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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(3): e1012100, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527094

RESUMO

The coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) is crucial for viral replicase polyprotein processing. Additionally, PLpro can subvert host defense mechanisms by its deubiquitinating (DUB) and deISGylating activities. To elucidate the role of these activities during SARS-CoV-2 infection, we introduced mutations that disrupt binding of PLpro to ubiquitin or ISG15. We identified several mutations that strongly reduced DUB activity of PLpro, without affecting viral polyprotein processing. In contrast, mutations that abrogated deISGylating activity also hampered viral polyprotein processing and when introduced into the virus these mutants were not viable. SARS-CoV-2 mutants exhibiting reduced DUB activity elicited a stronger interferon response in human lung cells. In a mouse model of severe disease, disruption of PLpro DUB activity did not affect lethality, virus replication, or innate immune responses in the lungs. This suggests that the DUB activity of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro is dispensable for virus replication and does not affect innate immune responses in vivo. Interestingly, the DUB mutant of SARS-CoV replicated to slightly lower titers in mice and elicited a diminished immune response early in infection, although lethality was unaffected. We previously showed that a MERS-CoV mutant deficient in DUB and deISGylating activity was strongly attenuated in mice. Here, we demonstrate that the role of PLpro DUB activity during infection can vary considerably between highly pathogenic coronaviruses. Therefore, careful considerations should be taken when developing pan-coronavirus antiviral strategies targeting PLpro.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Papaína/genética , Papaína/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Poliproteínas
2.
Virol J ; 21(1): 55, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449001

RESUMO

Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged that may exhibit different etiological effects such as enhanced transmissibility and infectivity. However, genetic variations that reduce virulence and deteriorate viral fitness have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study sought to evaluate the effects of viral genetic makeup on COVID-19 epidemiology in Pakistan, where the infectivity and mortality rate was comparatively lower than other countries during the first pandemic wave. For this purpose, we focused on the comparative analyses of 7096 amino-acid long polyprotein pp1ab. Comparative sequence analysis of 203 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, sampled from Pakistan during the first wave of the pandemic revealed 179 amino acid substitutions in pp1ab. Within this set, 38 substitutions were identified within the Nsp3 region of the pp1ab polyprotein. Structural and biophysical analysis of proteins revealed that amino acid variations within Nsp3's macrodomains induced conformational changes and modified protein-ligand interactions, consequently diminishing the virulence and fitness of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the epistatic effects resulting from evolutionary substitutions in SARS-CoV-2 proteins may have unnoticed implications for reducing disease burden. In light of these findings, further characterization of such deleterious SARS-CoV-2 mutations will not only aid in identifying potential therapeutic targets but will also provide a roadmap for maintaining vigilance against the genetic variability of diverse SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating globally. Furthermore, these insights empower us to more effectively manage and respond to potential viral-based pandemic outbreaks of a similar nature in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Virulência/genética , Aminoácidos , Poliproteínas , Variação Genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339086

RESUMO

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase are targets of current drugs to treat the disease. However, anti-viral drug-resistant strains have emerged quickly due to the high mutation rate of the virus, leading to the demand for the development of new drugs. One attractive target is Gag-Pol polyprotein, which plays a key role in the life cycle of HIV. Recently, we found that a combination of M50I and V151I mutations in HIV-1 integrase can suppress virus release and inhibit the initiation of Gag-Pol autoprocessing and maturation without interfering with the dimerization of Gag-Pol. Additional mutations in integrase or RNase H domain in reverse transcriptase can compensate for the defect. However, the molecular mechanism is unknown. There is no tertiary structure of the full-length HIV-1 Pol protein available for further study. Therefore, we developed a workflow to predict the tertiary structure of HIV-1 NL4.3 Pol polyprotein. The modeled structure has comparable quality compared with the recently published partial HIV-1 Pol structure (PDB ID: 7SJX). Our HIV-1 NL4.3 Pol dimer model is the first full-length Pol tertiary structure. It can provide a structural platform for studying the autoprocessing mechanism of HIV-1 Pol and for developing new potent drugs. Moreover, the workflow can be used to predict other large protein structures that cannot be resolved via conventional experimental methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , Humanos , Produtos do Gene pol/genética , Produtos do Gene pol/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Protease de HIV/genética , Protease de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Poliproteínas/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
4.
Arch Virol ; 169(2): 39, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300368

RESUMO

The complete genome sequence of a putative novel potyvirus, tentatively named "polygonatum kingianum mottle virus" (PKgMV; GenBank accession no. ON428226), infecting Polygonatum kingianum in China, was obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). PKgMV exhibits the typical genome organization and characteristics of members of the genus Potyvirus, with a length of 10,002 nucleotides (nt) and a large open reading frame (nt 108 to 9,746) encoding a polyprotein of 3,212 amino acids (aa) (363.68 kDa). Pairwise comparisons revealed that the PKgMV polyprotein shares 50.5-68.6% nt and 43.1-72.2% aa sequence identity with reported members of the genus Potyvirus. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PKgMV is closely related to polygonatum kingianum virus 1 (PKgV1; accession no. MK427056). These results suggest that the PKgMV is a novel member of the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae.


Assuntos
Polygonatum , Potyvirus , China , Filogenia , Aminoácidos , Nucleotídeos , Poliproteínas , Potyvirus/genética
5.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305454

RESUMO

This opinion article addresses a major issue in molecular biology and drug discovery by highlighting the complications that arise from combining polyproteins and their functional products within the same database entry. This problem, exemplified by the discovery of novel inhibitors for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease, has an influence on our ability to retrieve precise data and hinders the development of targeted therapies. It also emphasizes the need for improved database practices and underscores their significance in advancing scientific research. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need of learning from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in order to improve global preparedness for future health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Poliproteínas/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
6.
Arch Virol ; 169(1): 15, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163823

RESUMO

Rhizoctonia solani endornavirus 8 (RsEV8) was isolated from strain XY175 of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA. The full-length genome of RsEV8 is 16,147 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame that encodes a large polyprotein of 5227 amino acids. The polyprotein contains four conserved domains: viral methyltransferase, putative DEAH box helicase, viral helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). RsEV8 has a shorter 3'-UTR (58 nt) and a longer 5'-UTR (404 nt). A multiple sequence alignment indicated that the RdRp of RsEV8 possesses eight typical RdRp motifs. According to a BLASTp analysis, RsEV8 shares 39.31% sequence identity with Rhizoctonia cerealis endornavirus-1084-7. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that RsEV8 clusters with members of the genus Betaendornavirus.


Assuntos
Micovírus , Vírus de RNA , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , Rhizoctonia/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Poliproteínas/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Viral/genética
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 81, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194136

RESUMO

We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and produce virus-like particles (VLPs). The gene, which encodes four structural capsid proteins (VP0 (VP4 and VP2), VP3, and VP1), followed by a translational "ribosomal skipping" sequence consisting of 2A and protease 3C, was codon-optimized and chemically synthesized. The cloned gene was used to transform S. cerevisiae 2805 strain. Western blot analysis revealed that the polyprotein consisting of VP0, VP3, and VP1 was processed into the discrete capsid proteins. Western blot analysis of 3C confirmed the presence of discrete 3C protein, suggesting that the 2A sequence functioned as a "ribosomal skipping" signal in the yeast for an internal re-initiation of 3C translation from a monocistronic transcript, thereby indicating polyprotein processing by the discrete 3C protease. Moreover, a band corresponding to only VP2, which was known to be non-enzymatically processed from VP0 to both VP4 and VP2 during viral assembly, further validated the assembly of processed capsid proteins into VLPs. Electron microscopy showed the presence of the characteristic icosahedral VLPs. Our results clearly demonstrate that S. cerevisiae processes the viral structural polyprotein using a viral 3C protease and the resulting viral capsid subunits are assembled into virion particles. KEY POINTS: • Ribosomal skipping by self-cleaving FMDV peptide in S. cerevisiae. • Proteolytic processing of a structural polyprotein from a monocistronic transcript. • Assembly of the processed viral capsid proteins into a virus-like particle.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Endopeptidases , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Poliproteínas/genética , Proteases Virais 3C
8.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(4): 589-605, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A peculiar feature of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is its reliance on the exosomal route for viral release. Genomic replication is mediated via the viral polyprotein pORF1, yet little is known about its subcellular localization. METHODS: Subcellular localization of pORF1 and its subdomains, generated and cloned based on a structural prediciton of the viral replicase, was analyzed via confocal laser scanning microscopy. Exosomes released from cells were isolated via ultracentrifugation and analyzed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. This was followed by fluorimetry or Western blot analyses or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to analyze separated particles in more detail. RESULTS: We found pORF1 to be accumulating within the endosomal system, most dominantly to multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Expression of the polyprotein's 7 subdomains revealed that the papain-like cysteine-protease (PCP) is the only domain localizing like the full-length protein. A PCP-deficient pORF1 mutant lost its association to MVBs. Strikingly, both pORF1 and PCP can be released via exosomes. Similarly, genomic RNA still is released via exosomes in the absence of pORF2/3. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we found that pORF1 localizes to MVBs in a PCP-dependent manner, which is followed by exosomal release. This reveals new aspects of HEV life cycle, because replication and release could be coupled at the endosomal interface. In addition, this may mediate capsid-independent spread or may facilitate the spread of viral infection, because genomes entering the cell during de novo infection readily encounter exosomally transferred pORF1.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Corpos Multivesiculares/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Poliproteínas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
9.
J Exp Bot ; 75(1): 45-59, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37715992

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is amenable to major restructuring. Introduction of recombinant ER-membrane-resident proteins that form homo oligomers is a known method of inducing ER proliferation: interaction of the proteins with each other alters the local structure of the ER network, leading to the formation large aggregations of expanded ER, sometimes leading to the formation of organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum (OSER). However, these membrane structures formed by ER proliferation are poorly characterized and this hampers their potential development for plant synthetic biology. Here, we characterize a range of ER-derived membranous compartments in tobacco and show how the nature of the polyproteins introduced into the ER membrane affect the morphology of the final compartment. We show that a cytosol-facing oligomerization domain is an essential component for compartment formation. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we demonstrate that although the compartment retains a connection to the ER, a diffusional barrier exists to both the ER and the cytosol associated with the compartment. Using quantitative image analysis, we also show that the presence of the compartment does not disrupt the rest of the ER network. Moreover, we demonstrate that it is possible to recruit a heterologous, bacterial enzyme to the compartment, and for the enzyme to accumulate to high levels. Finally, transgenic Arabidopsis constitutively expressing the compartment-forming polyproteins grew and developed normally under standard conditions.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Poliproteínas , Poliproteínas/análise , Poliproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo
10.
mSystems ; 9(1): e0097323, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38112462

RESUMO

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV). The replication of DENV relies on the processing of its genome-encoded polyprotein by both viral protease NS3 (NS3pro) and host proteases. However, the impact of host proteases on DENV proliferation is not well understood. In this study, we utilized fluorophosphonate-based probes (FPs) to investigate the up-regulation of host serine proteases during DENV infection in detail. Among the identified proteases, acyl-CoA thioesterase 2 (ACOT2), an enzyme that hydrolyzes acyl-CoA molecules to generate fatty acids and free CoA, exhibited cleavage activity against DENV polypeptide substrates. Enzymatic assays and virological experiments confirmed that ACOT2 contributes to DENV propagation during the replication stage by cleaving the viral polyprotein. Docking models provided insights into the binding pocket of viral polypeptides and the catalytic mechanism of ACOT2. Notably, this study is the first to demonstrate that ACOT2 functions as a serine protease to hydrolyze protein substrates. These findings offer novel insights into DENV infection, host response, as well as the potential development of innovative antiviral strategies.IMPORTANCEDENV, one of the major pathogens of Dengue fever, remains a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. How DENV efficiently hijacks the host and accesses its life cycle with delicate interaction remains to be elucidated. Here, we deconvoluted that the host protease ACOT2 assists the DENV replication and characterized the ACOT2 as a serine protease involved in the hydrolysis of the DENV polypeptide substrate. Our results not only further the understanding of the DENV life cycle but also provide a possibility for the usage of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-virus interactions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/química , Serina Proteases , Poliproteínas , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Dengue/metabolismo , Peptídeos , Proliferação de Células , Tioléster Hidrolases
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e245592, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355866

RESUMO

Abstract In recent years, the development of high-throughput technologies for obtaining sequence data leveraged the possibility of analysis of protein data in silico. However, when it comes to viral polyprotein interaction studies, there is a gap in the representation of those proteins, given their size and length. The prepare for studies using state-of-the-art techniques such as Machine Learning, a good representation of such proteins is a must. We present an alternative to this problem, implementing a fragmentation and modeling protocol to prepare those polyproteins in the form of peptide fragments. Such procedure is made by several scripts, implemented together on the workflow we call PolyPRep, a tool written in Python script and available in GitHub. This software is freely available only for noncommercial users.


Resumo Nos últimos anos, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de alto rendimento para obtenção de dados sequenciais potencializou a possibilidade de análise de dados proteicos in silico. No entanto, quando se trata de estudos de interação de poliproteínas virais, existe uma lacuna na representação dessas proteínas, devido ao seu tamanho e comprimento. Para estudos utilizando técnicas de ponta como o Aprendizado de Máquina, uma boa representação dessas proteínas é imprescindível. Apresentamos uma alternativa para este problema, implementando um protocolo de fragmentação e modelagem para preparar essas poliproteínas na forma de fragmentos de peptídeos. Tal procedimento é feito por diversos scripts, implementados em conjunto no workflow que chamamos de PolyPRep, uma ferramenta escrita em script Python e disponível no GitHub. Este software está disponível gratuitamente apenas para usuários não comerciais.


Assuntos
Protease de HIV , Poliproteínas , Software , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
12.
Virus Res ; 339: 199256, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898320

RESUMO

Endornaviruses are known to occur widely in plants, fungi, and oomycetes, but our understanding of their diversity and distribution is limited. In this study, we report the discovery of four endornaviruses tentatively named Setosphaeria turcica endornavirus 1 (StEV1), Setosphaeria turcica endornavirus 2 (StEV2), Bipolaris maydis endornavirus 1 (BmEV1), and Bipolaris maydis endornavirus 2 (BmEV2). StEV1 and StEV2 infect Exserohilum turcicum, while BmEV1 and BmEV2 infect Bipolaris maydis. The four viruses encode a polyprotein with less than 40 % amino acid sequence identity to other known endornaviruses, indicating that they are novel, previously undescribed endornaviruses. However, StEV1 and BmEV1 share a sequence identity of 78 % at the full-genome level and 87 % at the polyprotein level, suggesting that they may belong to the same species. Our study also found that each of the four endornaviruses has an incidence of approximately 3.5 % to 5.5 % in E. turcicum or B. maydis. Interestingly, BmEV1 and BmEV2 were found to be unable to transmit between hosts of different vegetative incompatibility groups, which may explain their low incidence.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Vírus de RNA , Incidência , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Poliproteínas/genética
13.
J Gen Virol ; 104(12)2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059479

RESUMO

Flavivirids are small, enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses from the family Flaviviridae with genomes of ~9-13 kb. Metatranscriptomic analyses of metazoan organisms have revealed a diversity of flavivirus-like or flavivirid viral sequences in fish and marine invertebrate groups. However, no flavivirus-like virus has been identified in amphibians. To remedy this, we investigated the virome of the European common frog (Rana temporaria) in the UK, utilizing high-throughput sequencing at six catch locations. De novo assembly revealed a coding-complete virus contig of a novel flavivirid ~11.2 kb in length. The virus encodes a single ORF of 3456 aa and 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of 227 and 666 nt, respectively. We named this virus Rana tamanavirus (RaTV), as BLASTp analysis of the polyprotein showed the closest relationships to Tamana bat virus (TABV) and Cyclopterus lumpus virus from Pteronotus parnellii and Cyclopterus lumpus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the RaTV polyprotein compared to Flavivirus and Flavivirus-like members indicated that RaTV was sufficiently divergent and basal to the vertebrate Tamanavirus clade. In addition to the Mitcham strain, partial but divergent RaTV, sharing 95.64-97.39 % pairwise nucleotide identity, were also obtained from the Poole and Deal samples, indicating that RaTV is widespread in UK frog samples. Bioinformatic analyses of predicted secondary structures in the 3'UTR of RaTV showed the presence of an exoribonuclease-resistant RNA (xrRNA) structure standard in flaviviruses and TABV. To examine this biochemically, we conducted an in vitro Xrn1 digestion assay showing that RaTV probably forms a functional Xrn1-resistant xrRNA.


Assuntos
Flaviviridae , Flavivirus , Animais , Flaviviridae/genética , Rana temporaria/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/química , Flavivirus/genética , Poliproteínas/genética , Reino Unido , Genoma Viral
14.
J Virol ; 97(12): e0092823, 2023 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38047713

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Most protease-targeted antiviral development evaluates the ability of small molecules to inhibit the cleavage of artificial substrates. However, before they can cleave any other substrates, viral proteases need to cleave themselves out of the viral polyprotein in which they have been translated. This can occur either intra- or inter-molecularly. Whether this process occurs intra- or inter-molecularly has implications for the potential for precursors to accumulate and for the effectiveness of antiviral drugs. We argue that evaluating candidate antivirals for their ability to block these cleavages is vital to drug development because the buildup of uncleaved precursors can be inhibitory to the virus and potentially suppress the selection of drug-resistant variants.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Enterovirus , Inibidores de Protease Viral , Proteases Virais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Proteólise , Proteases Virais/metabolismo , Inibidores de Protease Viral/farmacologia , Enterovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterovirus/fisiologia , Poliproteínas/metabolismo
15.
Viruses ; 15(12)2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140585

RESUMO

The deformed wing virus (DWV) belongs to the genus Iflavirus and the family Iflaviridae within the order Picornavirales. It is an important pathogen of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, causing major losses among honey bee colonies in association with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Although DWV is one of the best-studied insect viruses, the mechanisms of viral replication and polyprotein processing have been poorly studied in the past. We investigated the processing of the protease-polymerase region at the C-terminus of the polyprotein in more detail using recombinant expression, novel serological reagents, and virus clone mutagenesis. Edman degradation of purified maturated polypeptides uncovered the C- and N-termini of the mature 3C-like (3CL) protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3DL, RdRp), respectively. Autocatalytic processing of the recombinant DWV 3CL protease occurred at P1 Q2118 and P1' G2119 (KPQ/GST) as well as P1 Q2393 and P1' S2394 (HAQ/SPS) cleavage sites. New monoclonal antibodies (Mab) detected the mature 3CL protease with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa, mature 3DL with an apparent molecular mass of 55 kDa as well as a dominant 3CDL precursor of 90 kDa in DWV infected honey bee pupae. The observed pattern corresponds well to data obtained via recombinant expression and N-terminal sequencing. Finally, we were able to show that 3CL protease activity and availability of the specific protease cleavage sites are essential for viral replication, protein synthesis, and establishment of infection using our molecular clone of DWV-A.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Varroidae , Abelhas , Animais , Vírus de RNA/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Poliproteínas
16.
Viruses ; 15(12)2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140654

RESUMO

The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses with enormous impact on human and animal health. The picornaviral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteases. The picornaviral 3C proteases share similar three-dimensional structures and play a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus-host interactions. Picornaviral 3C proteins also have conserved RNA-binding activities that contribute to the assembly of the viral RNA replication complex. The 3C protease is important for regulating the host cell response through the cleavage of critical host cell proteins, acting to selectively 'hijack' host factors involved in gene expression, promoting picornavirus replication, and inactivating key factors in innate immunity signaling pathways. The protease and RNA-binding activities of 3C are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. Most importantly, 3C modifies critical molecules in host organelles and maintains virus infection by subtly subverting host cell death through the blocking of transcription, translation, and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms through which 3C mediates physiological processes involved in promoting virus infection, replication, and release.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Proteólise , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Poliproteínas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
17.
Virol J ; 20(1): 282, 2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38031135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a novel, highly variable porcine pestivirus. Previous reports have suggested that the virus is associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets, and little information is available about the correlation between the virus and sow abortion, or on coinfection with other viruses. In China, reported APPV strains were mainly isolated from South China and Central China, and data about the APPV genome from northern China are relatively scarce. METHODS: Eleven umbilical cords, one placenta, and one aborted piglet, were collected from aborted sows of the same farm in Shandong Province of northern China. Nucleic acids were extracted from the above samples, and subsequently pooled for viral metagenomics sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The viral coexistence status and complete genome characteristics of APPV in Shandong Province were determined. RESULTS: In abortion cases, APPV was present with Getah virus, porcine picobirnavirus, porcine kobuvirus, porcine sapovirus, Po-Circo-like virus, porcine serum-associated circular virus, porcine bocavirus 1, porcine parvovirus 1, porcine parvovirus 3 and porcine circovirus 3, etc. The first complete genome sequence(11,556 nt) of APPV in Shandong Province of northern China, was obtained using viral metagenomics and designated APPV-SDHY-2022. Comparison with Chinese reference strains revealed that the polyprotein of APPV-SDHY-2022 shared 82.6-84.2%, 93.2-93.6%, and 80.7-85% nucleotide identity and 91.4-92.4%, 96.4-97.7%, and 90.6-92.2% amino acid identity with those of the Clade I, Clade II and Clade III strains, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete polyprotein CDS and NS5A sequences concluded that APPV-SDHY-2022 belongs to Clade II. Analysis of the NS5A nucleotide sequences revealed homology of greater than 94.6% for the same isoform, 84.7-94.5% for different isoforms of the same clade and 76.8-81.1% for different clades. Therefore, Clade II was further divided into three subclades, and APPV-SDHY-2022 belonged to subclade 2.3. Members of Clade II have 20 unique amino acids in individual proteins, distinguishing them from Clade I and Clade III members. The E2 protein showed the greatest diversity of putative N-glycosylation sites with 9 patterns, and APPV-SDHY-2022 along with other Chinese APPV strains shared the conserved B-cell conformational epitope residues 39E, 70R, 173R, 190K and 191N of the E2 protein. CONCLUSIONS: We reported viral coexistence and the first complete genome sequence of APPV from abortion cases and from Shandong Province. The new APPV isolate belongs to an independent branch of Clade II. Our results increase the molecular and epidemiological understanding of APPV in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pestivirus , Pestivirus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Infecções por Pestivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Pestivirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Poliproteínas/genética
18.
Viruses ; 15(10)2023 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37896836

RESUMO

Many mycoviruses have been accurately and successfully identified in plant pathogenic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea. This study discovered three mycoviruses from a B. dothidea strain SXD111 using high-throughput sequencing technology. A novel hypovirus was tentatively named Botryosphaeria dothidea hypovirus 1 (BdHV1/SXD111). The other two were known viruses, which we named Botryosphaeria dothidea polymycovirus 1 strain SXD111 (BdPmV1/SXD111) and Botryosphaeria dothidea partitivirus 1 strain SXD111 (BdPV1/SXD111). The genome of BdHV1/SXD111 is 11,128 nucleotides long, excluding the poly (A) tail. A papain-like cysteine protease (Pro), a UDP-glucose/sterol glucosyltransferase (UGT), an RNA-dependent RNA polyprotein (RdRp), and a helicase (Hel) were detected in the polyprotein of BdHV1/SXD111. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BdHV1/SXD111 was clustered with betahypovirus and separated from members of the other genera in the family Hypoviridae. The BdPmV1/SXD111 genome comprised five dsRNA segments with 2396, 2232, 1967, 1131, and 1060 bp lengths. Additionally, BdPV1/SXD111 harbored three dsRNA segments with 1823, 1623, and 557 bp lengths. Furthermore, the smallest dsRNA was a novel satellite component of BdPV1/SXD111. BdHV1/SXD111 could be transmitted through conidia and hyphae contact, whereas it likely has no apparent impact on the morphologies and virulence of the host fungus. Thus, this study is the first report of a betahypovirus isolated from the fungus B. dothidea. Importantly, our results significantly enhance the diversity of the B. dothidea viruses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micovírus , Vírus de RNA , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Genoma Viral , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Poliproteínas/genética
19.
J Med Virol ; 95(9): e29090, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37695079

RESUMO

The widespread dissemination of coronavirus 2019 imposes a significant burden on society. Therefore, rapid detection facilitates the reduction of transmission risk. In this study, we proposed a multiplex diagnostic platform for the rapid, ultrasensitive, visual, and simultaneous detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) and N genes. A visual diagnostic method was developed using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas12a/Cas13a dual-enzyme digestion system integrated with multiplex reverse transcriptase-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA). Two CRISPR-Cas proteins (Cas12a and Cas13a) were introduced into the system to recognize and cleave the N gene and ORF1ab gene, respectively. We used fluorescent or CRISPR double digestion test strips to detect the digested products, with the N gene corresponding to the FAM channel in the PCR instrument or the T1 line on the test strip, and the ORF1ab gene corresponding to the ROX channel in the PCR instrument or the T2 line on the test strip. The analysis can be completed in less than 20 min. Meanwhile, we assessed the application of the platform and determined a sensitivity of up to 200 copies/mL. Additionally, dual gene validation in 105 clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples showed a 100% positive predictive value agreement and a 95.7% negative predictive value agreement between our method and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Overall, our method offered a novel insight into the rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , COVID-19 , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus , Endodesoxirribonucleases , Fosfoproteínas , Poliproteínas , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Virais , Clivagem do RNA , Clivagem do DNA , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Proteínas Virais/genética , Poliproteínas/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Endodesoxirribonucleases/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Humanos
20.
Arch Virol ; 168(10): 242, 2023 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37668734

RESUMO

Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV; genus Macluravirus), which causes mosaic (katte) disease in cardamom, is a highly variable member of the family Potyviridae. So far, the complete genome sequence of one isolate from Karnataka (KS) has been reported. In the present study, we determined the complete genome sequence of a CdMV isolate from Kerala (KI) and the complete CP gene sequences of nine isolates of CdMV from Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, India. The complete genome of CdMV (KI) consists of 8255 nucleotides (nt) with two open reading frames (ORFs). The large ORF, potentially coding for a polyprotein of 2638 amino acids (aa), is further processed into nine mature proteins at eight cleavage sites. The second ORF, PIPO (pretty interesting Potyviridae ORF) starting with a C(A)6 motif, encodes a small protein of 56 aa. The viral genome contains an additional 13 nt in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 6 nt in the CP gene, as well as a deletion of 13 nt at the 3' UTR in comparison to the KS isolate of CdMV. The complete viral genome and polyprotein share 76% and 85% sequence identity with the KS isolate of CdMV, indicating that the present isolate is highly divergent from the KS isolate. Sequencing and analysis of the CP sequences of 16 CdMV isolates from different regions revealed high heterogeneity among them, suggesting that they should be considered members of more than one species.


Assuntos
Potyviridae , Índia , Potyviridae/genética , Genoma Viral , Aminoácidos , Nucleotídeos , Poliproteínas/genética
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