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1.
Harefuah ; 162(10): 631-637, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The question of what we know about the treatment of soldiers who are prisoners of war and kidnapped civilians is more relevant today than ever. On October 7, 2023, for 239 Israelis, the transition from an independent and autonomous person to a captive was a sharp, brutal transition that interrupted the continuity of life. Taking prisoners of war (POWs) at this time included, in addition to soldiers, kidnapped civilians, older men, women, teenagers, children and toddlers. The existing knowledge about the treatment of such diverse populations, and in such large numbers, is scarce. Hence, it is a great challenge for all care providers when the POWs return home.


Assuntos
Militares , Prisioneiros de Guerra , Prisioneiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Adolescente
2.
Lancet ; 402(10417): 2069, 2023 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931631
3.
Harefuah ; 162(9): 554-555, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37965849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ON THE TREATMENT OF HOSTAGES AND PRISONERS OF WAR.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros de Guerra , Prisioneiros , Humanos
4.
Uisahak ; 32(2): 553-591, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37718562

RESUMO

One of the most remarkable medical achievements of the Korean War was the development of psychiatry. During the Korean War, soldiers and prisoners of war (POWs) experienced "gross stress reaction" and manifested poor concentration and memory as well as clinical depression and social alienation. Rest and relaxation rotations served as the primary treatment for their conditions. Civilians also bore the brunt of the war's effects. Delusions of grandeur and megalomania appear to have been common among Koreans, but there were few mental health facilities to provide treatment and care. Out of the furnace of war, psychiatry emerged as a newly specialized field, and in the 1950s, Korea became the very place where military psychiatry training under the U.S. military laid the groundwork for civilian psychiatry. This essay aims to enrich the study of mental illness during and after the Korean War by providing a more detailed picture of the mental problems experienced not only by veterans and POWs, but also by civilians in Korea. Examining mental health issues from this period is challenging due to the scarcity of resources for delving into the minds of the civilians involved. Taking military psychiatry as a starting point, this essay goes beyond existing scholarship to discuss psychiatry-related responses to the Korean War, including the influence of military psychiatry on civilian psychiatry, the endeavors of medical professionals and government policies, and contemporary expressions of mental distress during and after the war.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Guerra da Coreia , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Povo Asiático/psicologia , Psiquiatria Militar , Medicina Militar , Militares/psicologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia
5.
Lancet ; 402(10405): 837-838, 2023 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690452
6.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(3): 377-385, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study prospectively assesses the implication of (a) exposure to distant trauma of war captivity, (b) stressful life events across the life span, and (c) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories and current PTSD, on substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: One hundred and twenty Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 65 matched veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War filled out self-report questionnaires in 4 waves of assessment (T1-18, T2-30, T3-35, and T4-42 years after the war). A fifth wave of assessment (T5) was conducted in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, 47 years after the war. RESULTS: Whereas in the earlier assessments (T1-T4) war captivity was not related to substance use, during the COVID-19 pandemic (T5) ex-POWs reported higher increase of use of alcohol, tranquilizers, cannabis, and sleep medications than comparable veterans. War-induced PTSD trajectories that were prospectively measured between T1-T4, and concurrent PTSD during the pandemic (T5) were related to increase in substance use during the pandemic (T5). CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the long-term effects of both earlier experience of severe traumatic stress in young adulthood and the resultant PTSD trajectories, as reflected in increased substance use among the elderly, in the face of subsequent calamity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros de Guerra , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso , Pandemias , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Israel
7.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(5-6): 4832-4851, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062821

RESUMO

The current longitudinal study focused on predicting depression among spouses of former Israeli war veterans (combat veterans or ex-prisoners of war [ex-POWs]). The research examined the direct and moderating role of secondary trauma related to their husbands' war-related experiences, stress related to being exposed to intimate partner violence in their relationship, being a second-generation Holocaust (SGH) survivor, and the effects of additional stressful life events (SLEs) since the end of the war. Wives of ex-POWs and combat veterans (N = 129) participated in two time measurements. Spouses of ex-POWs were found to be at higher risk of depression and psychological violence. Psychological violence was a risk factor for depression. The three-way interaction among psychological violence, being a SGH survivor, and experiencing SLEs was significant. In addition, experiencing earlier stressful events had a protective effect. The findings suggest that the association between early exposure and additive exposure through life is a complex iteration of factors and does not necessarily follow the vulnerability perspective.


Assuntos
Exposição à Violência , Prisioneiros de Guerra , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Animais , Cônjuges/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Violência , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Israel
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 464-474, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a extremely traumatic experience, captivity may cause other mental disorders in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder, which is highly prevalent among ex-prisoners of war, and which often occurs in comorbidity with at least one other mental disorder. This objective of this study is to identify the incidence of comorbid mental disorders in Homeland war veterans ex-prisoners of war affected by posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as to identify the factors that influenced psychiatric comorbidity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study sample comprised 264 subjects, all of whom were Croatian Homeland War veterans with combat experience in the defence of the Republic of Croatia, and all of whom fulfilled clinical criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder at the time of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental group was composed of ex-prisoners of war, and the control group of veterans who had never been prisoners of war. The methods of sociodemographic questionnaire, posttraumatic stress disorder self-report checklist and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire were used in the study. Psychiatric comorbidity data were retrieved from the subjects' anamnesis and medical records. RESULTS: The results showed that ex-prisoners of war were exposed to a statistically much higher number of traumatic events, and had a significantly higher total number of psychiatric comorbidities (p<0.01) than the control group. The incidence of acute and transient psychotic disorders, generalized anxiety disorders and psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere was significantly higher among ex-prisoners of war. There was no statistically significant difference in overall posttraumatic stress disorder intensity between the two groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study confirm our hypothesis that the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity is higher in ex-prisoners of war.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros de Guerra , Prisioneiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Veteranos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Guerra , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Comorbidade
10.
Int J Psychol ; 57(2): 295-305, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608645

RESUMO

By exposing individuals to trauma, wars can cause a host of psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to collect and compare the studies conducted to estimate the prevalence of depression among veterans, former prisoners of war (POWs) and military personnel in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). In this systematic review, a search was conducted using relevant keywords in major national and international databases, personal archives and national academic libraries. We screened 135 records using their abstracts and selected a total of 56 studies for full-text review. Eventually, 19 studies were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of depression among Iranian veterans and POWs was 22.4% (95% confidence interval = 15.0-32.0). Although the results indicated disparities in the prevalence of depression among veterans and POWs, the aggregate estimated prevalence was much higher than what has been reported for military personnel. Effective policies and strategies are required for prevention and treatment of depression and related psychiatric complications among veterans and former POWs.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros de Guerra , Prisioneiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Iraque , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 141: 140-145, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198195

RESUMO

This study assessed the contributions of prior war captivity trauma, the appraisal of the current COVID-19 danger and its resemblance to the prior trauma, and long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to risk for PTSD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Capitalizing on a 29-year longitudinal study with four previous assessments, two groups of Israeli veterans - ex-Prisoners-of-War (ex-POWs) of the 1973 Yom Kippur War and comparable combat veterans of the same war - were reassessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous data were collected on their PTSD trajectory 18, 30, 35, and 42 years after the war and exposure to stressful life events after the war. Currently, we collected data on their PTSD during the COVID-19 pandemic and their appraisal of similarities of past trauma with the current pandemic. Previously traumatized ex-POWs were found to be more vulnerable and had significantly higher rates of PTSD and more intense PTSD during the current pandemic than comparable combat veterans. Moreover, veterans in both groups who perceived the current adversity (captivity, combat) as hindering their current coping were more likely to suffer from PTSD than veterans who perceived it as a facilitating or irrelevant experience. In addition, chronic and delayed trajectories of PTSD among ex-POWs increased the risk for PTSD during the pandemic, and lifetime PTSD mediated the effects of war captivity on PTSD during the current pandemic. These findings support the stress resolution perspective indicating that the response to previous trauma - PTSD and its trajectories - increased the risk of PTSD following subsequent exposure to stress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros de Guerra , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
13.
J Clin Psychol ; 77(10): 2203-2215, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Depression is a prevalent outcome of traumatic experiences, such as combat and war captivity. This study explores the heterogeneity of changes over time and assesses the contribution of trauma exposure (combat vs. war captivity), hardiness, and social support for depression trajectories. METHODS: Two groups of Israeli veterans were assessed in 1991, 2003, 2008, and 2015: 149 former prisoners-of-war (ex-POWs) and 107 combat veterans. Protective factors were evaluated in 1991. Group-based trajectory modeling was conducted to identify latent trajectories of change. RESULTS: Four trajectories of "resiliency" (62.8%), "delayed onset" (25.1%), "exacerbation" (6.2%), and "chronicity" (5.9%) were found. The majority of the resilient group were combat veterans whereas the clinical groups consisted primarily of ex-POWs. Lower hardiness and social support were related to more deleterious trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Spirals of loss involving hardiness and social support, normative experiences, and contextual factors may present explanations for the various depression trajectories.


Assuntos
Depressão , Prisioneiros de Guerra , Veteranos , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Apoio Social , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 278: 113956, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930678

RESUMO

RATIONALE: It has been recognized that exposure to mass trauma tends to increase the time spent watching television (TV) news. Yet, research on the effects of this tendency on individuals' well-being yielded inconclusive findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of prior trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on changes in the amount of TV news watching and its effect on subsequent PTSD. More specifically, we examined the interrelations of prior exposure to war captivity, long-term PTSD trajectories, and amount of change TV news watching with PTSD severity during the COVID-19 pandemic, among aging Israeli combat veterans. METHODS: One-hundred-and-twenty Israeli ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) from 1973 Yom Kippur War and 65 matched controls (combat veterans from the same war) were followed up at five points of time: 1991 (T1), 2003 (T2), 2008 (T3), 2015 (T4), and in April-May 2020 (T5), during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Ex-POWs had higher odds of COVID-19 related increase in TV news watching, which, in turn, contributed to PTSD severity at T5. In addition, delayed PTSD trajectory was associated with COVID-19 related increase in TV news watching, which, in turn, contributed to more severe PTSD at T5. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the negative implications of TV news watching during a mass trauma for traumatized individuals. More specifically, they demonstrate its potential pathogenic role in exacerbating prior PTSD among trauma survivors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros de Guerra , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
15.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(2): 262-272, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep is necessary for brain function as well as physical and cognitive processes. Sleep disruptions, common with aging, intensify among trauma survivors. Moreover, former prisoners-of-war (ex-POWs) often experience premature aging. This study investigates the longitudinal effects of sleep disruptions for ex-POWs in relation to cognitive performance and telomere length as well as between cognition and telomeres. METHOD: This study included Israeli veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War who participated in four assessments (1991, 2003, 2008, 2015): (a) ex-POWs (n = 99), and (b) veterans who not were captured (controls) (n = 101). Among both groups, sleep disruptions were assessed using a self-report item in all four assessments. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) and telomere length was assessed via total white blood cells (leukocytes) from whole blood samples using Southern blot, both were measured only among ex-POWs in 2015. We conducted descriptive statistics, repeated measures, correlations, and path analyses. RESULTS: Sleep disruptions were related to lower cognitive performance but not to shorter telomeres. Moreover, cognitive performance and telomere length were found to be related when sleep disruptions were taken into consideration. CONCLUSION: Interpersonal trauma was shown to be a unique experience resulting in sleep disruptions over time, leading to cognitive impairment. These findings highlight the importance of viewing trauma survivors at high-risk for sleep disruptions. Therefore, it is imperative to inquire about sleep and diagnose cognitive disorders to help identify and treat premature aging.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura , Cognição/fisiologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse , Idoso , Senilidade Prematura/diagnóstico , Senilidade Prematura/etiologia , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Senilidade Prematura/psicologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Israel , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Encurtamento do Telômero , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/psicologia , Saúde dos Veteranos
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(3): 338-348, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research has demonstrated that traumatic experiences have significant links to suicidal ideation (SI), particularly among older adults. The present study examined SI among older adults with a history of war trauma and the role of perceptions relating to one's age (subjective age) in predicting SI. METHOD: Drawing from a larger longitudinal study, we analyzed data based on interviews with 125 ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWS) from Israel's 1973 Yom Kippur War and a control group of 101 veterans from the same war who did not fall captive (mean age at most recent measurement was 65.05, SDage = 5.29). Participants were interviewed in 2008 (T1) and again in 2015 (T2). RESULTS: Findings revealed significantly higher levels of SI among ex-POWs than evident among controls and significantly higher levels of SI and subjective age among ex-POWs with PTSD. Furthermore, a sequential mediation analysis indicated that among ex-POWs, the path from T1 PTSD symptoms to subsequent SI was mediated by subjective age at T1, and subjective age at T2, after controlling for age, self-rated health, and SI at T1. CONCLUSION: A subset of ex-POWs are exposed to continuous suicidal risk throughout their later life, more than 40 years after the war. Furthermore, an older subjective age mediated these associations, independent of the levels of T1 SI, actual age, and self-rated health. These findings suggest debilitating long-term effects of trauma for SI in later life and their connections to advanced psychological aging. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Veteranos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros de Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Health Psychol ; 39(11): 1007-1012, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: War captivity and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are known to be associated with several poor health outcomes of an accelerated aging process. However, the contribution of personality protective factors to this phenomenon are rarely studied. The present 24-year prospective study examined associations between psychological hardiness and three health outcomes: C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and telomere length (TL). METHOD: Eighty-eight Israeli former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) were assessed 18 (T1) and 42 (T2) years after repatriation. Data on hardiness was collected at T1 while leukocyte TL, CRP, and MetS data was collected 42 years after the war. RESULTS: While adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, depressive and PTSD symptoms at T2, higher levels of hardiness at T1 predicted decreased CRP and longer TL at T2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term health vulnerabilities of traumatized ex-POWs are manifested in an accelerated aging process and cellular senescence. Raising awareness of the importance of protective factors such as veterans' hardiness might be associated with improving their longevity and well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2171-2173, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901592

RESUMO

Modern clinical trials have suggested that anemia protects against malaria mortality. Military records of the Second World War in Asia were examined to see if there was support for this hypothesis. When relatively well-nourished Imperial Japanese Navy sailors captured on Nauru (n = 799) were imprisoned on the Fauro Islands, 26% died from falciparum malaria. Similarly treated but very malnourished colocated Imperial Army soldiers experienced low stable malaria mortality. One-fifth of previously healthy Australian Army soldiers (n = 252) retreating from New Britain died largely because of malaria in April 1942. Malnourished prisoners of war, who were as a group very anemic, both Australian Army soldiers in Thailand and Japanese Army soldiers in Papua New Guinea, had high malaria rates but very low (< 3%) mortality rates. Malaria immunity does not adequately explain this dichotomy, suggesting that severe nutritional deprivation may be protective against malaria mortality possibly because of iron-deficiency anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/história , Malária Falciparum/história , Militares/história , Mortalidade/história , Prisioneiros de Guerra/história , Anemia/complicações , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão , Malária Falciparum/complicações , Malária Falciparum/mortalidade , Desnutrição/história , Micronésia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Papua Nova Guiné , Prisioneiros de Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Tailândia , II Guerra Mundial
20.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418034

RESUMO

Andrzej Wajda recrea los sucesos de la masacre de Katyn, al inicio de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en la que 22 mil polacos fueron masacrados por los soviéticos y luego atribuyeron el crimen a los nazis. El director polaco se vale de la Antígona de Sófocles para adaptarla al escenario de postguerra de la República Popular Polaca bajo el régimen comunista, para relatar la lucha de Agnieszka por poner en la lápida de su hermano asesinado en Katyn la verdadera fecha en que murió, desbaratando el relato falso de los comunistas sobre la responsabilidad por su muerte. Katyn, de Wajda, es el modo cinematográfico de dar palabras e imágenes a ese real decretado como no acontecido.


Andrzej Wajda recreates the events of the Katyn´s massacre at the beginning of the Second World War, in whith 22 thousand polish were killed by the soviets, and then they accused the nazis for the crime.The polish director adapt Sofocles´s Antigona to the postwar scenario, to report Agnieszka´s struggle to sign on the tombstone of her brother killed in Katyn, the real date when he died, disrupting the false tale of the communists about the responsability for his death. Wajda´s Katyn is the cinematographic way of giving words and images to a real that was decreed as not having happen.


Assuntos
Humanos , Crimes de Guerra , Prisioneiros de Guerra , População , Estereotipagem , Genocídio
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