Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 79.165
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7834, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570597

RESUMO

Potassium channels belong to the super family of ion channels and play a fundamental role in cell excitability. Kir channels are potassium channels with an inwardly rectifying property. They play a role in setting the resting membrane potential of many excitable cells including neurons. Although putative Kir channel family genes can be found in the Apis mellifera genome, their functional expression, biophysical properties, and sensitivity to small molecules with insecticidal activity remain to be investigated. We cloned six Kir channel isoforms from Apis mellifera that derive from two Kir genes, AmKir1 and AmKir2, which are present in the Apis mellifera genome. We studied the tissue distribution, the electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of three isoforms that expressed functional currents (AmKir1.1, AmKir2.2, and AmKir2.3). AmKir1.1, AmKir2.2, and AmKir2.3 isoforms exhibited distinct characteristics when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. AmKir1.1 exhibited the largest potassium currents and was impermeable to cesium whereas AmKir2.2 and AmKir2.3 exhibited smaller currents but allowed cesium to permeate. AmKir1 exhibited faster opening kinetics than AmKir2. Pharmacological experiments revealed that both AmKir1.1 and AmKir2.2 are blocked by the divalent ion barium, with IC50 values of 10-5 and 10-6 M, respectively. The concentrations of VU041, a small molecule with insecticidal properties required to achieve a 50% current blockade for all three channels were higher than those needed to block Kir channels in other arthropods, such as the aphid Aphis gossypii and the mosquito Aedes aegypti. From this, we conclude that Apis mellifera AmKir channels exhibit lower sensitivity to VU041.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Potássio , Clonagem Molecular , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Césio
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2801: 135-145, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578419

RESUMO

Gap junctions, pivotal intercellular conduits, serve as communication channels between adjacent cells, playing a critical role in modulating membrane potential distribution across cellular networks. The family of Pannexin (Panx) proteins, in particular Pannexin1 (Panx1), are widely expressed in vertebrate cells and exhibit sequence homology with innexins, the invertebrate gap junction channel constituents. Despite being ubiquitously expressed, detailed functional and pharmacological properties of Panx1 intercellular cell-cell channels require further investigation. In this chapter, we introduce optimized cell culture methodologies and electrophysiology protocols to expedite the exploration of endogenous Panx1 cell-cell channels in TC620 cells, a human oligodendroglioma cell line that naturally expresses Panx1. We anticipate these refined protocols will significantly contribute to future characterizations of Panx1-based intercellular cell-cell channels across diverse cell types and offer valuable insights into both normal cellular physiology and pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Conexinas , Junções Comunicantes , Humanos , Conexinas/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana
3.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 281, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448655

RESUMO

Rosamine-based mitochondrial dyes, such as Mitotracker Red, have commonly been employed to visualize mitochondrial localization within cells due to their preferential accumulation in organelles with membrane potential. Consequently, Mitotracker Red has often served as a surrogate indicator for tracking mitochondrial movement between neighboring cells. However, it is important to note that the presence of membrane potential in the cell membrane and other organelles may lead to the non-specific partial enrichment of Mitotracker Red in locations other than mitochondria. This study comprehensively investigates the reliability of mitochondrial dye as a marker for studying horizontal mitochondrial transfer (HMT). By meticulous replicating of previous experiments and comparing the efficiency of mitochondrial dye transfer with that of mito-targeted GFP, our findings confirm that HMT occurs at significantly lower efficiency than previously indicated by Mitotracker dye. Subsequent experiments involving mitochondria-deficient cells robustly demonstrates the non-specificity of mitochondrial dye as indicator for mitochondria. We advocate for a thorough reevaluation of existing literature in this field and propose exploration of alternative techniques to enhance the investigation of HMT. By addressing these pivotal aspects, we can advance our understanding of cellular dynamics and pave the way for future explorations in this captivating field.


Assuntos
Corantes , Mitocôndrias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Membrana Celular , Potenciais da Membrana
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5167, 2024 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431662

RESUMO

Magnetic fields are widely used for neuromodulation in clinical settings. The intended effect of magnetic stimulation is that neural activity resumes its pre-stimulation state right after stimulation. Many theoretical and experimental works have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of the acute neural response to magnetic field. However, effects of magnetic stimulation can still last after the termination of the magnetic stimulation (named "carry-over effects"), which could generate profound effects to the outcome of the stimulation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of carry-over effects are largely unknown, which renders the neural modulation practice using magnetic stimulation unpredictable. Here, we investigated carry-over effects at the cellular level, using the combination of micro-magnetic stimulation (µMS), electrophysiology, and computation modeling. We found that high frequency magnetic stimulation could lead to immediate neural inhibition in ganglion neurons from Aplysia californica, as well as persistent, carry-over inhibition after withdrawing the magnetic stimulus. Carry-over effects were found in the neurons that fired action potentials under a variety of conditions. The carry-over effects were also observed in the neurons when the magnetic field was applied across the ganglion sheath. The state of the neuron, specifically synaptic input and membrane potential fluctuation, plays a significant role in generating the carry-over effects after magnetic stimulation. To elucidate the cellular mechanisms of such carry-over effects under magnetic stimulation, we simulated a single neuron under magnetic stimulation with multi-compartment modeling. The model successfully replicated the carry-over effects in the neuron, and revealed that the carry-over effect was due to the dysfunction of the ion channel dynamics that were responsible for the initiation and sustaining of membrane excitability. A virtual voltage-clamp experiment revealed a compromised Na conductance and enhanced K conductance post magnetic stimulation, rendering the neurons incapable of generating action potentials and, therefore, leading to the carry over effects. Finally, both simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the carry-over effects could be controlled by disturbing the membrane potential during the post-stimulus inhibition period. Delineating the cellular and ion channel mechanisms underlying carry-over effects could provide insights to the clinical outcomes in brain stimulation using TMS and other modalities. This research incentivizes the development of novel neural engineering or pharmacological approaches to better control the carry-over effects for optimized clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos , Neurônios , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Estimulação Elétrica
5.
Phys Rev E ; 109(2-1): 024406, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491595

RESUMO

The construction of transfer functions in theoretical neuroscience plays an important role in determining the spiking rate behavior of neurons in networks. These functions can be obtained through various fitting methods, but the biological relevance of the parameters is not always clear. However, for stationary inputs, such functions can be obtained without the adjustment of free parameters by using mean-field methods. In this work, we expand current Fokker-Planck approaches to account for the concurrent influence of colored and multiplicative noise terms on generic conductance-based integrate-and-fire neurons. We reduce the resulting stochastic system through the application of the diffusion approximation to a one-dimensional Langevin equation. An effective Fokker-Planck is then constructed using Fox Theory, which is solved numerically using a newly developed double integration procedure to obtain the transfer function and the membrane potential distribution. The solution is capable of reproducing the transfer function and the stationary voltage distribution of simulated neurons across a wide range of parameters. The method can also be easily extended to account for different sources of noise with various multiplicative terms, and it can be used in other types of problems in principle.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474212

RESUMO

Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body and are able to regulate membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations, thereby playing key roles in cellular physiology and signal transmission. Consequently, it is unsurprising that KCa channels have been implicated in various diseases, making them potential targets for pharmaceutical interventions. Over the past two decades, numerous studies have been conducted to develop KCa channel-targeting drugs, including those for disorders of the central and peripheral nervous, cardiovascular, and urinary systems and for cancer. In this review, we synthesize recent findings regarding the structure and activating mechanisms of KCa channels. We also discuss the role of KCa channel modulators in therapeutic medicine. Finally, we identify the major reasons behind the delay in bringing these modulators to the pharmaceutical market and propose new strategies to promote their application.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Canais de Potássio Cálcio-Ativados , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Humanos
7.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 369, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538847

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 5 (TRPM5) is a calcium-activated monovalent-specific ion channel involved in insulin secretion and taste transduction, making it an attractive target for drug development in various pathologies. While TRPM5 activation involves ligand binding to Gq/G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and subsequent elevation of intracellular calcium levels, recent reports suggest the need for additional molecular determinants. Hence, the mechanism of TRPM5 activation remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that PKC phosphorylation and the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels are required for TRPM5 activation, with PKC phosphorylation being crucial for channel-evoked currents, primarily at physiological membrane potentials. In contrast, physiological relevant calcium levels alone only induce TRPM5 activation at positive voltages. Our findings highlight the necessity of coordinated intracellular calcium release and PKC phosphorylation for TRPM5 activation. Thus, our results suggest that regulation of PKC activity could be a promising therapeutic target for diseases associated with TRPM5 modulation.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540426

RESUMO

Mitochondria undergo a myriad of changes during pre-implantation embryo development, including shifts in activity levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. However, how these distinct aspects of mitochondrial function are linked and their responsiveness to diverse stressors is not well understood. Here, we show that mtDNA content increased between 8-cell embryos and the blastocyst stage, with similar copy numbers per cell in the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). In contrast, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was higher in TE than ICM. Culture in ambient oxygen (20% O2) altered both aspects of mitochondrial function: the mtDNA copy number was upregulated in ICM, while MMP was diminished in TE. Embryos cultured in 20% O2 also exhibited delayed development kinetics, impaired implantation, and reduced mtDNA levels in E18 fetal liver. A model of oocyte mitochondrial stress using rotenone showed only a modest effect on on-time development and did not alter the mtDNA copy number in ICM; however, following embryo transfer, mtDNA was higher in the fetal heart. Lastly, endogenous mitochondrial dysfunction, induced by maternal age and obesity, altered the blastocyst mtDNA copy number, but not within the ICM. These results demonstrate that mitochondrial activity and mtDNA content exhibit cell-specific changes and are differentially responsive to diverse types of oxidative stress during pre-implantation embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , Camundongos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Potenciais da Membrana , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540723

RESUMO

Mitochondria are most likely descendants of strictly aerobic prokaryotes from the class Alphaproteobacteria. The mitochondrial matrix is surrounded by two membranes according to its relationship with Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to the bacterial outer membrane, the mitochondrial outer membrane acts as a molecular sieve because it also contains diffusion pores. However, it is more actively involved in mitochondrial metabolism because it plays a functional role, whereas the bacterial outer membrane has only passive sieving properties. Mitochondrial porins, also known as eukaryotic porins or voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDACs) control the permeability properties of the mitochondrial outer membrane. They contrast with most bacterial porins because they are voltage-dependent. They switch at relatively small transmembrane potentials of 20 to 30 mV in closed states that exhibit different permeability properties than the open state. Whereas the open state is preferentially permeable to anionic metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism, the closed states prefer cationic solutes, in particular, calcium ions. Mitochondrial porins are encoded in the nucleus, synthesized at cytoplasmatic ribosomes, and post-translationally imported through special transport systems into mitochondria. Nineteen beta strands form the beta-barrel cylinders of mitochondrial and related porins. The pores contain in addition an α-helical structure at the N-terminal end of the protein that serves as a gate for the voltage-dependence. Similarly, they bind peripheral proteins that are involved in mitochondrial function and compartment formation. This means that mitochondrial porins are localized in a strategic position to control mitochondrial metabolism. The special features of the role of mitochondrial porins in apoptosis and cancer will also be discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/metabolismo , Porinas/análise , Porinas/química , Porinas/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana
10.
Channels (Austin) ; 18(1): 2327708, 2024 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489043

RESUMO

KATP channels are ligand-gated potassium channels that couple cellular energetics with membrane potential to regulate cell activity. Each channel is an eight subunit complex comprising four central pore-forming Kir6 inward rectifier potassium channel subunits surrounded by four regulatory subunits known as the sulfonylurea receptor, SUR, which confer homeostatic metabolic control of KATP gating. SUR is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein family homolog that lacks membrane transport activity but is essential for KATP expression and function. For more than four decades, understanding the structure-function relationship of Kir6 and SUR has remained a central objective of clinical significance. Here, we review progress in correlating the wealth of functional data in the literature with recent KATP cryoEM structures.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização , Receptores de Sulfonilureias/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Canais KATP/genética
11.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 68(4): e0153923, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470195

RESUMO

Murepavadin is a peptidomimetic that specifically targets the lipopolysaccharide transport protein LptD of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we found that murepavadin enhances the bactericidal efficacies of tobramycin and amikacin. We further demonstrated that murepavadin enhances bacterial respiration activity and subsequent membrane potential, which promotes intracellular uptake of aminoglycoside antibiotics. In addition, the murepavadin-amikacin combination displayed a synergistic bactericidal effect in a murine pneumonia model.


Assuntos
Amicacina , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Animais , Camundongos , Amicacina/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Potenciais da Membrana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Tobramicina/farmacologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
12.
J Physiol ; 602(7): 1243-1271, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482722

RESUMO

Mapping neuronal activation using calcium imaging in vivo during behavioural tasks has advanced our understanding of nervous system function. In almost all of these studies, calcium imaging is used to infer spike probabilities because action potentials activate voltage-gated calcium channels and increase intracellular calcium levels. However, neurons not only fire action potentials, but also convey information via intrinsic dynamics such as by generating bistable membrane potential states. Although a number of tools for spike inference have been developed and are currently being used, no tool exists for converting calcium imaging signals to maps of cellular state in bistable neurons. Purkinje neurons in the larval zebrafish cerebellum exhibit membrane potential bistability, firing either tonically or in bursts. Several studies have implicated the role of a population code in cerebellar function, with bistability adding an extra layer of complexity to this code. In the present study, we develop a tool, CaMLSort, which uses convolutional recurrent neural networks to classify calcium imaging traces as arising from either tonic or bursting cells. We validate this classifier using a number of different methods and find that it performs well on simulated event rasters as well as real biological data that it had not previously seen. Moreover, we find that CaMLsort generalizes to other bistable neurons, such as dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of mice. Thus, this tool offers a new way of analysing calcium imaging data from bistable neurons to understand how they participate in network computation and natural behaviours. KEY POINTS: Calcium imaging, compriising the gold standard of inferring neuronal activity, does not report cellular state in neurons that are bistable, such as Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum of larval zebrafish. We model the relationship between Purkinje neuron electrical activity and its corresponding calcium signal to compile a dataset of state-labelled simulated calcium signals. We apply machine-learning methods to this dataset to develop a tool that can classify the state of a Purkinje neuron using only its calcium signal, which works well on real data even though it was trained only on simulated data. CaMLsort (Calcium imaging and Machine Learning based tool to sort intracellular state) also generalizes well to bistable neurons in a different brain region (ventral tegmental area) in a different model organism (mouse). This tool can facilitate our understanding of how these neurons carry out their functions in a circuit.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Peixe-Zebra , Camundongos , Animais , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Cálcio da Dieta
13.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(11): 2734-2744, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459942

RESUMO

Voltage measurement via small-molecule fluorescent indicators is a valuable approach in deciphering complex dynamics in electrically excitable cells. However, our understanding of various physicochemical properties governing the performance of fluorescent voltage sensors based on the photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) mechanism remains incomplete. Here, through extensive molecular dynamics and free energy calculations, we systematically examine the orientation and membrane partition of three PeT-based voltage-sensing VoltageFluor (VF) dyes in different lipid environment. We show that the symmetry of the molecular scaffold and the net charge of the hydrophilic headgroup of a given VF dye dominate its orientation and membrane partition, respectively. Our work provides a mechanistic understanding of the physical properties contributing to the voltage sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, as well as membrane distribution of VF dyes and sheds light onto rational design principles of PeT-based fluorescent probes in general.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Potenciais da Membrana , Transporte de Elétrons , Membranas
14.
ACS Nano ; 18(12): 9053-9062, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465964

RESUMO

Photoreceptor cells of vertebrates feature ultrastructural membranes interspersed with abundant photosensitive ion pumps to boost signal generation and realize high gain in dim light. In light of this, superstructured optoionic heterojunctions (SSOHs) with cation-selective nanochannels are developed for manipulating photo-driven ion pumping. A template-directed bottom-up strategy is adopted to sequentially assemble graphene oxide (GO) and PEDOT:PSS into heterogeneous membranes with sculptured superstructures, which feature programmable variation in membrane topography and contain a donor-acceptor interface capable of maintaining electron-hole separation upon photoillumination. Such elaborate design endows SSOHs with a much higher magnitude of photo-driven ion flux against a concentration gradient in contrast to conventional optoionic membranes with planar configuration. This can be ascribed to the buildup of an enhanced transmembrane potential owing to the effective separation of photogenerated carriers at the heterojunction interface and the increase of energy input from photoillumination due to a synergistic effect of reflection reduction, broad-angle absorption, and wide-waveband absorption. This work unlocks the significance of membrane topographies in photo-driven transmembrane transportation and proposes such a universal prototype that could be extended to other optoionic membranes to develop high-performance artificial ion pumps for energy conversion and sensing.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Bombas de Íon , Animais , Potenciais da Membrana , Meios de Transporte , Células Fotorreceptoras
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(14): e2315264121, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551837

RESUMO

Biological membrane potentials, or voltages, are a central facet of cellular life. Optical methods to visualize cellular membrane voltages with fluorescent indicators are an attractive complement to traditional electrode-based approaches, since imaging methods can be high throughput, less invasive, and provide more spatial resolution than electrodes. Recently developed fluorescent indicators for voltage largely report changes in membrane voltage by monitoring voltage-dependent fluctuations in fluorescence intensity. However, it would be useful to be able to not only monitor changes but also measure values of membrane potentials. This study discloses a fluorescent indicator which can address both. We describe the synthesis of a sulfonated tetramethyl carborhodamine fluorophore. When this carborhodamine is conjugated with an electron-rich, methoxy (-OMe) containing phenylenevinylene molecular wire, the resulting molecule, CRhOMe, is a voltage-sensitive fluorophore with red/far-red fluorescence. Using CRhOMe, changes in cellular membrane potential can be read out using fluorescence intensity or lifetime. In fluorescence intensity mode, CRhOMe tracks fast-spiking neuronal action potentials (APs) with greater signal-to-noise than state-of-the-art BeRST 1 (another voltage-sensitive fluorophore). CRhOMe can also measure values of membrane potential. The fluorescence lifetime of CRhOMe follows a single exponential decay, substantially improving the quantification of membrane potential values using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The combination of red-shifted excitation and emission, mono-exponential decay, and high voltage sensitivity enable fast FLIM recording of APs in cardiomyocytes. The ability to both monitor and measure membrane potentials with red light using CRhOMe makes it an important approach for studying biological voltages.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Potenciais da Membrana , Potenciais de Ação , Membrana Celular , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
16.
Biophys Chem ; 307: 107199, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335807

RESUMO

The membrane potential (Vm) of a cell results from the selective movement of ions across the cell membrane. Recent studies have revealed the presence of a gradient of voltage within a few nanometers adjacent to erythrocytes. Very notably this voltage is modified in response to changes in cell's membrane potential thus effectively extending the potential beyond the membrane and into the solution. In this study, using the microelectrode technique, we provide experimental evidence for the existence of a gradient of negative extracellular voltage (Vz) in a wide zone close to the cell wall of algal cells, extending over several micrometers. Modulating the ionic concentration of the extracellular solution with CO2 alters the extracellular voltage and causes an immediate change in Vm. Elevated extracellular CO2 levels depolarize the cell and hyperpolarize the zone of extracellular voltage (ZEV) by the same magnitude. This observation strongly suggests a coupling effect between Vz and Vm. An increase in the level of intracellular CO2 (dark respiration) leads to hyperpolarization of the cell without any immediate effect on the extracellular voltage. Therefore, the metabolic activity of a cell can proceed without inducing changes in Vz. Conversely, Vz can be modified by external stimulation without metabolic input from the cell. The evolution of the ZEV, particularly around spines and wounded cells, where ion exchange is enhanced, suggests that the formation of the ZEV may be attributed to the exchange of ions across the cell wall and cell membrane. By comparing the changes in Vm in response to external stimuli, as measured by electrodes and observed using a potential-sensitive dye, we provide experimental evidence demonstrating the significance of extracellular voltage in determining the cell's membrane potential. This may have implications for our understanding of cell membrane potential generation beyond the activities of ion channels.


Assuntos
Chara , Potenciais da Membrana , Dióxido de Carbono , Canais Iônicos , Íons
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2322899121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381792

RESUMO

Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) undergo conformational shifts in response to membrane potential changes, a mechanism known as the electromechanical coupling. To delineate the structure-function relationship of human Nav channels, we have performed systematic structural analysis using human Nav1.7 as a prototype. Guided by the structural differences between wild-type (WT) Nav1.7 and an eleven mutation-containing variant, designated Nav1.7-M11, we generated three additional intermediate mutants and solved their structures at overall resolutions of 2.9-3.4 Å. The mutant with nine-point mutations in the pore domain (PD), named Nav1.7-M9, has a reduced cavity volume and a sealed gate, with all voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) remaining up. Structural comparison of WT and Nav1.7-M9 pinpoints two residues that may be critical to the tightening of the PD. However, the variant containing these two mutations, Nav1.7-M2, or even in combination with two additional mutations in the VSDs, named Nav1.7-M4, failed to tighten the PD. Our structural analysis reveals a tendency of PD contraction correlated with the right shift of the static inactivation I-V curves. We predict that the channel in the resting state should have a "tight" PD with down VSDs.


Assuntos
Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem , Humanos , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Potenciais da Membrana , Mutação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Physiol ; 602(5): 791-808, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348881

RESUMO

T-tubules (TT) form a complex network of sarcolemmal membrane invaginations, essential for well-co-ordinated excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and thus homogeneous mechanical activation of cardiomyocytes. ECC is initiated by rapid depolarization of the sarcolemmal membrane. Whether TT membrane depolarization is active (local generation of action potentials; AP) or passive (following depolarization of the outer cell surface sarcolemma; SS) has not been experimentally validated in cardiomyocytes. Based on the assessment of ion flux pathways needed for AP generation, we hypothesize that TT are excitable. We therefore explored TT excitability experimentally, using an all-optical approach to stimulate and record trans-membrane potential changes in TT that were structurally disconnected, and hence electrically insulated, from the SS membrane by transient osmotic shock. Our results establish that cardiomyocyte TT can generate AP. These AP show electrical features that differ substantially from those observed in SS, consistent with differences in the density of ion channels and transporters in the two different membrane domains. We propose that TT-generated AP represent a safety mechanism for TT AP propagation and ECC, which may be particularly relevant in pathophysiological settings where morpho-functional changes reduce the electrical connectivity between SS and TT membranes. KEY POINTS: Cardiomyocytes are characterized by a complex network of membrane invaginations (the T-tubular system) that propagate action potentials to the core of the cell, causing uniform excitation-contraction coupling across the cell. In the present study, we investigated whether the T-tubular system is able to generate action potentials autonomously, rather than following depolarization of the outer cell surface sarcolemma. For this purpose, we developed a fully optical platform to probe and manipulate the electrical dynamics of subcellular membrane domains. Our findings demonstrate that T-tubules are intrinsically excitable, revealing distinct characteristics of self-generated T-tubular action potentials. This active electrical capability would protect cells from voltage drops potentially occurring within the T-tubular network.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Optogenética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Sarcolema/metabolismo , Membrana Celular , Potenciais da Membrana , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(2): e1011886, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377147

RESUMO

Hippocampal ripple oscillations have been implicated in important cognitive functions such as memory consolidation and planning. Multiple computational models have been proposed to explain the emergence of ripple oscillations, relying either on excitation or inhibition as the main pacemaker. Nevertheless, the generating mechanism of ripples remains unclear. An interesting dynamical feature of experimentally measured ripples, which may advance model selection, is intra-ripple frequency accommodation (IFA): a decay of the instantaneous ripple frequency over the course of a ripple event. So far, only a feedback-based inhibition-first model, which relies on delayed inhibitory synaptic coupling, has been shown to reproduce IFA. Here we use an analytical mean-field approach and numerical simulations of a leaky integrate-and-fire spiking network to explain the mechanism of IFA. We develop a drift-based approximation for the oscillation dynamics of the population rate and the mean membrane potential of interneurons under strong excitatory drive and strong inhibitory coupling. For IFA, the speed at which the excitatory drive changes is critical. We demonstrate that IFA arises due to a speed-dependent hysteresis effect in the dynamics of the mean membrane potential, when the interneurons receive transient, sharp wave-associated excitation. We thus predict that the IFA asymmetry vanishes in the limit of slowly changing drive, but is otherwise a robust feature of the feedback-based inhibition-first ripple model.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Interneurônios , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1139, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326372

RESUMO

Optically-induced changes in membrane capacitance may regulate neuronal activity without requiring genetic modifications. Previously, they mainly relied on sudden temperature jumps due to light absorption by membrane-associated nanomaterials or water. Yet, nanomaterial targeting or the required high infrared light intensities obstruct broad applicability. Now, we propose a very versatile approach: photolipids (azobenzene-containing diacylglycerols) mediate light-triggered cellular de- or hyperpolarization. As planar bilayer experiments show, the respective currents emerge from millisecond-timescale changes in bilayer capacitance. UV light changes photolipid conformation, which awards embedding plasma membranes with increased capacitance and evokes depolarizing currents. They open voltage-gated sodium channels in cells, generating action potentials. Blue light reduces the area per photolipid, decreasing membrane capacitance and eliciting hyperpolarization. If present, mechanosensitive channels respond to the increased mechanical membrane tension, generating large depolarizing currents that elicit action potentials. Membrane self-insertion of administered photolipids and focused illumination allows cell excitation with high spatiotemporal control.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Raios Ultravioleta , Potenciais de Ação , Potenciais da Membrana , Membrana Celular , Neurônios/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...