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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764343

RESUMO

The antigen-antibody complex (AAC) has novel functions for immunomodulation, encouraging the application of diverse quaternary protein structures for vaccination. In this study, GA733 antigen and anti-GA733 antibody proteins were both co-expressed to obtain the AAC protein structures in a F1 plant obtained by crossing the plants expressing each protein. In F1 plant, the antigen and antibody assembled to form a large quaternary circular ACC structure (~30 nm). The large quaternary protein structures induced immune response to produce anticancer immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are specific to the corresponding antigens in mouse. The serum containing the anticancer IgGs inhibited the human colorectal cancer cell growth in the xenograft nude mouse. Taken together, antigens and antibodies can be assembled to form AAC protein structures in plants. Plant crossing represents an alternative strategy for the formation of AAC vaccines that efficiently increases anticancer antibody production.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/farmacologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Planticorpos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Planticorpos/imunologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079309

RESUMO

Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is considered as a prognostic factor of breast cancer, which is positively associated with recurrence when cancer metastasizes to the lymph nodes. Here, we expressed the single variable domain on a heavy chain (VHH) form of anti-HER2 camelid single domain antibody in tobacco plants and compared its in vitro anticancer activities with the anti-HER2 full size antibody. The gene expression cassette containing anti-HER2 camelid single domain antibody VHH fused to human IgG Fc region with KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (VHH-FcK) was transferred into the tobacco plant via the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformants were screened with polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the binding of the purified anti-HER2 VHH-FcK to the HER2-positive breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. Migration assay results confirmed anticancer activity of the plant-derived anticancer camelid single chain antibody. Taken together, we confirmed the possibility of using anti-HER2 VHH-FcK as a therapeutic anticancer agent, which can be expressed and assembled and purified from a plant expression system as an alternative antibody production system.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Mama , Camelídeos Americanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Planticorpos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Trastuzumab
3.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024281

RESUMO

Although seasonal influenza vaccines block most predominant influenza types and subtypes, humans still remain vulnerable to waves of seasonal and new potential pandemic influenza viruses for which no immunity may exist because of viral antigenic drift and/or shift. Previously, we described a human monoclonal antibody (hMAb), KPF1, which was produced in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (KPF1-HEK) with broad and potent neutralizing activity against H1N1 influenza A viruses (IAV) in vitro, and prophylactic and therapeutic activities in vivo. In this study, we produced hMAb KPF1 in tobacco plants (KPF1-Antx) and demonstrated how the plant-produced KPF1-Antx hMAb possesses similar biological activity compared with the mammalian-produced KPF1-HEK hMAb. KPF1-Antx hMAb showed broad binding to recombinant HA proteins and H1N1 IAV, including A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1) in vitro, which was comparable to that observed with KPF1-HEK hMAb. Importantly, prophylactic administration of KPF1-Antx hMAb to guinea pigs prevented pH1N1 infection and transmission in both prophylactic and therapeutic experiments, substantiating its clinical potential to prevent and treat H1N1 infections. Collectively, this study demonstrated, for the first time, a plant-produced influenza hMAb with in vitro and in vivo activity against influenza virus. Because of the many advantages of plant-produced hMAbs, such as rapid batch production, low cost, and the absence of mammalian cell products, they represent an alternative strategy for the production of immunotherapeutics for the treatment of influenza viral infections, including emerging seasonal and/or pandemic strains.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Planticorpos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Feminino , Cobaias , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/terapia , Nicotiana/metabolismo
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 179: 112920, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706629

RESUMO

In the last two decades, plants became an interesting alternative for the production of recombinant proteins for human therapy and several antibodies expressed in plants have reached the clinical development stage. Plants are capable of post-translational modifications (PTMs) necessary for protein activity and pharmacokinetics, such as glycosylation. However, there are important kingdom-specific modifications that have to be considered when expressing recombinant proteins. Therefore, there is a need for efficient analytical methods for deep protein characterization starting from the expression platform design until the product approval to guarantee product authenticity, quality and efficacy. Literature lacks of reviews dealing with plant-derived proteins purification and characterization by chromatographic methods, thus the focus of the present review is on this topic for the most representative biotechnological drugs i.e. monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In the first part, a comprehensive discussion of the methods applied in dowstream processes (extraction and clarification) and a detailed overview of the chromatographic techniques useful for the purification of plant-made mAbs are reported. Among purification techniques, Protein A affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, hydrophobic charge induction chromatography or mixed mode chromatography are described. In the second part, we will discuss analytical platforms based on chromatographic techniques (reverse phase, size exclusion chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) coupled with different detection systems (UV, Fluorescence, MS) used at protein, peptide and glycan level to characterize plant-made mAbs with their unique features.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Cromatografia/métodos , Planticorpos/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Glicosilação , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Planticorpos/química , Planticorpos/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
5.
Toxicon ; 160: 38-46, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802471

RESUMO

Human accidents with venomous snakes represent an overwhelming public health problem, mainly in rural populations of underdeveloped countries. Their high incidence and the severity of the accidents result in 81,000 to 138,000 deaths per year. The treatment is based on the administration of purified antibodies, produced by hyper immunization of animals to generate immunoglobulins (Igs), and then obtained by fractionating hyper immune plasma. The use of recombinant antibodies is an alternative to conventional treatment of snakebite envenoming, particularly the Fv fragment, named the single-chain variable fragment (scFv). We have produced recombinant single chain variable fragment scFv against the venom of the pit viper Bothrops asper at high levels expressed transiently and stably in transgenic plants and in vitro cultures that is reactive to BaP1 (a metalloproteinase from B. asper venom). The yield from stably transformed plants was significantly (p > 0.05) higher than the results in from transient expression. In addition, scFvBaP1 yields from systems derived from stable transformation were: transgenic callus 62 µg/g (±2); biomass from cell suspension cultures 83 µg/g (±0.2); culture medium from suspensions 71.75 mg/L (±6.18). The activity of scFvBaP1 was confirmed by binding and neutralization of the fibrin degradation induced by BnP1 toxins from B. neuwiedi and by Atroxlysin Ia from B. atrox venoms. In the present work, we demonstrated the potential use of plant cells to produce scFvBaP1 to be used in the future as a biotechnological alternative to horse immunization protocols to produce anti-venoms to be used in human therapy against snakebites.


Assuntos
Metaloendopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Planticorpos/farmacologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/biossíntese , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/farmacologia , Animais , Antivenenos/biossíntese , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Testes de Neutralização , Planticorpos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/metabolismo
6.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(3): 381-395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29231134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. Plant cells have mechanisms for protein synthesis and posttranslational modification, including glycosylation, similar to those in animal cells. However, plants produce less complex and diverse Asn-attached glycans compared to animal cells and contain plant-specific residues. Nevertheless, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. OBJECTIVE: In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail. RESULTS: We examined the features of and approaches to humanizing the Asn-linked glycan of PMAbs. The prospects for PMAbs in the prevention and treatment of human infectious diseases have been illustrated by promising results with PMAbs against human immunodeficiency virus, rotavirus infection, human respiratory syncytial virus, rabies, anthrax and Ebola virus. The pre-clinical and clinical trials of PMAbs against different types of cancer, including lymphoma and breast cancer, are addressed. CONCLUSION: PMAb biosafety assessments in patients suggest that it has no side effects, although this does not completely remove concerns about the potential immunogenicity of some plant glycans in humans. Several PMAbs at various developmental stages have been proposed. Promise for the clinical use of PMAbs is aimed at the treatment of viral and bacterial infections as well as in anti-cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Planticorpos/imunologia , Planticorpos/uso terapêutico , Agrobacterium/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Glicosilação , Humanos
7.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(3): 365-380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721831

RESUMO

During the last two decades, the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants evolved from proof of concept to established technology adopted by several biotechnological companies. This progress is particularly based on intensive research starting stable genetic transformation and moving to transient expression. Due to its advantages in yield and speed of protein production transient expression platforms became the leading plant-based manufacturing technology. Current transient expression methods rely on Agrobacteriummediated delivery of expression vectors into plant cells. In recent years, great advances have been made in the improvement of expression vectors, host cell engineering as well as in the development of commercial manufacturing processes. Several GMP-certified large-scale production facilities exist around the world to utilize agroinfiltration method. A number of pharmaceutical proteins produced by transient expression are currently in clinical development. The great potential of transient expression platform in respect to rapid response to emerging pandemics was demonstrated by the production of experimental ZMapp antibodies against Ebola virus as well as influenza vaccines. This review is focused on current design, status and future perspectives of plant transient expression system for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Planticorpos/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Planticorpos/genética , Planticorpos/uso terapêutico
8.
Anal Sci ; 35(2): 207-214, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318489

RESUMO

Eutrophication of water bodies can promote cyanobacterial (blue-green algae) blooms, which has become a source of increasing concern for both recreational and drinking water use. Many bacterial species can produce toxins that pose threats to wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) is the most frequent and most toxic microcystin congener. For the first time, lab-scale investigations were performed to test the application of a recombinant plant-derived anti-MC-LR antibody immobilized on an immunoaffinity support material to selectively extract the toxin from spiked freshwater samples. As a comparison, its hybridoma-derived counterpart (murine monoclonal antibody) was evaluated. The antibody-doped material was prepared via an optimized sol-gel process; its stability and binding efficiency of MC-LR in spiked freshwater samples were thoroughly tested using the ELISA and orthogonal LC-MS methods. For removal, two column-based procedures with sequential or continuous cyclic sample addition and a suspension mode (moving adsorbent) were tested. Noteworthy the results obtained with a crude antibody fraction were fully compatible with the highly purified preparation. This study paves the way for further investigation being focused on novel applications of plant-derived anti-MC-LR antibodies in bioremediation to selectively deplete the toxin from freshwater: a green and promising technology without secondary pollution.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Água Doce/química , Vidro/química , Microcistinas/imunologia , Microcistinas/isolamento & purificação , Planticorpos/imunologia , Animais , Géis , Toxinas Marinhas , Microcistinas/análise , Nicotiana
9.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 17(5): 295-307, 2018 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982427

RESUMO

Plants as bioreactors have been widely used to express efficient vaccine antigens against viral, bacterial and protozoan infections. To date, many different plant-based expression systems have been analyzed, with a growing preference for transient expression systems. Antibody expression in diverse plant species for therapeutic applications is well known, and this review provides an overview of various aspects of plant-based biopharmaceutical production. Here, we highlight conventional and gene expression technologies in plants along with some illustrative examples. In addition, the portfolio of products that are being produced and how they relate to the success of this field are discussed. Stable and transient gene expression in plants, agrofiltration and virus infection vectors are also reviewed. Further, the present report draws attention to antibody epitope prediction using computational tools, one of the crucial steps of vaccine design. Finally, regulatory issues, biosafety and public perception of this technology are also discussed.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Plantas/metabolismo , Vacinas/biossíntese , Antígenos/metabolismo , Planticorpos/metabolismo
10.
J Exp Bot ; 69(3): 441-454, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294075

RESUMO

Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones with an organ-specific mode of action. Although the mechanisms controlling the complex networks of cytokinin metabolism are partially known, the role of individual cytokinin types in the maintenance of cytokinin homeostasis remains unclear. Utilizing the overproduction of single-chain Fv antibodies selected for their ability to bind trans-zeatin riboside and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, we post-synthetically modulated cytokinin ribosides, the proposed transport forms of cytokinins. We observed asymmetric activity of cytokinin biosynthetic genes and cytokinin distribution in wild-type tobacco seedlings with higher cytokinin abundance in the root than in the shoot. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinin ribosides further enhanced the relative cytokinin abundance in the roots and induced cytokinin-related phenotypes in an organ-specific manner. The activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase in the roots was strongly up-regulated in response to antibody-mediated formation of the cytokinin pool in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, we only detected a slight decrease in the root cytokinin levels. In contrast, a significant decrease of cytokinins occurred in the shoot. We suggest the roots as the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis in tobacco seedlings. Conversely, cytokinin levels in the shoot seem to depend largely on long-range transport of cytokinin ribosides from the root and their subsequent metabolic activation.


Assuntos
Citocininas/fisiologia , Homeostase , Isopenteniladenosina/análogos & derivados , Nicotiana/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Isopenteniladenosina/metabolismo , Planticorpos/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia
11.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 16(3): 727-736, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850773

RESUMO

Antivenoms developed from the plasma of hyperimmunized animals are the only effective treatment available against snakebite envenomation but shortage of supply contributes to the high morbidity and mortality toll of this tropical disease. We describe a synthetic biology approach to affordable and cost-effective antivenom production based on plant-made recombinant polyclonal antibodies (termed pluribodies). The strategy takes advantage of virus superinfection exclusion to induce the formation of somatic expression mosaics in agroinfiltrated plants, which enables the expression of complex antibody repertoires in a highly reproducible manner. Pluribodies developed using toxin-binding genetic information captured from peripheral blood lymphocytes of hyperimmunized camels recapitulated the overall binding activity of the immune response. Furthermore, an improved plant-made antivenom (plantivenom) was formulated using an in vitro selected pluribody against Bothrops asper snake venom toxins and has been shown to neutralize a wide range of toxin activities and provide protection against lethal venom doses in mice.


Assuntos
Planticorpos/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Animais , Antivenenos/metabolismo , Bothrops/metabolismo
12.
Planta Med ; 83(18): 1412-1419, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575911

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro. These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Lactuca/imunologia , Nicotiana/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Lactuca/genética , Lactuca/virologia , Agricultura Molecular , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Planticorpos/genética , Planticorpos/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/virologia , Células Vero
13.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 15(10): 1331-1339, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273388

RESUMO

The biomedical applications of antibody engineering are developing rapidly and have been expanded to plant expression platforms. In this study, we have generated a novel antibody molecule in planta for targeted delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus for which there is no effective treatment after entry into the central nervous system. This study investigated the use of a RABV glycoprotein peptide sequence to assist delivery of a rabies neutralizing single-chain antibody (ScFv) across an in cellulo model of human BBB. The 29 amino acid rabies virus peptide (RVG) recognizes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) at neuromuscular junctions and the BBB. ScFv and ScFv-RVG fusion proteins were produced in Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression. Both molecules were successfully expressed and purified, but the ScFv expression level was significantly higher than that of ScFv-RVG fusion. Both ScFv and ScFv-RVG fusion molecules had potent neutralization activity against RABVin cellulo. The ScFv-RVG fusion demonstrated increased binding to nAchR and entry into neuronal cells, compared to ScFv alone. Additionally, a human brain endothelial cell line BBB model was used to demonstrate that plant-produced ScFv-RVGP fusion could translocate across the cells. This study indicates that the plant-produced ScFv-RVGP fusion protein was able to cross the in celluloBBB and neutralize RABV.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Planticorpos/farmacologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Planticorpos/isolamento & purificação , Planticorpos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Nicotiana
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345261

RESUMO

Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as 'green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of antibodies, ranging from laboratory-scale expression to industrial-scale manufacturing. The key features of plant-based production include safety, speed, low cost, and convenience, allowing newcomers to rapidly master the technology and use it to its full advantage. Manufacturing in plants has recently achieved significant milestones and offers more than just an alternative to established microbial and mammalian cell platforms. The use of plants for product development in particular offers the power and flexibility to easily coexpress many different genes, allowing the plug-and-play construction of novel bionanomaterials, perfectly complementing existing approaches based on plant virus-like particles. As well as producing single antibodies for applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry, plants can be used to produce antibody-based supramolecular structures and scaffolds as a new generation of green bionanomaterials that promise a bright future based on clean and renewable nanotechnology applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1462. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1462 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Planticorpos/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Nanomedicina , Planticorpos/química , Domínios Proteicos , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(1)2017 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295568

RESUMO

Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) highlight the urgent need to develop efficacious interventions against flaviviruses, many of which cause devastating epidemics around the world. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been at the forefront of treatment for cancer and a wide array of other diseases due to their specificity and potency. While mammalian cell-produced mAbs have shown promise as therapeutic candidates against several flaviviruses, their eventual approval for human application still faces several challenges including their potential risk of predisposing treated patients to more severe secondary infection by a heterologous flavivirus through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The high cost associated with mAb production in mammalian cell cultures also poses a challenge for the feasible application of these drugs to the developing world where the majority of flavivirus infection occurs. Here, we review the current therapeutic mAb candidates against various flaviviruses including West Nile (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV. The progress of using plants for developing safer and more economical mAb therapeutics against flaviviruses is discussed within the context of their expression, characterization, downstream processing, neutralization, and in vivo efficacy. The progress of using plant glycoengineering to address ADE, the major impediment of flavivirus therapeutic development, is highlighted. These advancements suggest that plant-based systems are excellent alternatives for addressing the remaining challenges of mAb therapeutic development against flavivirus and may facilitate the eventual commercialization of these drug candidates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções por Flavivirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Humanos , Planticorpos/farmacologia
16.
Afr Health Sci ; 16(2): 640-5, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies are essential part of vertebrates' adaptive immune system; they can now be produced by transforming plants with antibody-coding genes from mammals/humans. Although plants do not naturally make antibodies, the plant-derived antibodies (plantibodies) have been shown to function in the same way as mammalian antibodies. METHODS: PubMed and Google search engines were used to download relevant publications on plantibodies in medical and veterinary fields; the papers were reviewed and findings qualitatively described. RESULTS: The process of bioproduction of plantibodies offers several advantages over the conventional method of antibody production in mammalian cells with the cost of antibody production in plants being substantially lesser. Contrary to what is possible with animal-derived antibodies, the process of making plantibodies almost exclusively precludes transfer of pathogens to the end product. Additionally, plants not only produce a relatively high yield of antibodies in a comparatively faster time, they also serve as cost-effective bioreactors to produce antibodies of diverse specificities. CONCLUSION: Plantibodies are safe, cost-effective and offer more advantages over animal-derived antibodies. Methods of producing them are described with a view to inspiring African scientists on the need to embrace and harness this rapidly evolving biotechnology in solving human and animal health challenges on the continent where the climate supports growth of diverse plants.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Planticorpos/administração & dosagem , Planticorpos/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria
18.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 23(4): 346-52, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865596

RESUMO

Fimbrial protein fimbrillin (FimA), a major structural subunit of Porphyromonas gingivalis, has been suggested as a vaccine candidate to control P. gingivalis-induced periodontal disease. Previously, cDNAs encoding IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against purified FimA from P. gingivalis 2561 have been cloned, and the MAbs have been produced in rice cell suspension. Here we examined the biological activities of the plant-produced MAb specific for FimA (anti-FimA plantibody) of P. gingivalis in vitro and in vivo. The anti-FimA plantibody recognized oligomeric/polymeric forms of native FimA in immunoblot analysis and showed high affinity for native FimA (KD = 0.11 nM). Binding of P. gingivalis (10(8) cells) to 2 mg of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads was reduced by 53.8% in the presence of 1 µg/ml plantibody. Anti-FimA plantibody (10 µg/ml) reduced invasion of periodontal ligament cells by P. gingivalis (multiplicity of infection, 100) by 68.3%. Intracellular killing of P. gingivalis opsonized with the anti-FimA plantibody by mouse macrophages was significantly increased (77.1%) compared to killing of bacterial cells with irrelevant IgG (36.7%). In a mouse subcutaneous chamber model, the number of recoverable P. gingivalis cells from the chamber fluid was significantly reduced when the numbers of bacterial cells opsonized with anti-FimA plantibody were compared with the numbers of bacterial cells with irrelevant IgG, 66.7% and 37.1%, respectively. These in vitro and in vivo effects of anti-FimA plantibody were comparable to those of the parental MAb. Further studies with P. gingivalis strains with different types of fimbriae are needed to investigate the usefulness of anti-FimA plantibody for passive immunization to control P. gingivalis-induced periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Planticorpos/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza , Fagocitose , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 14(1): 240-51, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879373

RESUMO

Anti-CD20 murine or chimeric antibodies (Abs) have been used to treat non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and other diseases characterized by overactive or dysfunctional B cells. Anti-CD20 Abs demonstrated to be effective in inducing regression of B-cell lymphomas, although in many cases patients relapse following treatment. A promising approach to improve the outcome of mAb therapy is the use of anti-CD20 antibodies to deliver cytokines to the tumour microenvironment. In particular, IL-2-based immunocytokines have shown enhanced antitumour activity in several preclinical studies. Here, we report on the engineering of an anti-CD20-human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) immunocytokine (2B8-Fc-hIL2) based on the C2B8 mAb (Rituximab) and the resulting ectopic expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The scFv-Fc-engineered immunocytokine is fully assembled in plants with minor degradation products as assessed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Purification yields using protein-A affinity chromatography were in the range of 15-20 mg/kg of fresh leaf weight (FW). Glycopeptide analysis confirmed the presence of a highly homogeneous plant-type glycosylation. 2B8-Fc-hIL2 and the cognate 2B8-Fc antibody, devoid of hIL-2, were assayed by flow cytometry on Daudi cells revealing a CD20 binding activity comparable to that of Rituximab and were effective in eliciting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of human PBMC versus Daudi cells, demonstrating their functional integrity. In 2B8-Fc-hIL2, IL-2 accessibility and biological activity were verified by flow cytometry and cell proliferation assay. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a recombinant immunocytokine based on the therapeutic Rituximab antibody scaffold, whose expression in plants may be a valuable tool for NHLs treatment.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD20/imunologia , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Nicotiana/genética , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Western Blotting , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Planticorpos/química , Planticorpos/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
20.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0145156, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709700

RESUMO

Soybean is one of the most important crops grown across the globe. In the United States, approximately 15% of the soybean yield is suppressed due to various pathogen and pests attack. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is an emerging fungal disease caused by Fusarium virguliforme. Although growing SDS resistant soybean cultivars has been the main method of controlling this disease, SDS resistance is partial and controlled by a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL). A proteinacious toxin, FvTox1, produced by the pathogen, causes foliar SDS. Earlier, we demonstrated that expression of an anti-FvTox1 single chain variable fragment antibody resulted in reduced foliar SDS development in transgenic soybean plants. Here, we investigated if synthetic FvTox1-interacting peptides, displayed on M13 phage particles, can be identified for enhancing foliar SDS resistance in soybean. We screened three phage-display peptide libraries and discovered four classes of M13 phage clones displaying FvTox1-interacting peptides. In vitro pull-down assays and in vivo interaction assays in yeast were conducted to confirm the interaction of FvTox1 with these four synthetic peptides and their fusion-combinations. One of these peptides was able to partially neutralize the toxic effect of FvTox1 in vitro. Possible application of the synthetic peptides in engineering SDS resistance soybean cultivars is discussed.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Glycine max/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Planticorpos/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Planticorpos/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Glycine max/genética , Glycine max/imunologia
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