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1.
Theriogenology ; 224: 82-93, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759608

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the accuracy of IFN-τ stimulated gene abundance (ISGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CL blood perfusion by Doppler ultrasound (Doppler-US), plasma concentration of P4 on Day 21 and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) test on Day 25 after timed-artificial insemination (TAI) for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cows and heifers. Holstein cows (n = 140) and heifers (n = 32) were subjected to a hormonal synchronization protocol and TAI on Day 0. On Day 21 post-TAI, blood samples were collected for PBMC isolation and plasma concentration of P4. The CL blood perfusion was evaluated by Doppler-US. Plasma samples collected on Day 25 were assayed for PAGs. The abundance of ISGs (ISG15 and RSAD2) in PBMCs was determined by RT-qPCR. Pregnancy was confirmed on Days 32 and 60 post-TAI by B-mode ultrasonography. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure and GLIMMIX in SAS software. The pregnancy biomarkers were used to categorize the females as having undergone late luteolysis (LL); early embryonic mortality (EEM); late embryonic mortality (LEM); or late pregnancy loss (LPL). The abundance of ISGs, CL blood perfusion by Doppler-US, and concentrations of P4 on Day 21, and PAGs test on Day 25 were significant (P < 0.05) predictors of early pregnancy in dairy cows and heifers. Dairy cows had a greater (P = 0.01) occurrence of LL than heifers, but there was no difference (P > 0.1) for EEM, LEM, and LPL in heifers compared to cows. Cows with postpartum reproductive issues had a greater (P = 0.008) rate of LEM and a lesser (P = 0.01) rate of LPL compared to cows without reproductive issues. In summary, the CL blood perfusion by Doppler-US had the highest accuracy and the least number of false negatives, suggesting it is the best predictor of pregnancy on Day 21 post-TAI. The PAGs test was the most reliable indicator of pregnancy status on Day 25 post-TAI in dairy heifers and cows. The application of machine learning, specifically the MARS algorithm, shows promise in enhancing the accuracy of predicting early pregnancies in cows.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Biomarcadores , Aprendizado de Máquina , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Prenhez , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732847

RESUMO

The most reliable methods for pregnancy diagnosis in dairy herds include rectal palpation, ultrasound examination, and evaluation of plasma progesterone concentrations. However, these methods are expensive, labor-intensive, and invasive. Thus, there is a need to develop a practical, non-invasive, cost-effective method that can be implemented on the farm to detect pregnancy. This study suggests employing microwave dielectric spectroscopy (MDS, 0.5-40 GHz) as a method to evaluate reproduction events in dairy cows. The approach involves the integration of MDS data with information on milk solids to detect pregnancy and identify early embryonic loss in dairy cows. To test the ability to predict pregnancy according to these measurements, milk samples were collected from (i) pregnant and non-pregnant randomly selected cows, (ii) weekly from selected cows (n = 12) before insemination until a positive pregnancy test, and (iii) daily from selected cows (n = 10) prior to insemination until a positive pregnancy test. The results indicated that the dielectric strength of Δε and the relaxation time, τ, exhibited reduced variability in the case of a positive pregnancy diagnosis. Using principal component analysis (PCA), a clear distinction between pregnancy and nonpregnancy status was observed, with improved differentiation upon a higher sampling frequency. Additionally, a neural network machine learning technique was employed to develop a prediction algorithm with an accuracy of 73%. These findings demonstrate that MDS can be used to detect changes in milk upon pregnancy. The developed machine learning provides a broad classification that could be further enhanced with additional data.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Leite , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Leite/química , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Algoritmos
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(4)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589241

RESUMO

The ampulla portion of the fallopian tube is the most common site of ectopic pregnancy (70%), with approximately 2% of pregnancies implanted in the interstitial portion. In general, an interstitial ectopic pregnancy (IEP) is difficult to diagnose and is associated with a high rate of complications-most patients with an IEP present with severe abdominal pain and haemorrhagic shock due to an ectopic rupture. Chronic tubal pregnancy (CTP) is an uncommon condition with an incidence of 20%. The CTP has a longer clinical course and a negative or low level of serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin due to perished chorionic villi. This study presents a case of a woman who was diagnosed with a chronic IEP (CIEP) which was successfully treated by surgery. This case also acts as a cautionary reminder of considering a CIEP in women of reproductive age presenting with amenorrhea, vaginal bleeding and a negative pregnancy test.


Assuntos
Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica , Gravidez Tubária , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta , Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal/complicações , Gravidez Tubária/diagnóstico , Gravidez Tubária/cirurgia
4.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 37(5): 482-485, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for premature ovarian insufficiency, especially after treatment with alkylating agents. The objective of this report is to highlight a case in which this phenomenon caused a false-positive pregnancy test. CASE PRESENTATION: A workup was performed in a 14-year-old girl with a positive pregnancy test. She was diagnosed with stage IV neuroblastoma of the left adrenal gland at the age of 4 years. She received extensive treatment, including alkylating agents, and had been diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency. An LH/hCG suppression test was performed using high dose 17 bèta-estradiol: hCG levels normalized. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnancy test was false-positive due to production of low amounts of hCG by the pituitary gland as a result of high LH concentrations following premature ovarian insufficiency. It may be helpful to perform the LH/hCG suppression test to prove pituitary origin of the hCG overproduction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Humanos , Feminino , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Adolescente , Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez , Neuroblastoma/complicações , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Reações Falso-Positivas , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Prognóstico
5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(2): 114, 2024 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286853

RESUMO

The detection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) endopeptidase activity by pregnancy test paper based on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-functionalized peptide-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNs) is described for the first time. HCG-functionalized SNAP-25 peptide substrate with hydrolysis recognition sites was optimally designed. HCG can be recognized by pregnancy test strips. BoNT/A light chain (BoNT-LcA) is the central part of the endopeptidase function in holotoxin, which can specifically hydrolyze SNAP-25 peptide to release the hCG-peptide probe, and the hCG-peptide probe released can be quantitatively detected by pregnancy test strips, achieving indirect determination of BoNT/A. By quantifying the T-line color intensity of test strips, the visual detection limit for BoNT-LcA is 12.5 pg/mL, and the linear range of detection for BoNT-LcA and BoNT/A holotoxin was 100 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL and 25 to 250 ng/mL. The ability of the method to quantify BoNT/A was validated in human serum samples. This method shows the potential for sensitive detecting BoNT/A and has prospects for the diagnosis and prognosis of clinical botulism.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Glicosídeos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Testes de Gravidez , Triterpenos , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Endopeptidases , Gonadotropina Coriônica
7.
Anesth Analg ; 138(5): 980-991, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37801601

RESUMO

Respect for patient autonomy is a pillar of medical ethics, manifested predominantly through informed consent. Mandatory (routine) nonconsented preoperative urine pregnancy testing does not adequately respect patient autonomy, is potentially coercive, and has the potential to cause harm medically, psychologically, socially, and financially. Inaccuracies in pregnancy testing can result in false-positive and false-negative results, especially in early pregnancy. There is substantial scientific evidence that anesthesia is not harmful to the fetus, raising the question of whether pregnancy testing provides substantial benefit to the patient. Not performing a preanesthesia pregnancy test has not been associated with significant medicolegal consequences. We review the ethical implications of mandatory preanesthesia pregnancy testing in light of these facts.


Assuntos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Anal Chem ; 95(37): 14111-14118, 2023 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37668549

RESUMO

With an increasing incidence worldwide, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which impairs the life quality of patients. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct a sensitive, simple, and convenient biosensor to analyze IBD-associated biomarkers for an auxiliary diagnosis of IBD. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), expressed by the intestinal epithelium, is an endogenous protein that is thought to play a vital role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and is considered a potential biomarker for IBD. Here, an IAP detection method was developed using pregnancy test strips by dephosphorylation. Initially, a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was designed to respond to IAP and acted as an activator of Cas12a. In the presence of IAP, the designed dsDNA was not digested by lambda exonuclease (λ exo), which hybridized to the Cas12a-crRNA duplex and resulted in the activation of the trans-cleavage of Cas12a. Further, the activated Cas12a cleaved the single-strand DNA (ssDNA) linker in the MBs-ssDNA-hCG probe, triggering the release of hCG. With magnetic separation, the released hCG could be quantitatively detected by pregnancy test strips. IAP levels were analyzed in feces from colitis and healthy mice by pregnancy test strips. The results showed that the IAP level of colitis mice (3.89 ± 1.92 U/L) was much lower than that of healthy mice (39.64 ± 24.93 U/L), indicating the correlation between IAP and intestinal inflammation. Taken together, a sensitive, user-friendly detection assay based on pregnancy test strips was constructed to monitor IAP and used as an auxiliary diagnostic approach for IBD in a clinical scene.


Assuntos
Colite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Testes de Gravidez , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Camundongos , Fosfatase Alcalina , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Inflamação/diagnóstico
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 59(80): 12011-12014, 2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37727951

RESUMO

Food safety is crucial for human health, but its effective on-site monitoring remains a challenge. Pregnancy test strip (PTS) is the successful point-of-care testing (POCT) product of the highest market share in the world, with the cost as low as $0.10 per test. Herein, combined with the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system, PTS-CRISPR was for the first time introduced into food safety monitoring, for rapid and sensitive POCT of aflatoxin B1. The low-cost, easy-to-operate PTS-CRISPR is expected to bring security to the grassroots food market.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Testes de Gravidez , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Aflatoxina B1 , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Testes Imediatos
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1191648, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37455896

RESUMO

Progesterone (P4) is essential for pregnancy. A controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leads to a iatrogenic luteal defect that indicates a luteal phase support (LPS) at least until pregnancy test day. Some clinicians continue the LPS until week 8 or later, when P4 is mainly secreted by syncytiotrophoblast cells.Measuring serum P4 on pregnancy test day after a fresh embryo transfer could help to identify women who might benefit from prolonged LPS. In women with LPS based on P4 administered by the rectal route, P4 concentration on pregnancy test day was significantly higher in patients with ongoing pregnancy than in patients with abnormal pregnancy.This monocentric retrospective study used data on 99 consecutive cycles of COS, triggered with human chorionic gonadotropin, followed by fresh embryo transfer resulting in a positive pregnancy test (>100 IU/L) (from November 2020 to November 2022). Patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening or with ectopic pregnancy were excluded. All patients received standard luteal phase support (i.e. micronized vaginal progesterone 600 mg per day for 15 days). The primary endpoint was P4 concentration at day 15 after oocyte retrieval (pregnancy test day) in women with ongoing pregnancy for >12 weeks and in patients with miscarriage before week 12 of pregnancy.The median P4 concentration [range] at pregnancy test day was higher in women with ongoing pregnancy than in women with miscarriage (55.9 ng/mL [11.6; 290.6] versus 18.1 ng/mL [8.3; 140.9], p = 0.002). A P4 concentration ≥16.5 ng/mL at pregnancy test day was associated with higher ongoing pregnancy rate (OR = 12.5, 95% CI 3.61 - 43.33, p <0.001). A P4 concentration ≥16.5 ng/mL at pregnancy test day was significantly associated with higher live birth rate (OR = 11.88, 95% CI 3.30-42.71, p <0.001).After COS and fresh embryo transfer, the risk of miscarriage is higher in women who discontinue luteal support after 15 days, as recommended, but with P4 concentration <16.5 ng/mL. The benefit of individualized prolonged luteal phase support should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Progesterona , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos
11.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 63(6): 797-802, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37452451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follow-up after early medical abortion (EMA) in Australia often entails tracking serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels or performing ultrasonography in-clinic. In other countries, methods of follow-up such as using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test (LSUPT), telephone evaluation and a questionnaire have been demonstrated to be safe and acceptable. AIMS: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of telephone follow-up after EMA using an LSUPT and questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study of patients undergoing telephone follow-up after EMA using an LSUPT and questionnaire was conducted from March 26 to July 31, 2020. Outcomes of patients who returned to clinic because of a positive LSUPT were evaluated and adverse event rates were calculated. Routinely collected adverse event information was used to compare complication rates during the evaluation period with that prior to introduction of the LSUPT. RESULTS: During the study period, 2223 patients underwent the new protocol. One hundred and ninety-seven patients had a positive LSUPT at their telephone follow-up. One hundred and thirty-two had an incomplete abortion, 11 had a continuing pregnancy, 53 had a complete abortion and one left the clinic before full assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of telephone follow-up with an at-home LSUPT reduced the number of patients requiring unnecessary clinic appointments, with over 90% of patients completing their follow-up at home. Complication rates during the study period were found to be at least comparable with previously identified organisational adverse events.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Testes de Gravidez , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Seguimentos , Estudos Prospectivos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Telefone
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 235: 115364, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37207580

RESUMO

Proteases play an essential role in many cellular processes, and consequently, abnormalities in their activities are related to various diseases. Methods have been developed to measure the activity of these enzymes, but most involve sophisticated instruments or complicated procedures, which hampers the development of a point-of-care test (POCT). Here, we propose a strategy for developing simple and sensitive methods to analyze protease activity using commercial pregnancy test strips that detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG was engineered to have site-specific conjugated biotin and a peptide sequence, which can be cleaved by a target protease, between hCG and biotin. hCG protein was immobilized on streptavidin-coated beads, resulting in a protease sensor. The hCG-immobilized beads were too large to flow through the membrane of the hCG test strip and yielded only one band in the control line. When the peptide linker was hydrolyzed by the target protease, hCG was released from the beads, and the signal appeared in both the control and test lines. Three protease sensors for matrix metalloproteinase-2, caspase-3, and thrombin were constructed by replacing the protease-cleavable peptide linker. The combination of the protease sensors and a commercial pregnancy strip enabled the specific detection of each protease in the picomolar range, with a 30-min incubation of the hCG-immobilized beads and samples. The modular design of the protease sensor and simple assay procedure will facilitate the development of POCTs for various protease disease markers.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Biotina , Gonadotropina Coriônica/análise , Endopeptidases
13.
Analyst ; 148(11): 2573-2581, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37159023

RESUMO

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has promoted the development of nucleic acid diagnosis technology. Several platforms with isothermal amplification methods have achieved sensitive and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, they still suffer from complicated operations, delicate instruments, and unintuitive signal output modes. Here, a system consisting of CRISPR Cas12a-based biosensors and commercial pregnancy test strips (CRISPR-PTS) was established for the point-of-care testing of SARS-CoV-2. The target viral nucleic acids were finally reflected on the test strips through four steps, namely sample pretreatment, RT-RAA amplification, CRISPR Cas12a reaction, and separation-free hCG detection. This CRISPR-PTS assay possessed an outstanding sensitivity of as low as 1 copy per µL for SARS-CoV-2 detection and showed an excellent specificity in distinguishing the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus as well as other SARS-like viral clinical samples. In addition, the CRISPR-PTS assay performed well in practical applications, with 96.3% agreement versus RT-qPCR in spiked samples. With the advantages of low reagent cost, simple operation procedure, and visible signal output, CRISPR-PTS assay was expected to provide a strong supplement in the prevention and early diagnosis of infectious diseases in resource-limited situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Testes de Gravidez , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Testes Imediatos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , RNA Viral/genética
14.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 308(2): 569-577, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37156908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify if switching from intramuscular (IM) to vaginal progesterone compared to staying on IM progesterone after a positive pregnancy test following embryo transfer (ET) is associated with miscarriage risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed in a private university-affiliated fertility clinic and included women aged 18-50 years with a positive pregnancy test following ET. The two groups studied were: women who stayed on IM progesterone following a positive pregnancy test and those who switched to vaginal progesterone after a positive test. The main outcome measured was risk of miscarriage < 24 weeks gestation as a proportion of non-biochemical pregnancies. RESULTS: 1988 women were included in the analysis. Among the baseline characteristics, the presence of prior miscarriages as well as prior failed ETs, and frozen cycles (vs fresh) as type of transfer were associated with IM progesterone use (p values ≤ 0.01). As per miscarriage risk < 24 weeks, 22.4% (274/1221) of patients in the IM progesterone group experienced a miscarriage compared with 20.7% (159/767) in the vaginal progesterone group (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.73-1.13). A multivariable logistic regression model revealed an adjusted OR (aOR) of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77-1.22). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that switching from IM to vaginal progesterone after a positive pregnancy test following an ET is not associated with miscarriage risk. Considering that IM progesterone imposes substantial discomfort, this study offers reassurance and some flexibility in treatment protocols. Further prospective studies are necessary to corroborate the results of this study.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Progesterona/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fertilização in vitro , Transferência Embrionária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Taxa de Gravidez
15.
Contraception ; 124: 110055, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37088124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether planning high-sensitivity urine pregnancy tests (HSPT) rather than facility-based tests for medication abortion follow-up may increase risk of unplanned clinical visits or procedural completion of the abortion. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from the TelAbortion Project, a 5-year study assessing the safety and feasibility of providing mifepristone and misoprostol by telemedicine and mail in the United States. We categorized participants by whether the pretreatment follow-up plan included HSPT at home 3-5 weeks after treatment or facility-based tests (ultrasound or serum human chorionic gonadotropin) within 2 weeks after treatment. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare likelihood of post-treatment unplanned, abortion-related clinical visits and procedural intervention in these groups. RESULTS: Of 1324 patients who planned HSPT follow-up and 576 who planned facility-based tests, 85% and 83%, respectively, provided outcome information. Post-treatment clinical visits were less frequent in the HSPT group (19%) than in the facility-based test group (79%); most of the latter were to obtain the planned test. However, unplanned, abortion-related visits were significantly more common in the HSPT group (adjusted risk difference: 6.5%; p < 0.01). The likelihood of procedural completion did not differ by group. Planned follow-up test was not associated with delay in procedural completion or detection of ongoing pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up of medication abortion with home HSPT was associated with fewer post-treatment clinical visits, modestly more unplanned, abortion-related clinical visits, and no increase in the risk of procedural interventions or delayed identification or management of treatment failures. This option is an appropriate follow-up approach after medication abortion. IMPLICATIONS: Use of home high-sensitivity pregnancy tests rather than facility-based tests for outcome assessment after medication abortion is associated with a modest increase in unplanned clinical visits but does not lead to an increase in procedural interventions or delays identification and management of treatment failure.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Testes de Gravidez , Telemedicina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico
16.
Theriogenology ; 200: 11-17, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36738574

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of two pregnancy-associated glycoproteins tests (IDEXX on-farm pregnancy test [OFPT] and IDEXX rapid visual pregnancy test [RVPT]) for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows (n = 317) by coccygeal venipuncture 28-31 days after artificial insemination (AI). The OFPT and RVPT were performed on the farm within 2 h after blood collection using whole blood or blood serum. Transrectal ultrasonography (USG) was performed for pregnancy diagnosis on day 32 post-AI as a gold standard. One-hundred fourteen cows were diagnosed as pregnant and 203 were determined to be nonpregnant. Furthermore, embryonic mortality was detected in four of the nonpregnant animals, based on fragmented/dispersed embryonic membranes and the absence of heartbeat. Sixteen and 14 false positive results (13 jointly for both tests) were obtained for the RVPT and OFPT, respectively. Three false negative results were obtained for the RVPT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for the OFPT were 100%, 93.1%, 89.1%, 100% and 95.6%, and for RVPT were 97.4%, 92.1%, 87.4%, 98.4% and 94.0%, respectively. The ability of both tests to distinguish between pregnant and open cows was very good (AUC of both tests above 0.9). The OFPT and RVPT almost perfectly agreed with each other. According to McNemar's analysis, false positive results have been caused difference between the two pregnancy tests and USG. In conclusion, both the RVPT and OFPT proved to be reliable and practical methods for pregnancy diagnosis 28-31 days after AI in dairy cows. However, the results of both pregnancy tests were affected by the occurrence of embryonic mortality around the time of their employment.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas , Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Progesterona , Lactação
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 59(1): 61-70, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36826398

RESUMO

Elk (Cervus canadensis) were reintroduced to Tennessee, USA in the early 2000s, with limited reproductive monitoring since initial release. We assessed the efficacy of noninvasive sampling for determining pregnancy using invasive (capture) and noninvasive (fecal collection in the field) techniques at the North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area (NCWMA), Tennessee. We captured 20 female elk 2019-2020, used pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) in blood to determine pregnancy and compared results to fecal progesterone metabolite (FPM) concentrations using two commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. Based on PSPB concentrations, 8/11 and 3/4 of captured adult elk (≥2.5 yr of age) were pregnant in 2019 and 2020, respectively; no 1.5-yr-old elk were pregnant (n=5). Using the progesterone EIA kit, FPM concentrations were x̄=192.84±38.63 ng/g (95% CI, 96.48-289.20) for nonpregnant and x̄=536.17±74.98 ng/g (95% CI, 375.97-696.36) for pregnant captured females. For the progesterone metabolite kit, FPM concentrations were x̄=188.16±43.39 ng/g (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.63-299.69) for nonpregnant and x̄=693.52±126.52 ng/g (95% CI, 407.31-979.72) for pregnant captured females. From February to May 2019, we collected 357 fecal samples in 65 areas across 489.62 km2 of the NCWMA. Using extracted DNA and analysis of 15 microsatellites, we identified 62 unique individuals from 128 female fecal samples collected on the landscape. We categorized females from landscape-collected feces as nonpregnant (35.5-40.3%; Metabolite-EIA kits), undetermined (1.6-6.5%; Metabolite-EIA kits), or pregnant (62.9-53.2%; Metabolite-EIA kits) based on a 95% CI of captured female FPM concentrations, giving an overall pregnancy rate of 53.2% using the recommended EIA kit. The pregnancy rate in sexually mature females may be higher, as it was not possible to distinguish age classes of landscape-collected fecal samples; therefore, some may have been from younger age classes not expected to be pregnant. Analysis of FPM may be useful at a population level to detect pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cervos , Testes de Gravidez , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Progesterona/análise , Progesterona/metabolismo , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Animais Selvagens , Cervos/metabolismo , Fezes/química
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1090105, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36817599

RESUMO

Research question: The main objective of the study is to define the optimal trade-off progesterone (P4) values on the day of embryo transfer (ET), to identify low P4-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and to establish whether P4 supplementation started on the hCG day can increase the success rate of the frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle. Design: A single-center, cohort, retrospective study with 664 hormone replacement therapy (HRT)-FET cycles analyzed female patients who received vaginal 600 mg/day of P4 starting from 6 days before the FET, had normal P4 values on the day before ET, and whose P4 on the day of the pregnancy test was assessed. Results: Of the 664 cycles, 69.6% of cycles showed P4 ≥ 10.6 ng/ml, while 30.4% showed P4 < 10.6 ng/ml on the day of the hCG. Of the 411 chemical pregnancies detected, 71.8% had P4-hCG ≥ 10.6 ng/ml (group A), while 28.2% had P4-hCG < 10.6 ng/ml. Of the cycles with P4-hCG < 10.6 ng/ml, 64.7% (group B) were supplemented with a higher dose of vaginal P4 (1,000 mg/day), while 35.3% (group C) were maintained on the same dose of vaginal micronized P4. The live birth rate was 71.9%, 96%, and 7.3% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusion: The likelihood to detect P4-hCG < 10.6 ng/ml decreased as the level of serum P4 the day before ET increased. The live birth rate (LBR) was shown to be significantly lower when P4 was low and not supplemented.


Assuntos
Testes de Gravidez , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Taxa de Gravidez , Fase Luteal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gonadotropina Coriônica/uso terapêutico
19.
Contraception ; 120: 109955, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ideal assessment after mifepristone and misoprostol for undesired pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively followed patients at Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts (2019-2021) with PUL who received immediate mifepristone and misoprostol with serial at-home urine pregnancy tests (UPT) and in-office serum HCGs. RESULTS: Of 13 patients, 10 had a successful medication abortion. For those who completed UPTs (N = 9), all were negative by Day 14. Two abnormal pregnancies had positive UPTs on Day 14. CONCLUSION: A negative UPT on Day 14 may help determine complete abortion after medication abortion for undesired PUL. A positive UPT on Day 14 warrants further evaluation. IMPLICATION: Patients taking mifepristone and misoprostol in the setting of undesired PUL who cannot access serum testing may consider an at-home UPT to confirm complete abortion.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Abortivos Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Testes de Gravidez , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico
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