by repressing YABBY genes for leaf development and genes from another node-specific KNOX1 subclade. YABBYs promote nodal vascular differentiation and limit stem elongation. YABBY and node-specific KNOX1 genes specify the pulvinus, which further elaborates the nodal structure for gravitropism. Notably, this KNOX1 subclade organization is specific to seed plants. We propose that nodes and internodes are distinct domains specified by YABBY-KNOX1 cross-regulation that diverged in early seed plants.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Meristema , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas , Caules de Planta , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravitropismo/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(7): 151, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849610

RESUMO

Dwarfing is an ideal agronomic trait in crop breeding, which can improve lodging resistance and increase crop productivity. In this study, we identified a dwarf mutant cp-3 from an EMS-mutagenized population, which had extremely short internodes, and the cell length and number of internodes were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, exogenous GA3 treatment partially rescued the plant height of the cp-3. Inheritance analysis showed that the cp-3 mutant was regulated via a recessive nuclear locus. A candidate gene, CsERECTA, encoding an LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase, was cloned through a map-based cloning strategy. Sequence analysis showed that a nucleotide mutation (C ~ T) in exon 26 of CsERECTA led to premature termination of the protein. Subsequently, two transgenic lines were generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and they showed plant dwarfing. Plant endogenous hormones quantitative and RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that GA3 content and the expression levels of genes related to GA biosynthesis were significantly reduced in Cser knockout mutants. Meanwhile, exogenous GA3 treatment partially rescued the dwarf phenotype of Cser knockout mutants. These findings revealed that CsERECTA controls stem elongation by regulating GA biosynthesis in cucumber.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Mutação , Clonagem Molecular
5.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(6): e16661, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849711

RESUMO

Inland saline ecosystems suffer multiple stresses (e.g., high radiation, salinity, water scarcity) that may compromise essential ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition. Here, we investigated the effects of drought on microbial colonization and decomposition of Sarcocornia fruticosa woody stems across different habitats in a saline watershed: on the dry floodplain, submerged in the stream channel and at the shoreline (first submerged, then emerged). Unexpectedly, weight loss was not enhanced in the submerged stems, while decomposition process differed between habitats. On the floodplain, it was dominated by fungi and high cellulolytic activity; in submerged conditions, a diverse community of bacteria and high ligninolytic activity dominated; and, on the shoreline, enzyme activities were like submerged conditions, but with a fungal community similar to the dry conditions. Results indicate distinct degradation paths being driven by different stress factors: strong water scarcity and photodegradation in dry conditions, and high salinity and reduced oxygen in wet conditions. This suggests that fungi are more resistant to drought, and bacteria to salinity. Overall, in saline watersheds, variations in multiple stress factors exert distinct environmental filters on bacteria and fungi and their role in the decomposition of plant material, affecting carbon cycling and microbial interactions.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Secas , Fungos , Caules de Planta , Rios , Salinidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ecossistema
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13388, 2024 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862607

RESUMO

(1) Background: Endophytic bacteria represent an important component of plant wellness. They have been widely studied for their involvement in plant development and enhancement of stress tolerance. In this work, the endophytic communities of roots, stems, and leaves of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott) were studied in three different niches: natural, riverside, and human-impacted niches. (2) Results: The microbiome composition revealed that Sphingomonadaceae was the most abundant family in all samples, accounting for 9.4-45.8%. In contrast, other families seem to be linked to a specific tissue or niche. Families Microbacteriaceae and Hymenobacteraceae increased their presence in stem and leaf samples, while Burkholderiaceae abundance was important in riverside samples. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed that root samples were the most diverse, and they gathered together in the same cluster, apart from the rest of the samples. (3) Conclusions: The analysis of the microbiome of R. ulmifolius plants revealed that the composition was essentially the same in different niches; the differences were primarily influenced by plant tissue factors with a core genome dominated by Sphingomonadaceae. Additionally, it was observed that R. ulmifolius can select its own microbiome, and this remains constant in all tissues evaluated regardless the niche of sampling.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Endófitos , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta , Rubus , Endófitos/genética , Rubus/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13557, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866843

RESUMO

A key process in forest management planning is the estimation of tree volume and, more specifically, merchantable volume. The ability to predict the cumulative stem volume relative to any upper stem diameter on standing trees or stands is essential for forest inventories and the management of forest resources. In the 1980s, the Hellenic Public Power Corporation (HPPC) started the rehabilitation of lignite post-mining areas in Greece by planting mainly black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, L.). Today, these plantations occupy an area of approximately 2570 ha, but the stem volume has not yet been estimated. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the over- and under-bark stem volume using taper function models for 30 destructively sampled trees. Of the nineteen calibrated fixed-effects models, Kozak's (2004) equation performed best for both the over-bark and under-bark datasets, followed by Lee's (2003) and Muhairwe's (1999) equations. Two fixed effect models were compared with fitted coefficients from Poland and the United States confirming that the local model fits were better suited, as the foreign model coefficients caused an increase in root mean square error (RMSE) for stem diameter predictions of 13% and 218%, respectively. The addition of random effects on a single-stem basis for two coefficients of Kozak's (2004) equation improved the model fit significantly at 86% of the over-bark fixed effect RMSE and 69% for the under-bark model. Integrated taper functions were found to slightly outperform three volume equations for predictions of single stem volume over and under bark. Ultimately it was shown that these models can be used to precisely predict stem diameters and total stem volume for the population average as well as for specific trees of the black locust plantations in the study area.


Assuntos
Robinia , Grécia , Robinia/fisiologia , Robinia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mineração , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 72(6): 540-546, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866475

RESUMO

Three neo-clerodane diterpenoids, including two new tinocordifoliols A (1) and B (2) and one known tinopanoid R (3), were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the 70% ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia stems. The structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic methods, including one dimensional (1D) and 2D-NMR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. The T. cordifolia extract and all isolated compounds 1-3 possessed arginase I inhibitory activities. Among them, 3 exhibited moderate competitive inhibition of human arginase I (IC50 = 61.9 µM). Furthermore, docking studies revealed that the presence of a ß-substituted furan in 3 may play a key role in the arginase I inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Arginase , Diterpenos Clerodânicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Caules de Planta , Tinospora , Tinospora/química , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginase/metabolismo , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Caules de Planta/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Estrutura Molecular , Conformação Molecular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
9.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(16): 647-661, 2024 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38804873

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine the genoprotective activity and safety of Moringa oleifera leave and Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced genotoxicity utilizing Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into 14 groups for subacute treatment with either M. oleifera or T. cordifolia extracts daily for 28 days. The extract doses selected were 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w administered orally alone or combined with CP (50 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally daily for 5 days). Analyses performed included the comet assay, micronucleus test (MN) in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormality assay (SHA). M. oleifera and T. cordifolia extracts induced no significant genotoxic effects on somatic and germ cells. In contrast, for all cells examined M. oleifera and T. cordifolia extracts inhibited DNA damage initiated by CP. Taken together data demonstrated that both plant extracts did not exhibit marked genotoxic effects but displayed potential chemoprotective properties against CP-induced genotoxicity in Swiss mice.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida , Dano ao DNA , Testes para Micronúcleos , Moringa oleifera , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Tinospora , Animais , Tinospora/química , Camundongos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Caules de Planta/química , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(9): 2478-2488, 2024 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812147

RESUMO

In order to analyze the similarities and differences of chemical compositions between the roots and stems and leaves of Isodon japonicus(IJ), this study utilized UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology to systematically characterize its chemical compositions, analyzed and identified the structure of its main compounds, and established a method for simultaneous determination of its content by refe-rence substance. A total of 34 major compounds in IJ, including 14 reference compounds, were identified or predicted online. Moreover, an UPLC-UV content determination method was developed for 11 compounds [danshensu, caffeic acid, vicenin-2,(1S,2S)-globoidnan B, rutin,(+)-rabdosiin,(-)-rabdosiin,(1S,2S)-rabdosiin, shimobashiric acid C, rosmarinic acid, and pedalitin]. The method exhibited excellent separation, stability, and repeatability, with a wide linear range(0.10-520.00 µg·mL~(-1)) and high linearity(R~2>0.999). The average recovery rates ranged from 94.72% to 104.2%. The principal component analysis(PCA) demonstrated a clear difference between the roots and stems and leaves of IJ, indicating good separation by cluster. Furthermore, the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) model was employed, and six main differentially identified compounds were identified: rosmarinic acid, shimobashiric acid C, epinodosin, pedalitin, rutin, and(1S,2S)-rabdosiin. In summary, this study established a strategy and method for distinguishing different parts of IJ, providing a valuable tool for quality control of IJ and a basis for the ratio-nal utilization and sustainable development of IJ.


Assuntos
Quimiometria , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Isodon , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Isodon/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Quimiometria/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química
11.
Anal Methods ; 16(21): 3392-3412, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752456

RESUMO

Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC. (C. orbiculatus) is a medicinal herb valued for its dried roots with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, and other therapeutic properties. Despite its traditional applications, chemical investigations into C. orbiculatus remain limited, focusing predominantly on alkaloids and flavonoids. Furthermore, the therapeutic use of C. orbiculatus predominantly focuses on the roots, leaving the stems, a significant portion of the plant, underutilized. This study employed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) with in-house and online databases for comprehensive identification of components in various plant parts. Subsequently, untargeted metabolomics was employed to analyze differences in components across different harvest periods and plant sections of C. orbiculatus, aiming to screen for distinct components in different parts of the plant. Finally, metabolomic analysis of the roots and stems, which contribute significantly to the plant's weight, was conducted using chemometrics, including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and heatmaps. A total of 113 components, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and organic acids, were annotated across the root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit, along with numerous previously unreported compounds. Metabolomic analyses revealed substantial differences in components between the root and stem compared to the leaf, flower, and fruit during the same harvest period. PLS-DA and OPLS-DA annotated 10 differentiating components (VIP > 1.5, P < 0.05, FC > 2 or FC < 0.67), with 5 unique to the root and stem, exhibiting lower mass spectrometric responses. This study provided the first characterization of 113 chemical constituents in different parts of C. orbiculatus, laying the groundwork for pharmacological research and advocating for the enhanced utilization of its stem.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Raízes de Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Caules de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 453, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impatiens is an important genus with rich species of garden plants, and its distribution is extremely extensive, which is reflected in its diverse ecological environment. However, the specific mechanisms of Impatiens' adaptation to various environments and the mechanism related to lignin remain unclear. RESULTS: Three representative Impatiens species,Impatiens chlorosepala (wet, low degree of lignification), Impatiens uliginosa (aquatic, moderate degree of lignification) and Impatiens rubrostriata (terrestrial, high degree of lignification), were selected and analyzed for their anatomical structures, lignin content and composition, and lignin-related gene expression. There are significant differences in anatomical parameters among the stems of three Impatiens species, and the anatomical structure is consistent with the determination results of lignin content. Furthermore, the thickness of the xylem and cell walls, as well as the ratio of cell wall thickness to stem diameter have a strong correlation with lignin content. The anatomical structure and degree of lignification in Impatiens can be attributed to the plant's growth environment, morphology, and growth rate. Our analysis of lignin-related genes revealed a negative correlation between the MYB4 gene and lignin content. The MYB4 gene may control the lignin synthesis in Impatiens by controlling the structural genes involved in the lignin synthesis pathway, such as HCT, C3H, and COMT. Nonetheless, the regulation pathway differs between species of Impatiens. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated consistency between the stem anatomy of Impatiens and the results obtained from lignin content and composition analyses. It is speculated that MYB4 negatively regulates the lignin synthesis in the stems of three Impatiens species by regulating the expression of structural genes, and its regulation mechanism appears to vary across different Impatiens species. This study analyses the variations among different Impatiens plants in diverse habitats, and can guide further molecular investigations of lignin biosynthesis in Impatiens.


Assuntos
Impatiens , Lignina , Caules de Planta , Lignina/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Impatiens/genética , Impatiens/metabolismo , Impatiens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Especificidade da Espécie , Genes de Plantas , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética
13.
Phytochemistry ; 223: 114131, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705264

RESUMO

Four undescribed homoisoflavanoids (1-4), one homoflavonoid (5), ten dibenzoxocin derivatives (6a-10a and 6b-10b), one dibenzoxocin-derived phenolic compound (11), one diterpenoid (13), three aliphatic dicarboxylic acid derivatives (14-16), together with the known diterpenoid 12-O-ethylneocaesalpin B (12) were obtained from the branches and leaves of Hultholia mimosoides. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques. Notably, each of the dibenzoxocins 6-10 existed as a pair of interconvertible atropisomers and the conformation for these compounds was clarified by NMR and ECD analyses. Protosappanin F (11) was a previously undescribed dibenzoxocin-derived compound in which one of the benzene rings was hydrogenated to a polyoxygenated cyclohexane ring and an ether linkage was established between C-6 and C-12a. The isolated polyphenols were tested for induction of quinone reductase and compounds 3 and 8 showed potent QR-inducing activity in Hepa-1c1c7 cells.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Salicaceae/química , Caules de Planta/química
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118330, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740109

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chromolaenaodorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob, a perennial herb, has been traditionally utilized as a herbal remedy for treating leech bites, soft tissue wounds, burn wounds, skin infections, and dento-alveolitis in tropical and subtropical regions. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was to analyze the active fraction of C. odorata ethanol extract and investigate its hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antimicrobial properties. Additionally, the safety of the active fraction as an external preparation was assessed through skin irritation and allergy tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaves and stems of C. odorata were initially extracted with ethanol, followed by purification through AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then screened for hemostatic activity in mice and rabbits to identify the active fraction. Subsequently, the hemostatic effect of the active fraction was assessed through the bleeding time of the rabbit ear artery in vivo and the coagulant time of rabbit blood in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of the active fraction was tested on mice ear edema induced by xylene and rat paw edema induced by carrageenin. Furthermore, the active fraction's promotion effect on wound healing was evaluated using a rat skin injury model, and skin safety tests were conducted on rabbits and guinea pigs. Lastly, antimicrobial activities against two Gram-positive bacteria (G+, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (G-, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were determined using the plate dilution method. RESULTS: The ethanol extract of C. odorata leaves and stems was fractionated into 30%, 60%, and 90% ethanol eluate fractions. These fractions demonstrated hemostatic activity, with the 30% ethanol eluate fraction (30% EEF) showing the strongest effect, significantly reducing bleeding time (P < 0.05). A concentration of 1.0 g/mL of the 30% EEF accelerated cutaneous wound healing in rats on the 3rd, 6th, and 9th day post-operation, with the healing effect increasing over time. No irritation or allergy reactions were observed in rabbits and guinea pigs exposed to the 30% EEF. Additionally, the 30% EEF exhibited mild inhibitory effect on mice ear and rat paw edema, as well as antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, with varying minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. CONCLUSIONS: The 30% EEF demonstrated a clear hemostatic effect on rabbit bleeding time, a slight inhibitory effect on mice ear edema and rat paw edema, significant wound healing activity in rats, and no observed irritation or allergic reactions. Antibacterial activity was observed against certain clinically isolated bacteria, particularly the G- bacteria. This study lays the groundwork for the potential development and application of C. odorata in wound treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Chromolaena , Edema , Etanol , Hemostáticos , Extratos Vegetais , Cicatrização , Animais , Coelhos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Masculino , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Chromolaena/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Xilenos , Caules de Planta/química
15.
Tree Physiol ; 44(5)2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696364

RESUMO

Modeling and simulating the growth of the branching of tree species remains a challenge. With existing approaches, we can reconstruct or rebuild the branching architectures of real tree species, but the simulation of the growth process remains unresolved. First, we present a tree growth model to generate branching architectures that resemble real tree species. Secondly, we use a quantitative morphometric approach to infer the shape similarity of the generated simulations and real tree species. Within a functional-structural plant model, we implement a set of biological parameters that affect the branching architecture of trees. By modifying the parameter values, we aim to generate basic shapes of spruce, pine, oak and poplar. Tree shapes are compared using geometric morphometrics of landmarks that capture crown and stem outline shapes. Five biological parameters, namely xylem flow, shedding rate, proprioception, gravitysense and lightsense, most influenced the generated tree branching patterns. Adjusting these five parameters resulted in the different tree shapes of spruce, pine, oak, and poplar. The largest effect was attributed to gravity, as phenotypic responses to this effect resulted in different growth directions of gymnosperm and angiosperm branching architectures. Since we were able to obtain branching architectures that resemble real tree species by adjusting only a few biological parameters, our model is extendable to other tree species. Furthermore, the model will also allow the simulation of structural tree-environment interactions. Our simplifying approach to shape comparison between tree species, landmark geometric morphometrics, showed that even the crown-trunk outlines capture species differences based on their contrasting branching architectures.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Árvores , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercus/anatomia & histologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picea/anatomia & histologia , Picea/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/anatomia & histologia , Simulação por Computador
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 414, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in hydraulic conductivity may arise from species-specific differences in the anatomical structure and function of the xylem, reflecting a spectrum of plant strategies along a slow-fast resource economy continuum. Spruce (Picea spp.), a widely distributed and highly adaptable tree species, is crucial in preventing soil erosion and enabling climate regulation. However, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in anatomical traits of stems and their underlying drivers in the Picea genus is currently lacking especially in a common garden. RESULTS: We assessed 19 stem economic properties and hydraulic characteristics of 17 Picea species grown in a common garden in Tianshui, Gansu Province, China. Significant interspecific differences in growth and anatomical characteristics were observed among the species. Specifically, xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and hydraulic diameter exhibited a significant negative correlation with the thickness to span ratio (TSR), cell wall ratio, and tracheid density and a significant positive correlation with fiber length, and size of the radial tracheid. PCA revealed that the first two axes accounted for 64.40% of the variance, with PC1 reflecting the trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and mechanical support and PC2 representing the trade-off between high embolism resistance and strong pit flexibility. Regression analysis and structural equation modelling further confirmed that tracheid size positively influenced Ks, whereas the traits DWT, D_r, and TSR have influenced Ks indirectly. All traits failed to show significant phylogenetic associations. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated strong correlations between most traits and longitude, with the notable influence of the mean temperature during the driest quarter, annual precipitation, precipitation during the wettest quarter, and aridity index. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that xylem anatomical traits demonstrated considerable variability across phylogenies, consistent with the pattern of parallel sympatric radiation evolution and global diversity in spruce. By integrating the anatomical structure of the stem xylem as well as environmental factors of origin and evolutionary relationships, our findings provide novel insights into the ecological adaptations of the Picea genus.


Assuntos
Clima , Picea , Madeira , Xilema , Picea/anatomia & histologia , Picea/fisiologia , Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/fisiologia , China , Especificidade da Espécie , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Food Sci ; 89(6): 3183-3193, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767932

RESUMO

The stems of Cynomorium songaricum are used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic and also used locally as a food material and livestock feed. It is known that some of the falvan-3-ol monomers and dimers that entered the milk of dairy sheep fed with C. songaricum stems are biotransformation products of the original flavan-3-ol polymers in C. songaricum stems. This study was performed to investigate the biotransformation process of the flavan-3-ols in dairy sheep and to evaluate the bioactivities. The results showed that procyanidin A2 and epicatechin could be released from the polymeric flavan-3-ols of C. songaricum through rumen microbial metabolism. On traumatic and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation models of Tg (mpx: EGFP) zebrafish larvae and LPS-induced liver injury models of Tg (fabp10a: DsRed) zebrafish larvae, the milk from sheep fed with C. songaricum stems showed stronger anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities compared to blank milk. The absorbed chemical constituents of C. songaricum stems and the metabolites also exhibited anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, with the dimeric flavan-3-ols being more effective than the monomers. The milk, the absorbed chemical constituents of C. songaricum stems, and the metabolites alleviated the increased level of reactive oxygen species induced by LPS in zebrafish larvae. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study found that C. songaricum stems as livestock feed could produce milk that has a beneficial impact on consumer and livestock health in terms of anti-inflammation and hepatoprotection.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Biotransformação , Flavonoides , Fígado , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ovinos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Feminino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química
18.
New Phytol ; 243(1): 72-81, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703003

RESUMO

Woody plants display some photosynthetic activity in stems, but the biological role of stem photosynthesis and the specific contributions of bark and wood to carbon uptake and oxygen evolution remain poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the functional characteristics of chloroplasts in stems of different ages in Fraxinus ornus. Our investigation employed diverse experimental approaches, including microsensor technology to assess oxygen production rates in whole stem, bark, and wood separately. Additionally, we utilized fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to characterize the relative abundance of photosystems I and II (PSI : PSII chlorophyll ratio) in bark and wood. Our findings revealed light-induced increases in O2 production in whole stem, bark, and wood. We present the radial profile of O2 production in F. ornus stems, demonstrating the capability of stem chloroplasts to perform light-dependent electron transport. Younger stems exhibited higher light-induced O2 production and dark respiration rates than older ones. While bark emerged as the primary contributor to net O2 production under light conditions, our data underscored that wood chloroplasts are also photosynthetically active. The FLIM analysis unveiled a lower PSI abundance in wood than in bark, suggesting stem chloroplasts are not only active but also acclimate to the spectral composition of light reaching inner compartments.


Assuntos
Luz , Oxigênio , Caules de Planta , Madeira , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo , Escuridão , Fraxinus/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
19.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 26(7): 803-811, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721701

RESUMO

Two new triterpenes mayteneri A (1), mayteneri B (2), and seven known compounds (3-9) were isolated from stems of Maytenus hookeri Loes. The chemical structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by 1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS analysis, and calculating electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The structures of known compounds 3-9 were determined by comparison of their spectral with those reported. Compounds 4-7 showed significant inhibitory activity for NLRP3 inflammasome, with the IC50 values of 2.36-3.44 µM.


Assuntos
Maytenus , Ácido Oleanólico , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Maytenus/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Camundongos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 332: 118357, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763374

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chuanminshen violaceum M. L. Sheh & R. H. Shan (CV) is used as a medicine with roots, which have the effects of benefiting the lungs, harmonizing the stomach, resolving phlegm and detoxifying. Polysaccharide is one of its main active components and has various pharmacological activities, but the structural characterization and pharmacological activities of polysaccharide from the stems and leaves parts of CV are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal extraction conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from CV stems and leaves, and to carry out preliminary structural analyses, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the obtained polysaccharide and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ultrasonic-assisted extraction of CV stems and leaves polysaccharides was carried out, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction process to obtain CV polysaccharides (CVP) under the optimal conditions. Subsequently, we isolated and purified CVP to obtain the homogeneous polysaccharide CVP-AP-I, and evaluated the composition, molecular weight, and structural features of CVP-AP-I using a variety of technical methods. Finally, we tested the pharmacological activity of CVP-AP-Ⅰ in an LPS-induced model of oxidative stress and inflammation in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and explored its possible mechanism of action. RESULTS: The crude polysaccharide was obtained under optimal extraction conditions and subsequently isolated and purified to obtain CVP-AP-Ⅰ (35.34 kDa), and the structural characterization indicated that CVP-AP-Ⅰ was mainly composed of galactose, galactose, rhamnose and glucose, which was a typical pectic polysaccharide. In addition, CVP-AP-Ⅰ attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory factor genes and proteins and up-regulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes and proteins in IPEC-J2, by a mechanism related to the activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the polysaccharide isolated from CV stems and leaves was a pectic polysaccharide with similar pharmacological activities as CV roots, exhibiting strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, suggesting that CV stems and leaves could possess the same traditional efficacy as CV roots, which is expected to be used in the treatment of intestinal diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Polissacarídeos , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Caules de Planta/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Suínos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
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