Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.603
Filtrar
1.
Science ; 374(6564): 163, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618593
2.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20211014. 55 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1337828

RESUMO

El documento contiene los criterios técnicos para la vacunación contra la COVID-19, a la población a partir de los 12 años a más, que residen en el territorio peruano.


Assuntos
População , Vacinação , Guias como Assunto , COVID-19
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(5): 707-715, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519275

RESUMO

Objective: Recent studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the association between thyroid autoimmunity and MetS is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and MetS in a large cohort study of euthyroid subjects. Methods: A total of 4775 participants aged ≥19 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013-2015) with anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) results and normal thyroid functions were included in this study. Subjects were grouped according to thyroid autoimmunity (positivity of TPOAb). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS according to TPOAb positivity using logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Of the study subjects, 25% (n = 1206) were diagnosed with MetS. Subjects with MetS showed higher median TPOAb levels (6.3 vs 6.8 IU/mL, P < 0.001) and higher positivity of TPOAb (5 vs 7%, P = 0.002) than those without MetS. There was a significant difference in prevalence of MetS depending on the TPOAb positivity (25% vs 33%, P = 0.002). Subjects with TPOAb positive had a significantly greater risk of abdominal obesity (OR 1.675, 95% CI: 1.302-2.154, P < 0.001), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 1.603, 95% CI: 1.244-2.066, P < 0.001) and elevated blood pressure (OR: 1.418, 95% CI: 1.099-1.829, P = 0.007) as compared to those with TPOAb negative. Positivity of TPOAb was a significant risk factor for MetS even after adjusting for confounding variables including age, sex, household income, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, walking activity, thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine (OR: 1.389, 95% CI: 1.048-1.841, P = 0.022). Conclusion: In euthyroid subjects, thyroid autoimmunity is associated with MetS. Further large longitudinal studies are needed to clarify causality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , População , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tireoidite Autoimune/complicações , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570816

RESUMO

While the number of published marine studies using environmental DNA (eDNA) has increased substantially in recent years, marine fish surveys are still scarce. To examine the potential for eDNA to support marine fisheries monitoring surveys, we optimized an eDNA isolation method, developed a multispecies assay and tested it on eDNA samples collected along the Pacific coast of the United States. Four commercial DNA extraction kits that exploit the capability of the nucleic acids binding a solid phase (two using a silica matrix and two magnetic beads) as well an organic separation method were tested. A species-specific multiplex qPCR assay was developed and tested to simultaneously target Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus). The specificity of the assay was tested in silico, in vitro and in natura. Environmental DNA isolation using phenol:chloroform:isoamyl purification with a phase lock was optimized and yielded the highest amount of total and target DNA and was used to extract 46 marine water samples for the detection of the three species of interest. The multiplex qPCR assay used in the quantification process was also optimized to provide convenience and accuracy. Pacific hake was present in 44% of the eDNA samples while the other two species were absent. Here, we present a complete workflow for the simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple marine fish species using eDNA. This workflow supports large-scale at-sea sampling efforts with preservation at ambient temperatures and has demonstrated DNA extraction efficiency and reliability. The multiplex qPCR assay is shown to be sensitive and specific for the purposes of simultaneously monitoring the relative abundance of multiple targeted fish species.


Assuntos
DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , DNA Ambiental/análise , Peixes/genética , Oceanos e Mares , População , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fluxo de Trabalho
6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(5): 1302-1310, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514598

RESUMO

Bamlanivimab and etesevimab are neutralizing antibodies indicated for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with early mild or moderate disease. We present the use of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling that characterizes the timecourse of viral load obtained from 2,970 patients from 2 phase II clinical trials. The model was used for identification of optimal doses that would result in at least 90% of patients achieving serum drug concentrations that result in 90% of maximum drug effect (IC90) for at least 28 days. The serum IC90 (95% confidence interval) was estimated to be 4.2 (3.2-4.3) µg/mL for bamlanivimab and 12.6 (9.7-12.8) µg/mL for etesevimab. Observed clinical trial data confirmed PK and PK/PD model predictions that doses of 700 mg bamlanivimab and 1,400 mg etesevimab would result in maximum reduction in viral load, with no additional effect seen at higher doses. No dose adjustment is recommended as age, sex, race, baseline viral load, and hepatic impairment did not have a significant impact on the PK of the antibodies. Earlier drug administration resulted in greater reductions in viral load, demonstrating the importance of receiving treatment as soon as possible. Relative to placebo, typical reduction in viral load over a 7-day period was estimated to be 80 or 93% (drug administered 4 days or 1 day after the onset of symptoms, respectively), P < 0.0001. PK/PD modeling and simulation was pivotal throughout the drug development and emergency use authorization process.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacocinética , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , População , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3055-3068, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416170

RESUMO

A major shift is happening within neurophysiology: a population doctrine is drawing level with the single-neuron doctrine that has long dominated the field. Population-level ideas have so far had their greatest impact in motor neuroscience, but they hold great promise for resolving open questions in cognition as well. Here, we codify the population doctrine and survey recent work that leverages this view to specifically probe cognition. Our discussion is organized around five core concepts that provide a foundation for population-level thinking: (1) state spaces, (2) manifolds, (3) coding dimensions, (4) subspaces, and (5) dynamics. The work we review illustrates the progress and promise that population-level thinking holds for cognitive neuroscience-for delivering new insight into attention, working memory, decision-making, executive function, learning, and reward processing.


Assuntos
Neurociência Cognitiva/tendências , Neurofisiologia/tendências , População , Animais , Humanos
8.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 5582589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194512

RESUMO

FluMOMO is a universal formula to forecast mortality in 27 European countries and was developed on EuroMOMO context, http://www.euromomo.eu. The model has a trigonometric baseline and considers any upwards deviation from that to come from flu or extreme temperatures. To measure it, the model considers two variables: influenza activity and extreme temperatures. With the former, the model gives the number of deaths because of flu and with the latter the number of deaths because of extreme temperatures. In this article, we show that FluMOMO lacks important variables to be an accurate measure of all-cause mortality and flu mortality. Indeed, we found, as expected, that population ageing and exposure to the risk of death cannot be excluded from the linear predictor. We model weekly deaths as an autoregressive process (lag of one together with a lead of one week). This step allowed us to avoid FluMOMO trigonometric baseline and have a fit to weekly deaths through demographic variables. Our model uses data from Portugal between 2009 and 2020, on ISO-week basis. We use negative binomial-generalized linear models to estimate the weekly number of deaths as an alternative to traditional overdispersion Poisson. As explanatory variables were found to be statistically significant, we registered the number of deaths from the previous week, the influenza activity index, the population average age, the heat waves, the flu season, the number of deaths with COVID-19, and the population exposed to the risk of dying. Considering as excess mortality the number of deaths above the best estimate of deaths from our model, we conclude that excess mortality in 2020 (net of COVID-19 deaths, heat wave of July, and ageing) is low or inexistent. The model also allows us to have the number of deaths arising from flu and we conclude that FluMOMO is overestimating deaths from flu by 78%. Averages from the probability of dying are obtained as well as the probability of dying from flu. The latter is shown to be decreasing over time, probably due to the increase of flu vaccination. Higher mortality detected with the start of COVID-19, in March-April 2020, was probably due to COVID-19 deaths not recognized as COVID-19 deaths.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , População , COVID-19 , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Vacinação
9.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210700. 72 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1281136

RESUMO

El documento contiene las acciones para mejorar la capacidad de respuesta del Minsa para reducir el impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad por COVID-19 en la población, ante la segunda ola y posible tercera ola pandémica.


Assuntos
População , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Onda , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , COVID-19
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14617, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272416

RESUMO

The etiology of Kawasaki Disease (KD), the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries, remains elusive, but could be multifactorial in nature as suggested by the numerous environmental and infectious exposures that have previously been linked to its epidemiology. There is still a lack of a comprehensive model describing these complex associations. We present a Bayesian disease model that provides insight in the spatiotemporal distribution of KD in Canada from 2004 to 2017. The disease model including environmental factors had improved Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) compared to the base model which included only spatiotemporal and demographic effects and had excellent performance in recapitulating the spatiotemporal distribution of KD in Canada (98% and 86% spatial and temporal correlations, respectively). The model suggests an association between the distribution of KD and population composition, weather-related factors, aeroallergen exposure, pollution, atmospheric concentration of spores and algae, and the incidence of healthcare encounters for bacterial pneumonia or viral intestinal infections. This model could be the basis of a hypothetical data-driven framework for the spatiotemporal distribution of KD. It also generates novel hypotheses about the etiology of KD, and provides a basis for the future development of a predictive and surveillance model.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/etiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Alérgenos , Teorema de Bayes , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumonia Bacteriana/complicações , População , Fatores de Risco , Viroses/complicações , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 28(4): 458-468, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study of brain size and growth has a long and contentious history, yet normal brain volume development has yet to be fully described. In particular, the normal brain growth and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation relationship is critical to characterize because it is impacted in numerous conditions of early childhood in which brain growth and fluid accumulation are affected, such as infection, hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and a broad range of congenital disorders. The authors of this study aim to describe normal brain volume growth, particularly in the setting of CSF accumulation. METHODS: The authors analyzed 1067 magnetic resonance imaging scans from 505 healthy pediatric subjects from birth to age 18 years to quantify component and regional brain volumes. The volume trajectories were compared between the sexes and hemispheres using smoothing spline ANOVA. Population growth curves were developed using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: Brain volume peaked at 10-12 years of age. Males exhibited larger age-adjusted total brain volumes than females, and body size normalization procedures did not eliminate this difference. The ratio of brain to CSF volume, however, revealed a universal age-dependent relationship independent of sex or body size. CONCLUSIONS: These findings enable the application of normative growth curves in managing a broad range of childhood diseases in which cognitive development, brain growth, and fluid accumulation are interrelated.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Análise de Variância , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , População , Padrões de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais
12.
J. nurs. health ; 11(3): 2111321854, jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1342783

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever o perfil das pessoas e dos resultados dos testes para coronavírus no município de São Leopoldo no período abril de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021. Método: estudo descritivo, com dados secundários compartilhados com a Universidade Federal de Pelotas, sobre os testes para detecção do coronavírus. As análises foram descritivas pelo programa Stata 15.1. Resultados: do início da pandemia à primeira semana de novembro, 47.204 testes foram realizados pelo município, dos quais quase 51% foram positivos. A partir de agosto até outubro de 2020, houve uma pequena queda no número de testes e casos positivos, com aumento em novembro e dezembro, superando os meses mais intensos do início da pandemia (julho e agosto). Conclusões: as experiências trocadas entre município e universidade serviram como subsídios para que São Leopoldo tomasse medidas preventivas para contenção da evolução da pandemia, como aumento no número de testes moleculares e medidas de distanciamento social.(AU)


Objective: to describe the profile of people and the results of tests for coronaviruses in the city of São Leopoldo from April 2020 to February 2021. Method: descriptive study, with secondary data shared with the Federal University of Pelotas on coronavirus tests. Data analysis was descriptive using the Stata 15.1 program. Results: from the beginning of the pandemic to the first week of November, 47,204 tests were performed by the municipality, 51% positive. From August to October 2020, there was a small drop in the number of tests and positive cases, with an increase in November and December, surpassing the most intense months of the beginning of the pandemic (July and August). Conclusions: the experiences exchanged between the municipality and the university served as subsidies for São Leopoldo to take preventive measures to contain the pandemic evolution, such as an increase in the number of molecular tests and social distancing.(AU)


Objetivo: describir el perfil de las personas y los resultados de las pruebas de coronavirus en São Leopoldo entre abril de 2020 y febrero de 2021. Método: estudio descriptivo, con datos secundarios compartidos con la Universidad Federal de Pelotas, sobre las pruebas de detección del coronavirus. Los análisis fueron descriptivos por Stata 15.1. Resultados: desde el inicio de la pandemia hasta la primera semana de noviembre, el municipio realizó 47.204 pruebas, aproximadamente 51% positivas. De agosto a octubre de 2020, hubo una pequeña caída en el número de pruebas y casos positivos, con un aumento en noviembre y diciembre, superando los meses más intensos del inicio de la pandemia (julio y agosto). Conclusiones: las experiencias intercambiadas entre el municipio y la universidad sirvieron como subsidios para que São Leopoldo tomara medidas preventivas para contener la pandemia, como un aumento de pruebas moleculares y medidas de distanciamiento social.(AU)


Assuntos
População , Coronavirus , COVID-19
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26570, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190200

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To analyze the serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in Chinese children with myopia and explore its correlation with myopia.From July to September in 2019, myopic children were collected from the Myopia Influencing Factors Survey Project. The basic information and vision related behaviors of the subjects were collected by questionnaire. The diopter of the children without dilated pupils was measured by the computerized refractometer. Meanwhile, 5 ml fasting venous blood samples were collected for the determination of serum 25(OH)D concentration.A total of 186 children were included in this study, including 90 males and 96 females, with an average age of 8 ±â€Š3.26 years. The detection rate of serum 25(OH)D deficiency in myopic children was 65.59% (122/186). There was statistical significance in the detection rate of serum 25(OH)D deficiency in children with different myopic degrees (χ2 = 6.635, P = .010). The average serum 25(OH)D concentration in myopic children was 14.86 (10.67-18.96) ng/ml, and the difference of serum 25(OH)D concentration in children with different myopia degrees was statistically significant (Z = 20.23, P < .001). Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for gender, parental myopia, after-school class, and outdoor activities, the prevalence of developing moderate and high myopia was 2.051 times (95% confidence interval: 1.272-3.724) higher in the serum 25(OH)D deficiency group than in the serum 25(OH)D sufficiency group. There is a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D concentration and the equivalent spherical degree of myopic children.The study found that serum 25(OH)D concentration is closely related to the prevalence of myopia in Chinese children. The results further support the conclusion that children with a higher level of serum 25(OH)D have a lower prevalence of moderate to high myopia. The results of this study provide a basis for further research into the relationship between vitamin D and visual development in children and its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Miopia , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/sangue , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , População , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/psicologia
14.
Epilepsia ; 62(7): 1528-1535, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to measure the incidence and prevalence of active psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in a Norwegian county. METHODS: Using the Norwegian patient registry, we identified patients in Møre and Romsdal County in Norway diagnosed with F44.5 (conversion disorder with seizures or convulsions) or R56.8 (convulsions, not elsewhere classified) in the period January 2010 to January 2020. A review of the patients' medical records and an assessment of diagnostic validity were performed. PNES were diagnosed according to the recommendations by the International League Against Epilepsy Nonepileptic Seizures Task Force. Point prevalence of PNES on January 1, 2020 and incidence rates for the period 2010-2019 were determined. RESULTS: Based on PNES within the past 5 years, we found a PNES prevalence of 23.8/100 000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.9-29.6), including all levels of diagnostic certainty. For the highest level of diagnostic certainty (video-electroencephalographically confirmed), the prevalence was 10.6/100 000 (95% CI = 6.7-14.5). The highest prevalence was found in the age group 15-19 years, at 59.5/100 000 (95% CI = 22.6-96.3). The mean annual incidence rate between 2010 and 2019 was 3.1/100 000/year (95% CI = 2.4-3.7). SIGNIFICANCE: We report for the first time a population-based estimate of the prevalence of PNES. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of PNES is within the range of estimates from non-population-based data. We found a strikingly high prevalence of PNES in the 15-19-year age group.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Conversivo/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , População , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Convulsões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
15.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e313-e320, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No evidence-based guidelines are available for operative neurosurgical treatment of older patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), and no population-based results of current practice have been reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the rates of trauma craniotomy operations and later mortality in older adults with TBI in Finland. METHODS: Nationwide databases were searched for all admissions with a TBI diagnosis and after trauma craniotomy, and later deaths for persons aged ≥60 years from 2004 to 2018. RESULTS: The study period included 2166 patients (64% men; mean age, 70.3 years) who had undergone TBI-related craniotomy. The incidence rate of operations decreased with a concomitant decrease in adjusted mortality (30-day mortality, P < 0.001; 1-year mortality, P < 0.001) and increase in mean patient age (R2 = 0.005; P < 0.001) during the study period. The cumulative mortality was 25% at 30 days and 38% at 1 year. The comorbidities increasing the hazard for 30-day mortality were diabetes, a history of malignancy, peripheral vascular disease, and a history of myocardial infarction. For 1-year mortality, the comorbidities were heart failure and a history of myocardial infarction. Evacuation of an epidural hematoma decreased the hazard for mortality. In contrast, evacuation of an intracerebral hematoma and decompressive craniectomy increased the risk at both 30 days and 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults in Finland, the rate of trauma craniotomy and later mortality has been decreasing although the mean age of operated patients has been increasing. This can be expected to be related to an improved understanding of geriatric TBIs and, consequently, improved selection of patients for targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Craniotomia/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Comorbidade , Craniectomia Descompressiva/mortalidade , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Hematoma Epidural Craniano/mortalidade , Hematoma Epidural Craniano/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210600. 41 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1255002

RESUMO

El documento contiene las orientaciones para el personal de la salud que brinda cuidados integrales de salud mental a la población de niños, niñas y adolescentes víctimas y sobrevivientes de trata de personas que se atienden en los establecimientos de salud a nivel nacional.


Assuntos
População , Criança , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Tráfico de Pessoas , Instalações de Saúde , Categorias de Trabalhadores
17.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210600. 9 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1252699

RESUMO

El documento contiene los criterios de priorización, los mecanismos de coordinación y articulación intersectorial e intergubernamental, y otras disposiciones administrativas relacionadas a la distribución de mascarillas faciales textiles de uso comunitario y mascarillas descartables quirúrgicas para uso comunitario, a que se refiere el Decreto de Urgencia 042-2021.


Assuntos
População , Prevenção Primária , Atenção à Saúde , COVID-19 , Máscaras
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077472

RESUMO

Languages emerge and change over time at the population level though interactions between individual speakers. It is, however, hard to directly observe how a single speaker's linguistic innovation precipitates a population-wide change in the language, and many theoretical proposals exist. We introduce a very general mathematical model that encompasses a wide variety of individual-level linguistic behaviours and provides statistical predictions for the population-level changes that result from them. This model allows us to compare the likelihood of empirically-attested changes in definite and indefinite articles in multiple languages under different assumptions on the way in which individuals learn and use language. We find that accounts of language change that appeal primarily to errors in childhood language acquisition are very weakly supported by the historical data, whereas those that allow speakers to change incrementally across the lifespan are more plausible, particularly when combined with social network effects.


Assuntos
Idioma , Modelos Teóricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Distribuição de Poisson , População , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(9): e3369-e3380, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061968

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are unclear. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to establish the relative risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, angina, revascularization, and cardiovascular mortality for women with PCOS. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. Patients with PCOS were matched to controls (1:1) by age, body mass index (BMI) category, and primary care practice. The primary outcome was the time to major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE); a composite end point incorporating MI, stroke, angina, revascularization and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary outcomes were the individual MACE end points. RESULTS: Of 219 034 individuals with a diagnosis of PCOS, 174 660 (79.7%) met the eligibility criteria and were matched. Crude rates of the composite end point, MI, stroke, angina, revascularization, and cardiovascular mortality were respectively 82.7, 22.7, 27.4, 32.8, 10.5, and 6.97 per 100 000 patient-years for cases, and 64.3, 15.9, 25.7, 19.8, 7.13, and 7.75 per 100 000 patient-years for controls. In adjusted Cox proportional hazard models (CPHMs), the hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.41), 1.38 (95% CI, 1.11-1.72), 1.60 (95% CI, 1.32-1.94), and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.07) for the composite outcome, MI, angina, and revascularization, respectively. In a time-dependent CPHM, weight gain (HR 1.01; 1.00-1.01), prior type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (HR 2.40; 1.76-3.30), and social deprivation (HR 1.53; 1.11-2.11) increased risk of progression to the composite end point. CONCLUSION: The risk of incident MI, angina, and revascularization is increased in young women with PCOS. Weight and T2DM are potentially modifiable risk factors amenable to intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Adulto , Angina Pectoris/complicações , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Angina Pectoris/mortalidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/mortalidade , População , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 71, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among school-age children, the decrease of cartilage thickness (Cth) with increasing age is well known. However, the influence of body mass index (BMI), height or weight on Cth has not been revealed. Here in, we aim to establish an age- and gender-specific Cth standard reference among Asians and investigate the possible prestige of BMI, height and weight. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in healthy Asian children. Bilateral knees, ankles, wrists, second metacarpophalangeals (MCPs) and proximal interphalangeals (PIPs) were measured using ultrasound. The children's height, weight and BMI were also recorded for later adjustment. RESULTS: A total of 200 school age Asian children (including 86 girls and 114 boys, aged between 5 to 13 years-old) were investigated. Cth differences were observed in the knees, ankles, wrists, MCPs and PIPs between sexes (p < 0.05), with girls having thinner cartilage thickness. While Cth decreases with increasing age (p < 0.0001, 0.039, 0.001, 0.023, 0.091 in girls' knees, ankles, wrists, MCPs and PIPs and p = 0.002, 0.001, < 0.0001, 0.001, 0.045 in boys', respectively). Our data showed that weight, height and BMI are not the main factors contributing to Cth. A formula to calculate gender-specific cartilage thickness for Asian school age children is suggested. There was no difference in Cth after adjusting for height or weight between Asian or Caucasian group. CONCLUSIONS: A formula to calculate gender-specific cartilage thickness for Asian school age children is suggested. Height, weight and BMI were not the major contributor for Cth among school age children.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Articulações , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , População , Padrões de Referência , Taiwan/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...