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Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(13): S94-S99, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561870


The Medicaid Inmate Exclusion Policy (MIEP) prohibits using federal funds for ambulatory care services and medications (including for infectious diseases) for incarcerated persons. More than one quarter of states, including California and Massachusetts, have asked the federal government for authority to waive the MIEP. To improve health outcomes and continuation of care, those states seek to cover transitional care services provided to persons in the period before release from incarceration. The Massachusetts Sheriffs' Association, Massachusetts Department of Correction, Executive Office of Health and Human Services, and University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School have collaborated to improve infectious disease healthcare service provision before and after release from incarceration. They seek to provide stakeholders working at the intersection of criminal justice and healthcare with tools to advance Medicaid policy and improve treatment and prevention of infectious diseases for persons in jails and prisons by removing MIEP barriers through Section 1115 waivers.

Doenças Transmissíveis , Prisioneiros , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Medicaid , Prisões , Massachusetts/epidemiologia
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 41(5): 468-470, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556759


The United States (US) has one of the highest rates of incarceration in the world. Due to the aging of the US population as a whole and limited opportunities for early release, the proportion of older people in prison continues to rise. Some correctional health systems have adopted geriatric and palliative care principles to better care for this aging population, many of whom die in prison. However, not everyone who grows old in prison will die behind bars. In this article, we explore existing literature that highlights the unique physical, cognitive, and psychosocial challenges that formerly incarcerated patients face. We proceed to argue that palliative care providers should screen for a history of incarceration to identify and address the needs of this patient population. We also offer strategies to create a safe, welcoming environment to discuss past traumas related to these patients' time in prison.

Cuidados Paliativos , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Prisões
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(13): S41-S48, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561639


Serratia marcescens is an environmental gram-negative bacterium that causes invasive disease in rare cases. During 2020-2022, an outbreak of 21 invasive Serratia infections occurred in a prison in California, USA. Most (95%) patients had a history of recent injection drug use (IDU). We performed whole-genome sequencing and found isolates from 8 patients and 2 pieces of IDU equipment were closely related. We also identified social interactions among patients. We recovered S. marcescens from multiple environmental samples throughout the prison, including personal containers storing Cell Block 64 (CB64), a quaternary ammonium disinfectant solution. CB64 preparation and storage conditions were suboptimal for S. marcescens disinfection. The outbreak was likely caused by contaminated CB64 and propagated by shared IDU equipment and social connections. Ensuring appropriate preparation, storage, and availability of disinfectants and enacting interventions to counteract disease spread through IDU can reduce risks for invasive Serratia infections in California prisons.

Infecção Hospitalar , Desinfetantes , Prisioneiros , Infecções por Serratia , Humanos , Serratia marcescens/genética , Infecções por Serratia/epidemiologia , Prisões , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , California/epidemiologia
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(13): S56-S61, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561865


Increasing vaccination knowledge is effective in addressing hesitancy and is particularly important in populations deprived of liberty who may not routinely have access to health information, ensuring health equity. RISE-Vac is a European Union-funded project aiming to promote vaccine literacy, offer, and uptake in prisons in Europe. We consulted persons living in prisons in the United Kingdom (through the Prisoner Policy Network), France, and Moldova to determine their vaccination knowledge gaps, the information they would like to receive, and how they would like to receive it. We received 344 responses: 224 from the United Kingdom, 70 from France, and 50 from Moldova. Participants were particularly interested in learning about the effectiveness, side effects, and manufacturing of vaccines. Their responses guided the development of educational materials, including a brochure that will be piloted in prisons in Europe. Persons with experience of imprisonment were involved at every stage of this project.

Prisioneiros , Vacinas , Humanos , Prisões , Reino Unido , França
J Pers Disord ; 38(2): 138-156, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592911


Two studies examined the consistency of associations between specific components of psychopathy and two indices of drug use: (a) abstinence and (b) severity (i.e., counts) of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms. Participants were 418 male county jail inmates in Illinois (Study One) and 354 male state prison inmates in New Mexico (Study Two). Across samples, lifestyle and antisocial trait ratings were associated with a reduced likelihood of abstinence from most substances. Lifestyle traits were also uniquely associated with severity of substance dependence ratings. Consistent with prior research, interpersonal traits were uniquely related to cocaine indices in both samples. Furthermore, analyses revealed negative associations between the affective features of psychopathy and alcohol dependence in one sample (Study Two), and illicit substance use across samples. These findings demonstrate the robustness of the associations between the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and specific aspects of substance (mis)use.

Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301410, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593147


BACKGROUND: Suicide is a prominent source of harm and death globally, and it is the leading cause of premature death among prisoners. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt among prisoners in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study design was performed from May 23 to June 22, 2022. After proportional allocation to the three correctional institutions, a total of 788 study participants were randomly recruited. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to evaluate suicide ideation and attempt. To determine factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. At a 95% confidence interval (CI) of P-value <0.05, statistical significance was declared. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among prisoners was 23.6% and 10.7%, with 95% CI (20.76, 26.70) and (8.68, 13.02), respectively. Female sex (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.12, 5.05), family history of mental illness (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.93, 4.88), depression (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.98), poor social support (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.56, 4.85) and previous incarceration (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.86) were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. However, being single (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.47, 4.54), family history of suicide (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.01), depression (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.59, 4.31) and previous imprisonments (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.69) were associated with suicidal attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among prisoners were found to be high. Therefore, the findings of this study recommend that early detection and design of prison mental health services should be delivered to develop mental health care, prevention, and intervention programs for incarcerated people to improve suicidal behavior in prison.

Prisioneiros , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prevalência
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8344, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594328


Social decisions are influenced by a person's social preferences. High psychopathy is defined by antisocial behaviour, but the relationship between psychopathy and social preferences remains unclear. In this study, we used a battery of economic games to study social decision-making and social preferences in relation to psychopathy in a sample of 35 male prison inmates, who were arrested for sexual and severe violent offenses (mean age = 39 years). We found no evidence for a relationship between social preferences (measured with the Dictator and Ultimatum Games, Social Value Orientation, and one-shot 2 × 2 games) and psychopathy (measured by the overall Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised score and both factors). These results are surprising but also difficult to interpret due to the small sample size. Our results contribute to the ongoing debate about psychopathy and social decision-making by providing crucial data that can be combined with future datasets to reach large sample sizes that can provide a more nuanced understanding about the relationship between psychopathy and social preferences.

Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Agressão , Transtornos do Comportamento Social
Rev. esp. sanid. penit ; 26(1): 9-17, Ene-Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231142


Objetivos: El cuestionario de agresión (AQ) de Buss-Perry (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; Buss y Perry, 1992) es una medida utilizada en la población en general. Existe un debate sobre la interpretación de las puntuaciones y la utilidad de una versión más breve (AQ-SV [short version]). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar y comparar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión larga (AQ-LV [long version]) y la breve y comprobar la fiabilidad de la versión breve en una muestra de varones encarcelados. Material y método: La muestra estaba formada por 236 varones encarcelados (edad media de 40,4 años) del Centro Penitenciario Ocaña I (Toledo), que se ofrecieron a participar en el estudio. La muestra se seleccionó mediante la técnica de muestreo aleatorio por niveles, basada en el número de reclusos internos. También se incluyó una lista aleatoria de posibles sustitutos en caso de negativa a ser entrevistados, interrumpiéndose la sustitución en caso de dos negaciones consecutivas. Este estudio es un diseño descriptivo transversal. Resultados: La versión breve de la escala demostró un mejor ajuste que la versión larga, como indican los valores mayores del índice de ajuste comparativo (CFI, comparative fit index) y los menores del cuadrado medio residual ponderado (WRMR, weighted root mean square residual). El número de penas de prisión se asoció positivamente con la agresión física, la agresión verbal, la ira y la hostilidad. Los coeficientes fueron ligeramente superiores para la versión breve que para la versión larga. Discusión: La versión breve del cuestionario AQ es un instrumento válido y de utilidad para medir la agresividad en contextos penitenciarios en relación con la versión larga, y se correlaciona con subescalas de agresión con más fuerza que la versión larga.(AU)

Objectives: The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992) is a broad measurement tool used with the general public in Spain. There is some debate regarding the interpretation of AQ scores and the usefulness of a shorter version. The aim is to study and compare the psychometric properties of the long and short version of the AQ and check the reliability of the short version in a sample of male prisoners. Material and method: The sample was composed of 236 incarcerated males (mean age of 40.4 years of age) from Ocaña 1 prison center who volunteered to participate in the study. The sample was selected by using the tiered random sampling technique based on the internal inmate number. A random list of possible substitutes was also included in the event of refusal to be interviewed, with replacement being discontinued in the event of two consecutive refusals. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional design. Results: The short version of the scale demonstrated better adjustment than the long version, as indicated by the larger CFI and smaller WRMR values. The number of prison sentences was positively associated with physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. The coefficients were slightly higher for the short version of the scale than the long one. Discussion: The short version of the AQ is a valid instrument for measuring aggressiveness in prison contexts in relation to the long version, and correlates with subscales of aggression more strongly than the long one.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Prisioneiros , Agressão/classificação , Psicometria , Violência , Comportamento , Comportamento Perigoso , Espanha , Prisões , Inquéritos e Questionários
Rev. esp. sanid. penit ; 26(1): 18-24, Ene-Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231143


Introducción: La movilidad de la población penitenciaria precisa que la información transmitida en los traslados entre centros garantice una óptima continuidad asistencial. Objetivo: Valorar la calidad de la transmisión de información sanitaria cuando los internos son trasladados en conducción entre centros penitenciarios de todo el territorio español. Material y método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, consistente en la revisión de historias clínicas de los internos que transitaron por el Centro Penitenciario (CP) Madrid III en un periodo de tres meses. Todas las variables medidas fueron cualitativas, expresadas en frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: Durante ese tiempo, 1.168 internos transitaron por el CP Madrid III. Solo 21 procedían de centros penitenciarios de Cataluña, País Vasco o Navarra, cuya historia clínica es diferente a la del resto del Estado, y solo el 57,14% aportaban algún tipo de información sanitaria. Del resto de internos, el 70,79% aportaba algún tipo de información: el 63,90% del total tenía medicación prescrita y el 5% metadona. De aquellos que tenían medicación, el 89,10% la tenían prescrita en la prescripción electrónica, siendo correcta en el 98% de los casos. Respecto a la metadona, solo el 75,44% lo tenía prescrito electrónicamente, siendo correcta en todos los casos. La fecha de la última dosis administrada solo se indicó en el 72,40% de los tratamientos. Discusión: Solo el 34,70% de las historias presentaban una calidad óptima en cuanto a la información transmitida, siendo en el 2,50% de los casos la información recibida deficiente. El uso de herramientas informáticas facilita la transmisión de la información, reduce la carga de trabajo y mejora la seguridad del paciente.(AU)

Introduction: The mobility of the prison population creates a need for information transmitted in transfers between centers that can guarantee optimal care continuity. Objective: To assess the quality of transmission of health information when inmates are transferred between prisons in Spain. Material and method: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study, consisting of a review of medical records of inmates who passed through Madrid III Prison in a three-month period. All measured variables were qualitative, and were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies. Results: 1,168 inmates passed through Madrid III Prison in this period. Only 21 came from prisons in Catalonia, the Basque Country or Navarre, where their medical records are different from those in the rest of Spain, and only 57.14% provided some type of health information. Of the remaining inmates, 70.79% provided some type of information: 63.90% of the total had prescriptions for medication and 5% were prescribed with methadone. Of those taking medication, 89.10% were prescribed it in electronic prescriptions, which were correct in 98% of the cases. For methadone, only 75.44% had electronic prescriptions,which were correct in all cases. The date of the last dose administered was only indicated in 72.40% of the treatments. Discussion: Only 34.70% of the records presented optimal quality in terms of the information transmitted, and in 2.50% of the cases the information received was deficient. The use of computerized tools facilitates the transmission of information, reduces the workload and improves patient safety.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Segurança do Paciente , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Prisões , Espanha , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Direitos dos Prisioneiros , Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Prisioneiros/educação
Rev. esp. sanid. penit ; 26(1): 25-34, Ene-Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231144


Introducción: En el entorno penitenciario, hay una elevada incidencia de conductas autolesivas, con una tasa de suicidio superior a la existente en la población general. Estudios previos describen la asociación de factores sociodemográficos, clínicos y criminológicos, con el riesgo de suicidio en la población penitenciaria masculina, pero hay pocas investigaciones centradas en el análisis de la conducta suicida entre mujeres. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las características de las internas que ingresan en una unidad psiquiátrica por presentar ideas de suicidio o haber realizado tentativas.Material y método: Análisis descriptivo y comparativo de 97 internos (68 hombres, 29 mujeres) ingresados en la Unidad de Hospitalización Psiquiátrica de la Penitenciaria de Cataluña (UHPP-C), por ideas de suicidio, entre el 1 de enero de 2017 y el 31 de diciembre de 2022. Resultados: Se encuentran diferencias respecto al lugar de nacimiento, con mayor presencia de nacionalidades africanas en varones no nacionales, mientras que las internas extranjeras suelen ser originarias de países latinoamericanos. Los hombres tienen menor edad media, con ingresos más prolongados y una mayor tasa de reingreso. También padecen más trastornos psicóticos y adictivos. Las mujeres presentan mayor prevalencia de trastornos de personalidad y cuadros afectivos. Conclusiones: Hay diferencias sociodemográficas y clínicas entre hombres y mujeres internos en prisión que requieren ingreso por ideación suicida. Incluir la perspectiva de género en los estudios sobre el riesgo suicida en la población penitenciaria puede proporcionar una base sólida para futuros estudios, permitiendo así una comprensión más completa de la ideación suicida y las necesidades de intervención en la población penitenciaria.(AU)

Introduction: There is a high incidence of self-harming behavior in the prison setting, with a suicide rate that is higher than that of the general population. Previous studies describe the association of sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological factors with the risk of suicide in the male prison population, but there is little research that specifically analyses suicidal behavior among women. The objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics of inmates who are admitted to a psychiatric unit for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide. Material and method: Descriptive and comparative analysis of 97 inmates (68 men, 29 women) admitted to the Unidad de Hospitalización Psiquiátrica Penitenciaria de Cataluña (UHPP-C), for suicidal ideation, between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2022. Results: There are differences in terms of place of birth, with a more significant presence of African nationalities in non-national males, while foreign inmates tend to come from Latin American countries. Men have a lower mean age, longer admissions, and a higher readmission rate. They also suffer from more psychotic and addictive disorders. Women have a higher prevalence of personality disorders and affective symptoms. Conclusions: There are sociodemographic and clinical differences between male and female prison inmates who require admission for suicidal ideation. Including a gender perspective in studies on suicide risk in the prison population can provide a solid foundation for future studies, thus allowing a more complete understanding of suicidal ideation and intervention needs in theprison population.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Perspectiva de Gênero , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Prisões , Espanha , Psiquiatria , Saúde Mental , Epidemiologia Descritiva
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 11-18, Ene-Abr, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229711


En prisión existen programas específicos de tratamiento para condenados por agresión sexual a menores; sin embargo, quienes además tienen pedofilia, requieren una atención específica. El objetivo del presente estudio es doble: primero, ofrecer una propuesta de intervención específica para pedofilia en el entorno penitenciario basada en la evidencia científica disponible y complementaria al Programa de Control de la Agresión Sexual y después, justificar dicha propuesta a través del caso de un interno con pedofilia. En concreto, proponemos una intervención individual y centrada en personas con pedofilia; trabajando la baja autoestima, evaluando la ideación suicida y reestructurando las distorsiones cognitivas con menores, facilitando la creación de relaciones personales funcionales con adultos, evaluando la polivictimización pasada y su posible influencia sobre la conducta sexual posterior, proporcionar a los internos psicoeducación sobre pedofilia; atender de forma específica las fantasías sexuales con menores, evitando las conductas disexuales y la eliminación del consumo de material abusivo.(AU)

There are specific treatment programs in prisons for those convicted of sexually assaulting minors; however, those who also have pedophilia require specific attention. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to offer a specific intervention proposal for pedophilia in the prison setting based on the available scientific evidence, and complementary to the Sexual Assault Control Program, and second, to justify this proposal through the case of an inmate with pedophilia. Specifically, we propose an individual intervention focused on people with pedophilia; working on low self-esteem, assessing suicidal ideation and restructuring cognitive distortions with minors, facilitating the creation of functional personal relationships with adults, assessing past polyvictimization and its possible influence on subsequent sexual behavior, providing inmates with psychoeducation on pedophilia; specifically addressing sexual fantasies with minors, avoiding dyssexual behavior, and eliminating the consumption of abusive material.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Pedofilia/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Prisões , Psicologia , Psicologia Social
Salud Colect ; 20: e4665, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427347


This research aims to analyze the breastfeeding experiences of incarcerated mothers in the prisons of the Spanish penitentiary system. Additionally, it explores whether these mothers have perceived practices related to obstetric violence during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. An exploratory-descriptive study was conducted using a qualitative approach and a critical ethnographic method. Fieldwork, including participant observation and semi-structured interviews, was carried out between December 2021 and April 2022. The study involved 30 adult women from Africa, Europe, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, all serving sentences with their infants in Mother Units located in the Spanish cities of Alicante, Barcelona, Madrid, and Seville. The main findings highlight the need for penitentiary policies with a gender and feminist perspective. These policies should aim to eliminate severe inequalities and discriminations faced by incarcerated women while protecting the basic rights of both mothers and infants.

Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la experiencia con respecto a la lactancia materna de las madres encarceladas en las prisiones del sistema penitenciario español, así como estudiar si han percibido prácticas que aludan a la violencia obstetricia durante la gestación, el parto y el puerperio. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio-descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo y método etnográfico crítico. Entre diciembre de 2021 y abril de 2022, se efectuó el trabajo de campo con observación participante y entrevistas semiestructuradas a 30 de las mujeres mayores de edad procedentes de África, Europa, Europa del Este y Latinoamérica, que se encontraban cumpliendo condena junto a sus criaturas en las Unidades de Madres de las ciudades españolas de Alicante, Barcelona, Madrid y Sevilla. Las principales conclusiones señalan la necesidad de aplicar políticas penitenciarias con perspectiva de género y feminista, que consigan erradicar las graves desigualdades y discriminaciones que sufren las mujeres encarceladas y que sirvan para proteger los derechos básicos de madres y criaturas.

Prisioneiros , Prisões , Adulto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Aleitamento Materno , Parto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299318, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427652


BACKGROUND: In Thailand, the growing prevalence of mental health problems among the increasing number of adult female prisoners has emerged as a significant public health concern. However, studies on the health of women prisoners are primarily conducted in Western societies, and studies in other countries are rare. Thailand, a non-western country, is no exception to this. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the current levels of anxiety and depression among women drug offenders in Thailand and to identify possible associated factors. METHODS: Data were collected from a sample consisting of 554 women drug offenders serving sentences of eight years or more. Stratified random sampling with proportionate stratification was employed during the data collection. The female inmates were being held in three categories of prisons: correctional institutions, central prisons, and provincial prisons. A single question was used to measure self-perceived levels of anxiety and depression: none, moderate, or substantial. Ordered logit regression was employed in the data analysis. FINDINGS: One out of five (21.1%) of the inmates in the sample reported no perceived current anxiety and depression, 61.7% reported moderate anxiety and depression, and 17.1% reported having substantial perceived levels of anxiety and depression. It was found that chronic health conditions or disease, concerns about economic status, and feelings of shame were associated with the perceived anxiety and depression reported by the inmates. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that integrated mental health services that emphasize a holistic approach that acknowledges the intersectionality of women's mental health and societal gender roles should be provided in prisons. Regular mental health screening and accessible mental health services are essential for all incarcerated women. Empowerment programs during confinement can boost self-esteem and thus lead to better post-release outcomes. The government should also implement programs to alleviate the financial burden on prisoners' households.

Depressão , Prisioneiros , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Ansiedade/epidemiologia
Lancet ; 403(10433): 1220, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555912
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299847, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547082


There has been an increase in female incarcerated offenders nationally and internationally. Despite this trend, literature and research on female offenders remain limited compared to their male counterparts. Evidence of the relationship between certain personality disorders and offending behaviour has led numerous countries to prioritise identifying and assessing personality disorders among the offender population. Psychopathic personality traits may contribute to women's risk factors for expressing antisocial behaviours, resulting in their potential future incarceration. Thus, a need exists to understand possible factors that may predict the expression of psychopathic traits in females, which may have notable utility among female offenders. This study aimed to investigate possible predictor variables of psychopathy amongst incarcerated female offenders in South Africa. A quantitative research approach, non-experimental research type, and correlational research design were employed. A convenience sampling technique was used. The sample consisted of 139 (N = 139) female offenders housed in two correctional centres in South Africa who voluntarily participated in this study. Correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analysis procedures were conducted to analyse the results. Results indicated (i) a certain combination of predictor variables that statistically and practically significantly explained both primary and secondary psychopathy and (ii) individual predictor variables (e.g., Impulsivity, Simple Tasks, Risk-Seeking, and Self-Centredness) that explained both primary and secondary psychopathy statistically and practically significantly. This study provides valuable information about the possible predictor variables of psychopathy amongst female offenders within the context of South Africa. However, further research must be conducted to validate these findings and advance our knowledge on this topic.

Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Autocontrole , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Princípios Morais
Int Tinnitus J ; 27(2): 225-230, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512870


This paper delves into the intricate realm of mental health issues within prisons including other correctional facilities, the intersectionality with legal and medical aspects, and the potential of pharmacology as a viable treatment modality. The prevalence and diverse array of mental disorders among incarcerated individuals are thoroughly examined, underscoring the imperative for all-encompassing interventions. The legal structure, hurdles encountered in delivering mental healthcare, and the indispensability of interdisciplinary cooperation are scrutinized. Furthermore, the effectiveness and moral implications of pharmaceutical interventions in correctional environments are deliberated upon. Conclusive suggestions are put forth to enhance mental healthcare provisions in prisons. The research paper endeavors to penetrate the labyrinthine complexities of mental health predicaments within correctional institutions, with a specific emphasis on the convergence of medico-legal facets and the plausible impact of pharmacological interventions. The study strives to elucidate the intricate nature of mental health challenges among incarcerated populations, considering the intricate interplay of socio-cultural, environmental, and psychological factors that contribute to their pervasiveness. By delving into these interconnected dimensions, the research aims to unlock prospective remedies capable of efficaciously meeting the mental health requisites of incarcerated individuals.

Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisões , Saúde Mental , Estudos Prospectivos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 68, 2024 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494501


BACKGROUND: The challenging nature of studies with incarcerated populations and other offender groups can impede the conduct of research, particularly that involving complex study designs such as randomised control trials and clinical interventions. Providing an overview of study designs employed in this area can offer insights into this issue and how research quality may impact on health and justice outcomes. METHODS: We used a rule-based approach to extract study designs from a sample of 34,481 PubMed abstracts related to epidemiological criminology published between 1963 and 2023. The results were compared against an accepted hierarchy of scientific evidence. RESULTS: We evaluated our method in a random sample of 100 PubMed abstracts. An F1-Score of 92.2% was returned. Of 34,481 study abstracts, almost 40.0% (13,671) had an extracted study design. The most common study design was observational (37.3%; 5101) while experimental research in the form of trials (randomised, non-randomised) was present in 16.9% (2319). Mapped against the current hierarchy of scientific evidence, 13.7% (1874) of extracted study designs could not be categorised. Among the remaining studies, most were observational (17.2%; 2343) followed by systematic reviews (10.5%; 1432) with randomised controlled trials accounting for 8.7% (1196) of studies and meta-analysis for 1.4% (190) of studies. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to extract epidemiological study designs from a large-scale PubMed sample computationally. However, the number of trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis is relatively small - just 1 in 5 articles. Despite an increase over time in the total number of articles, study design details in the abstracts were missing. Epidemiological criminology still lacks the experimental evidence needed to address the health needs of the marginalized and isolated population that is prisoners and offenders.

Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Mineração de Dados , Projetos de Pesquisa
Forensic Sci Int ; 357: 111991, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513529


Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the form of impregnated papers delivered to prisoners are of particular concern in prison settings, where they are commonly used by vaping. The purpose of this study was to create a qualitative method for identifying the various emerging NPS impregnated onto paper samples sent to prisoners. It helps to demonstrate that these findings can be used to predict drug prevalence and trends in prisons. Between 2018 and 2020, 1250 non-judicial paper samples seized from 12 English prisons were analysed to determine the NPSs being circulated. Approximately 1 cm2 paper were cut and added to 50 % (v/v) methanol in LCMS-grade water. Vortex-mixing was used to prepare extracts (30 min). Q-TOF LC/MS was used to screen the extracts. This study showed that synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) was the most common drug group detected in impregnated paper seizures in English prisons between 2018 and 2020, followed by cocaine, heroin type drugs (A) and amphetamine, ketamine type drugs (B). Male prisons had a higher prevalence of SCRAs, whereas female prisons had a higher prevalence of A drugs. Furthermore, lower security prisons were found to have a higher prevalence of B drugs, pregabalin, gabapentin type drugs (C), and abused and prescription drugs than higher security prisons which unveiled a higher prevalence of nicotine. The findings of this study have revealed new information about drug use in prisons. This study will also aid in the identification of drug smuggling routes into jails, keeping prison staff up to date with the trends.

Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Gabapentina