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1.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408424

RESUMO

Las plaquetas son fragmentos citoplasmáticos anucleados derivados de los megacariocitos que presentan función central, tanto en procesos fisiológicos como la hemostasia, así como también en procesos patológicos como la inflamación, la ateroesclerosis. El tamaño de las plaquetas, medido como volumen medio de plaquetas, es un marcador de reactividad plaquetaria, que proporciona información importante sobre el curso y pronóstico de una variedad de afecciones inflamatorias. El estudio de este marcador se ha utilizado como pronóstico en enfermedades cardiovasculares, preeclampsia y en la púrpura trombocitopénica. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los conceptos actuales basados en la evidencia científica relacionados con el volumen plaquetario medio e insistir en su evaluación y significado en la práctica clínica cotidiana(AU)


Platelets are enucleated cytoplasmic fragments derived from megakaryocytes, which have a central function, both in physiological processes such as hemostasis, as well as in pathological processes such as inflammation, atherosclerosis. Platelet size, measured as mean volume of platelets, is a marker of platelet reactivity, providing important information on the course and prognosis of a variety of inflammatory conditions. The study of this marker has been used as a prognostic in cardiovascular diseases, preeclampsia and in thrombocytopenic purpura. The objective of this paper is to review the current concepts based on scientific evidence related to the mean platelet volume and to insist on its evaluation and meaning in daily clinical practice(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Púrpura Trombocitopênica/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aterosclerose , Volume Plaquetário Médio/métodos , Processos Patológicos
2.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(2): 104-110, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357255

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Las fracturas por fragilidad son una complicación frecuente de la osteoporosis y generan alto impacto en la calidad de vida del adulto mayor. Las fracturas de cuello femoral, radio distal, húmero proximal y vértebras toracolumbares, en el contexto de un traumatismo menor, se consideran fracturas por fragilidad. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo en personas mayores de 50 arios con fracturas por fragilidad atendidas en un hospital del departamento de Boyacá. Metodología: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal. Se incluyeron 242 pacientes que presentaron fracturas por fragilidad con diagnóstico confirmado por estudio imagenológico. Resultados: El 62,8% de la población fue femenina. La edad condiciona un aumento del número de fracturas de fémur. El 10,7% de la población tenía un antecedente de fractura, con un aumento de la prevalencia a mayor edad. La fractura de radio distal fue la más frecuente en el 36,8% de la población. Cerca del 40% de los pacientes eran hipertensos y el 7,9% tenía diabetes, en tanto que el 9,7% eran consumidores crónicos de inhibidores de la bomba de protones. El 2,4% consumía glucocorticoides previamente al evento. Conclusiones: El comportamiento poblacional de las fracturas por fragilidad en nuestra ins titución es similar al de otros lugares, tanto a escala nacional como internacional. Por tanto, es importante empezar a crear conciencia sobre la prevención secundaria de la osteoporo sis, con el fin de disminuir las complicaciones, mejorar los desenlaces y disminuir los gastos que consigo trae.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Fragility fractures are a frequent complication of osteoporosis and lead to increased morbidity and mortality, as well as decreasing quality of life of the elderly popu lation, and represents high costs for health care systems. After minor trauma, fractures of the femoral neck, distal radius, proximal humerus, and thoraco-lumbar vertebrae are associated with osteoporosis, and are considered fragility fractures. Objective: To identify the prevalence of risk factors in people over 50 years of age with fragility fractures treated at a third level hospital in the department of Boyacá, Colombia. Methodology: Observational, descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. An evaluation was made on 242 patients between 50 and 100 years of age with any of the previously mentioned 4 fragility fractures. Fracture diagnosis had to be confirmed by plain radiography or computed tomography. Results: The majority (62.8%) of the study population was female. Age was associated with an increase in the number of femur fractures. A history of previous fractures was observed in 10.7% of the cases, with prevalence increasing with age. Distal radius fracture was the most frequent in 36.8% of the population. About 40% of the patients had hypertension and 7.9% were diabetic. Chronic use of proton pump inhibitors was observed in 9.7%, and 2.4% consumed glucocorticoids prior to the event. Conclusions: The behaviour of fragility fractures of the population in our institution is simi lar to that of other places, both nationally and internationally. It is therefore important to start raising awareness about secondary prevention of osteoporosis, in order to reduce complications, improve outcomes, and reduce associated costs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condições Patológicas, Sinais e Sintomas , Ferimentos e Lesões , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Osteoporose , Processos Patológicos , Doenças Ósseas , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fragilidade
3.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(2): 111-117, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357256

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Accumulating evidence indicates that the miR-30 family takes part in the development of multiple tissues and organs, and is a potential contributor to various dis eases, including autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of miR-30e-5p, a member of the miR-30 fam ily, and investigate its potential relationship to clinical characteristics and possible disease activity in an Egyptian SLE cohort. Methods: Serum samples from 40 SLE patients and 37 age and gender matched healthy sub jects were tested for miR-30e-5p expression level using the Taqman quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Analysis was performed using the 2 - AACT method. Results: The mean age of the patients was 28.7 ± 7.9 years, with a mean disease duration of 6.4 ±5.3 years. The median fold change in serum miR-30e-5p among our SLE cohort was significantly higher 1.748 (0.223-20.485) compared to the control group 0.877 (0.058-3.522) (P = 0.02). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that miR-30e-5p expres sion level can discriminate SLE patients from controls at a cut-off value >1.06 with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.676 (95% CI: 0.559-0.794, P = 0.02), with 64.3% sensitivity and 61.5% specificity. There was no correlation between any of the demographic features, clinical manifestations (apart from serositis, P = 0.013) or disease activity and miR-30e-5p levels. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated elevated miR-30e-5p expression levels in serum sam ples of SLE patients. Apart from serositis, it was not associated with any other disease characteristics.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: Los microARN (miRNA) son ARN no codificantes que regulan la expresión de los genes después de la transcripción. Las pruebas acumuladas indican que la familia de miR-30 participa en el desarrollo de múltiples tejidos y órganos, y es un posible contribuyente a diversas enfermedades, incluidos los trastornos autoinmunes como el lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la expresión del miR-30e-5p, un miembro de la familia miR-30, e investigar su posible relación con las características clínicas y la posible actividad de la enfermedad en una cohorte egipcia de LES. Métodos: Se analizaron muestras de suero de 40 pacientes con LES y 37 sujetos sanos de edad y sexo similares para determinar el nivel de expresión de miR-30e-5p, utilizando la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcripción inversa cuantitativa Taqman. El análisis se llevó a cabo empleando el método 2-AACT. Los resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 28,7 ± 7,9 años, mientras que la duración media de la enfermedad fue de 6,4 ± 5,3 años. La mediana del cambio de pliegue del suero miR-30e-5p entre nuestra cohorte de LES fue significativamente mayor, 1,748 (0,223-20,485), en comparación con el grupo de control, 0,877 (0,058-3,522) (p = 0,02). El análisis de la curva característica de funcionamiento del receptor reveló que el nivel de expresión del miR-30e-5p puede discriminar a los pacientes con LES de los controles en un valor de corte > 1,06, con el área bajo la curva (AUC) = 0,676 (IC del 95%: 0,559-0,794; p = 0,02), una sensibilidad del 64,3% y una especificidad del 61,5%. No hubo asociación entre ninguna de las características demográficas, manifestaciones clínicas (aparte de la serositis, p = 0,013) o actividad de la enfermedad y los niveles de miR-30e-5p. Conclusión: Nuestro estudio demostró niveles elevados de expresión de miR-30e-5p en mues tras de suero de pacientes con LES. Aparte de la serositis, no se asoció con ninguna otra característica de la enfermedad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças da Pele e do Tecido Conjuntivo , Ácidos Nucleicos, Nucleotídeos e Nucleosídeos , Processos Patológicos , Serosite , Condições Patológicas, Sinais e Sintomas , Elementos Antissenso (Genética) , RNA Antissenso , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , MicroRNAs , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico
4.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(1): 50-55, abr. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354537

RESUMO

Introdução: A Síndrome de Singleton-Merten (SMS) é uma doença autossômica dominante hereditária rara caracterizada por alterações cardiovasculares, ósseas e dentais, pouco discutida na literatura em relação ao tratamento odontológico. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar o caso de uma paciente com SMS, descrevendo seus aspectos bucais e o plano de tratamento proposto, em conjunto com uma equipe multiprofissional. Relato do caso: Durante a anamnese constatou-se que o paciente apresentava alterações cutâneas decorrentes da síndrome. Os exames clínico, radiográfico e tomográfico revelaram maxila e mandíbula parcialmente edêntulas, ampla reabsorção do osso maxilar, além da maioria dos dentes permanentes incluídos e com raízes curtas. O plano de tratamento multidisciplinar incluiu a extração de dentes com formação radicular deficiente, tração ortodôntica dos caninos superiores incluídos e a confecção de próteses parciais superiores e inferiores removíveis, para reabilitação das funções mastigatória, fonética e estética. Conclusão: É importante ressaltar que durante o atendimento odontológico de pacientes com SMS, deve-se considerar o estado geral de saúde anterior, principalmente em relação às possíveis complicações cardiovasculares existentes, e a necessidade de reabilitação destes pacientes, por apresentarem perda dentária extensa.


Intoduction: Singleton-Merten Syndrome (SMS) is a rare in herited autosomaldominant disorder. Characterized by cardiovascular, bone and dental alterations, little discussed in the literature regarding dental treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the case of a patient with SMS, describing her oral aspects and the proposed treatment plan, together with a multidisciplinary team. Case report: During the anamnesis it was found that the patient has alterations due to the syndrome. Clinical, radiographic and tomographic examinations revealed partially edentulous maxilla and mandible, wide resorption of maxillary bone, in addition to most of the permanent teeth included and with short roots. The multidisciplinary treatment plan included the extraction of teeth with deficient root formation, orthodontic traction of the included upper canines and the making of removable upper and lower partial dentures, for rehabilitation of masticatory, phonetic and aesthetic functions. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize that during dental care of patients with SMS, the previous general state of health should be considered, especially in relation to possible existing cardiovascular complications, and the need for rehabilitation of these patients, since they will present extensive tooth loss.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Manifestações Bucais , Processos Patológicos , Síndrome , Assistência Odontológica
5.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 19(3): 30-34, jul.-set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | BBO - Odontologia, LILACS | ID: biblio-1253806

RESUMO

Introdução: A comunicação oroantral tem como principais causas etiológicas os processos patológicos, traumatismos e cirurgias, sendo comum sua ocorrência durante exodontias de elementos dentários superiores posteriores devido ao íntimo contato dos ápices radiculares com o assoalho do seio maxilar. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, com 51 anos de idade, apresentando comunicação oroantral há 6 anos após exodontia do elemento dental 16. Realizado fechamento da comunicação oroantral sob anestesia local, com tracionamento e sutura da bola de Bichat sobre a falha óssea. Após um ano de proservação, observamos a ausência de comunicação bucosinusal bem como de sintomatologia, resultando no sucesso do tratamento. Considerações Finais: A utilização do retalho pediculado do corpo adiposo bucal é uma alternativa útil para o fechamento e tratamento de comunicações bucosinusais, sendo que o deslizamento da bola de Bichat é um método seguro para fechamento de tais comunicações e que esta é uma técnica de simples execução, com poucas complicações e limitações... (AU)


Introduction: The oroantral communication has as main etiological causes the pathological processes, traumatisms and surgeries. Its occurrence during the exodontia of posterior superior dental elements is due to the intimate contact of the root apices with the floor of the maxillary sinus. Case report: A 51-year-old female patient, presenting oroantral communication 6 years ago after the dental element 16 was extubated. The oroantral communication was closed under local anesthesia with Bichat's ball traction and suture on the bone defect. After 1 year of proservation, we observed the absence of oral communication, as well as symptomatology, resulting in the success of the treatment. Final considerations: It is concluded that the use of the pedicle flap of the buccal adipose body is a useful alternative for the closure and treatment of buco sinusal communications, and the sliding of the bichat ball is a safe method for closing such communications and that this is a technique of simple execution, with few complications and limitations... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Bucal , Corpo Adiposo , Sinusite Maxilar , Fístula Bucoantral , Seio Maxilar , Processos Patológicos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Suturas , Ferimentos e Lesões , Anestesia Local
6.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-759715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a pivotal role in the balance of cellular energy metabolism. Recent studies have reported that AMPK has numerous roles in physiological conditions, and dysregulation of AMPK induces pathological processes and diseases. However, the role of AMPK and its activators have not yet been studied in the context of hair growth regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of metformin on dermal papilla (DP) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells, as well as the role of the AMPK pathway in hair growth. METHODS: We evaluated whether metformin, a well-known AMPK activator, had any beneficial effects on hair growth. In addition, to evaluate the molecular and cellular mechanisms that were involved, protein levels of AMPK and β-catenin were analyzed. RESULTS: Metformin increased the cellular proliferation of human DP and ORS cells. Ki-67 expression was also significantly increased after metformin treatment in the ex vivo hair follicle organ culture. Furthermore, DP and ORS cells treated with metformin had a significant increase in AMPK phosphorylation, which in turn suppressed β-catenin degradation and enhanced its nuclear accumulation. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that metformin promoted hair growth via the AMPK/β-catenin signaling pathway in vitro with DP and ORS cells. The hair-promoting effects of AMPK activators may potentially be used for the treatment of alopecia, and further investigation will be needed in the future.


Assuntos
Humanos , Alopecia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , beta Catenina , Proliferação de Células , Metabolismo Energético , Folículo Piloso , Cabelo , Técnicas In Vitro , Metformina , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Processos Patológicos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Quinases
7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 196-200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-763407

RESUMO

The pancreatoduodenal groove is a small area where pathologic processes involving the distal bile duct, duodenum, pancreatic head, ampulla of Vater, and retroperitoneum converge. Despite great advances in imaging techniques, a definitive preoperative diagnosis is challenging because of the complex anatomy of this area. Therefore, surgical intervention is frequently required because of the inability to completely exclude malignancy. We report 3 cases of patients with different groove pathologies but similar clinical and imaging presentation, and show the essential role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in making a specific preoperative diagnosis, excluding malignancy in the first case, changing diagnosis in the second case, and confirming malignancy in the third case. EUS was a fundamental tool in this cohort of patients, not only because of its ability to provide superior visualization of a difficult anatomical region, but because of the ability to guide precise, real-time procedures, such as fine-needle aspiration.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Ductos Biliares , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico , Duodeno , Cabeça , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Processos Patológicos , Patologia , Ultrassonografia
8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 140-146, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-739242

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. PURPOSE: Our objectives were to determine the association between the pathological changes of disc herniation and the interval between primary and revision surgeries and to investigate the frequency and site of the dural laceration in the primary and revision surgeries. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Among 382 patients who underwent microsurgical lumbar discectomy, we investigated 29 who underwent revision surgery to analyze recurrent herniation pathologies and complications to determine the manner in which lumbar disc herniation can be more efficiently managed. METHODS: Of 29 patients, 22 had recurrent disc herniation at the same level and site. The pathological changes associated with compression factors were classified into the following two types depending on intraoperative findings: (1) true recurrence and (2) minor recurrence with peridural fibrosis (>4 mm thickness). The sites of dural laceration were examined using video footage and operative records. RESULTS: The pathological findings and days between the primary and revision surgeries showed no statistical difference (p=0.14). Analysis of multiple factors, revealed no significant difference between the primary and revision surgery groups with regard to hospital days (p=0.23), blood loss (p=0.99), and operative time (p=0.67). Dural lacerations obviously increased in the revision surgery group (1.3% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.01) and were mainly located near the herniated disc in the primary surgery group and near the root shoulder in the revision surgery group, where severe fibrosis and adhesion were confirmed. To avoid dural laceration during revision surgery, meticulous decompressive manipulation must be performed around the root sleeve. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that meticulous epidural dissection around the scar formation must be performed during revision surgery to avoid complications.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cicatriz , Discotomia , Fibrose , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Lacerações , Duração da Cirurgia , Processos Patológicos , Patologia , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ombro
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 349-355, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-714676

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNAs that, unlike the better known canonical linear RNAs, form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5′ or 3′ polarities. With the development of high throughput sequencing technology, a large number of circRNAs have been discovered in many species. More importantly, growing evidence suggests that circRNAs are abundant, evolutionally conserved, and relatively stable in cells and tissues. Strikingly, recent studies have discovered that circRNAs can serve as microRNA sponges, interact with RNA-binding protein, and regulate gene transcription, as well as protein translation. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic degenerative joint disease. CircRNAs are differentially expressed in OA cartilage. Moreover, some circRNAs are involved in multiple pathological processes during OA, mainly extracellular matrix degradation, inflammation, and apoptosis. In this review, we briefly delineate the biogenesis, characteristics, and biofunctions of circRNAs, and then, focus on the role of circRNAs in the occurrence and progression OA.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cartilagem , Cartilagem Articular , Matriz Extracelular , Inflamação , Artropatias , MicroRNAs , Osteoartrite , Processos Patológicos , Poríferos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA , RNA não Traduzido , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 514-519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-714471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes that has a lifetime prevalence of 0.4–5.5%. The neurochemical mechanism of BD is not fully understood. Oxidative stress in neurons causes lipid peroxidation in proteins associated with neuronal membranes and intracellular enzymes and it may lead to dysfunction in neurotransmitter reuptake and enzyme activities. These pathological processes are thought to occur in brain regions associated with affective functions and emotions in BD. The relationship between the number of manic episodes and total oxidant-antioxidant capacity was investigated in this study. METHODS: Eighty-two BD patients hospitalized due to manic symptoms and with no episodes of depression were enrolled in the study. Thirty of the 82 patients had had their first episode of mania, and the other 52 patients had had two or more manic episodes. The control group included 45 socio-demographically matched healthy individuals. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant capacity (TOC) measurements of the participants were performed. The oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by TOC/TAC. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in OSI scores between BD patients with first-episode mania and BD patients with more than one manic episode. However, OSI scores in both groups were significantly higher than in the control group. TOC levels of BD patients with first-episode mania were found to be significantly higher than TOC levels of BD patients with more than one manic episode and healthy controls. There were no significant differences in TAC levels between BD patients with first-episode mania and BD patients with more than one manic episode. TAC levels in both groups were significantly higher than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Significant changes in oxidative stress indicators were observed in this study, confirming previous studies. Increased levels of oxidants were shown with increased disease severity rather than with the number of manic episodes. Systematic studies, including of each period of the disorder, are needed for using the findings indicating deterioration of oxidative parameters.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar , Encéfalo , Depressão , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Membranas , Transtornos do Humor , Neurônios , Neurotransmissores , Oxidantes , Estresse Oxidativo , Processos Patológicos , Prevalência
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-714067

RESUMO

Since neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) were introduced to the surgical field, they have become almost mandatory for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. However, resistance to NMBAs can develop in certain pathological states, such as central nerve injury, burns, and critical illnesses. During such pathological processes, quantitative and qualitative changes occur in the physiology of acetylcholine and the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. Up-regulation of AChR leads to changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of NMBA. As NMBA resistance may result in problems during anesthesia, it is of utmost importance to understand the mechanisms of NMBA resistance and their associations with pathological status to maintain adequate neuromuscular relaxation. This review presents the current knowledge of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes and pathological status associated with NMBA resistance.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina , Anestesia , Queimaduras , Estado Terminal , Resistência a Medicamentos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares , Junção Neuromuscular , Processos Patológicos , Farmacocinética , Fisiologia , Receptores Colinérgicos , Relaxamento , Regulação para Cima
12.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-728630

RESUMO

Exosomes are membranous vesicles of 30-150 nm in diameter that are derived from the exocytosis of the intraluminal vesicles of many cell types including immune cells, stem cells, cardiovascular cells and tumor cells. Exosomes participate in intercellular communication by delivering their contents to recipient cells, with or without direct contact between cells, and thereby influence physiological and pathological processes. They are present in various body fluids and contain proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and microRNAs that can be transported to surrounding cells. Theragnosis is a concept in next-generation medicine that simultaneously combines accurate diagnostics with therapeutic effects. Molecular components in exosomes have been found to be related to certain diseases and treatment responses, indicating that they may have applications in diagnosis via molecular imaging and biomarker detection. In addition, recent studies have reported that exosomes have immunotherapeutic applications or can act as a drug delivery system for targeted therapies with drugs and biomolecules. In this review, we describe the formation, structure, and physiological roles of exosomes. We also discuss their roles in the pathogenesis and progression of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The potential applications of exosomes for theragnostic purposes in various diseases are also discussed. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the physiological and pathological roles of exosomes as well as their diagnostic and therapeutic uses, including emerging exosome-based therapies that could not be applied until now.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diagnóstico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Exocitose , Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Imagem Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Ácidos Nucleicos , Processos Patológicos , Células-Tronco , Usos Terapêuticos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-728615

RESUMO

Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers (NHEs) have been shown to be involved in regulating cell volume and maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Pooled evidences have suggested that loss of Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8) impairs intestinal mucosa. Whether NHE8 participates in the pathology of infectious colitis is still unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that somatostatin (SST) could stimulate the expression of intestinal NHE8 so as to facilitate Na⁺ absorption under normal condition. This study further explored whether NHE8 participates in the pathological processes of infectious colitis and the effects of SST on intestinal NHE8 expression in the setting of infectious colitis. Our data showed that NHE8 expression was reduced in Citrobacter rodentium (CR) infected mice. Up-regulation of NHE8 improved diarrhea symptom and mucosal damage induced by CR. In vitro, a similar observation was also seen in Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infected Caco-2 cells. Seglitide, a SST receptor (SSTR) 2 agonist, partly reversed the inhibiting action of EPEC on NHE8 expression, but SSTR5 agonist (L-817,818) had no effect on the expression of NHE8. Moreover, SST blocked the phosphorylation of p38 in EPEC-infected Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that enhancement of intestinal NHE8 expression by SST could ameliorate the symptoms of mice with infectious colitis.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Absorção , Anti-Inflamatórios , Células CACO-2 , Tamanho Celular , Citrobacter rodentium , Colite , Diarreia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica , Homeostase , Técnicas In Vitro , Mucosa Intestinal , Processos Patológicos , Patologia , Fosforilação , Somatostatina , Regulação para Cima
14.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-717961

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) mediates various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Protein S-nitrosylation (SNO), a NO-mediated reversible protein modification, leads to changes in the activity and function of target proteins. Recent findings on protein-protein transnitrosylation reactions (transfer of an NO group from one protein to another) have unveiled the mechanism of NO modulation of specific signaling pathways. The intracellular level of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major reactive NO species, is controlled by GSNO reductase (GSNOR), a major regulator of NO/SNO signaling. Increasing number of GSNOR-related studies have shown the important role that denitrosylation plays in cellular NO/SNO homeostasis and human pathophysiology. This review introduces recent evidence of GSNO-mediated NO/SNO signaling depending on GSNOR expression or activity. In addition, the applicability of GSNOR as a target for drug therapy will be discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Humanos , Proliferação de Células , Tratamento Farmacológico , Homeostase , Inflamação , Óxido Nítrico , Oxirredutases , Processos Patológicos , S-Nitrosoglutationa
15.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 24(4): 247-250, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-960236

RESUMO

Abstract C1q nephropathy was first described in 1985 as a process of glomerulonephritis with mesangial C1q deposit. The histology is similar to lupus nephritis, and was initially described as being seronegative renal lupus. However, these two entities are now considered different pathological processes. Its association with rheumatoid arthritis is unusual, and there are no cases with a similar presentation reported in the literature. In this article, the case is presented of a man who developed both these conditions.


Resumen La nefropatía C1q, se describió por primera vez en 1985, como un proceso de glomerulonefritis con depósito mesangial de C1q, histológicamente similar a la nefritis lúpica, siendo inicialmente descrita como lupus renal seronegativo, sin embargo, estas dos entidades se consideran actualmente como procesos patológicos diferentes. Su asociación con artritis reumatoide es inusual y la literatura no reporta casos con presentación similar. A continuación, presentamos el caso de un hombre que desarrolla estas dos entidades.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide , Nefropatias , Processos Patológicos , Associação , Células Mesangiais , Glomerulonefrite , Histologia
16.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Quito) ; 42(1): 46-55, jun.2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005064

RESUMO

Objetivo: determinar si la saturación venosa central de oxigeno inicial (SvCO2) anormal (alta o baja) es un factor predictor de mortalidad en los pacientes con choque séptico que ingresan al área critica de emergencia del hospital "Carlos Andrade Marín". Diseño y lugar: estudio analítico, observacional, prospectivo sobre una cohorte de pacientes que ingresaron al área crítica de emergencia de este hospital. Pacientes: 107 sujetos ingresaron en los meses de junio a septiembre del 2015, con seguimiento para la mortalidad a 28 días. Medidas y resultados: se midió la SvcO2 inicial a través de un catéter venoso central al momento del diagnóstico de choque. La mortalidad a los 28 días fue de 46,2%. Solo los valores de APACHE II (OR:1,11; IC: 1,04 a 1,19 p=< 0,01); la asistencia ventilatoria mecánica (OR:0,19; IC: 0,05 a 0,62, p=<0,01) tuvieron un valor estadístico significativo en regresión logística. APACHE II fue el factor individual más importante, en el modelo CART, el pH arterial y procalcitonina fueron útiles. Conclusiones: la saturación venosa central de O2 inicial (SvcO2) anormal alta o baja no mostró tener utilidad para predecir mortalidad a los 28 días. La medición de la SvcO2 es un método simple que refleja de manera indirecta la oxigenación tisular. El APACHE II es un predictor independiente de mortalidad a 28 días y la ventilación mecánica tuvo una relación inversa con la mortalidad. (AU)


Objective: to determine the central venous saturation of abnormal initial oxygen (SvCO2) (high or low) as a predictor of mortality in patients with septic shock admitted to the emergency area of Carlos Andrade Marín Hospital. Design and location: this is an analytical, observational, prospective study on a cohort of patients admitted to the critical area of emergency of this health unit. Subjects: 107 patients admitted in the months of June to September 2015, with a mortality follow-up of 28-day. Measurements and results: initial SvcO2 was measured by central venous catheter at the time of shock diagnosis. Mortality at 28 days was 46.2%. Only APACHE II values (OR 1.11, CI 1.04-1.19 p = <0.01) and mechanical ventilation (OR 0.19, CI 0.05-0.62, p = 0.01) had significant statistical value in the logistic regression. APACHE II was the most important single factor, in the CART model arterial pH and procalcitonin were useful. Conclusion: Central venous saturation of abnormal or high initial O2 (SvcO2) was not found to be useful in predicting mortality at 28 days of follow-up. Measurement of SvcO2 is a simple method that indirectly reflects tissue oxygenation. The APACHE II is an independent predictor of mortality at 28 days and the use of mechanical ventilation had an inverse relationship with mortality. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Choque Séptico , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Sanguíneos , Sistemas Sanguíneo e Imunológico , Processos Patológicos , Condições Patológicas, Sinais e Sintomas , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
17.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-725019

RESUMO

The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is a tool used to detect concentrations of brain metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine, glutamate, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). It has been widely used because it does not require additional devices other than the conventional magnetic resonance scanner and coils. Demyelination, or the neuronal damage due to loss of myelin sheath, is one of the common pathologic processes in many diseases including multiple sclerosis, leukodystrophy, encephalomyelitis, and other forms of autoimmune diseases. Rodent models mimicking human demyelinating diseases have been induced by using virus (e.g., Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus) or toxins (e.g., cuprizon or lysophosphatidyl choline). This review is an overview of the MRS findings on brain metabolites in demyelination with a specific focus on rodent models.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Ácido Aspártico , Doenças Autoimunes , Encéfalo , Ácido Butírico , Colina , Creatina , Doenças Desmielinizantes , Encefalomielite , Ácido Glutâmico , Modelos Animais , Esclerose Múltipla , Bainha de Mielina , Neurônios , Processos Patológicos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Roedores , Análise Espectral
18.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-161485

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of autoimmune disease that predominantly affects the spine and sacroiliac joints. However, the pathogenesis of AS remains unclear. Some evidence indicates that infection with bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria, may have an important role in the onset and progression of AS. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases. We previously demonstrated that MSCs from AS patients exhibited markedly enhanced osteogenic differentiation capacity in vitro under non-inflammatory conditions. However, the properties of MSCs from AS patients in an inflammatory environment have never been explored. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a proinflammatory substance derived from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, can alter the status and function of MSCs. However, whether MSCs from AS patients exhibit abnormal responses to LPS stimulation has not been reported. Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated catabolic process that participates in many physiological and pathological processes. The link between autophagy and AS remains largely unknown. The level of autophagy in ASMSCs after LPS stimulation remains to be addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that although the basal level of autophagy did not differ between MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs) and ASMSCs, LPS-induced autophagy was weaker in ASMSCs than in HDMSCs. Specifically, increased TRAF4 expression in ASMSCs impaired LPS-induced autophagy, potentially by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Beclin-1. These data may provide further insight into ASMSC dysfunction and the precise mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of AS.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Autoimunes , Autofagia , Bactérias , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Técnicas In Vitro , Membranas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Processos Patológicos , Fosforilação , Doenças Reumáticas , Articulação Sacroilíaca , Coluna Vertebral , Espondilite Anquilosante , Doadores de Tecidos , Fator 4 Associado a Receptor de TNF
19.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-727975

RESUMO

Vascular reactivity can be influenced by the vascular region, animal age, and pathologies present. Prostaglandins (produced by COX-1 and COX-2) play an important role in the contractile response to phenylephrine in the abdominal aorta of young rats. Although these COXs are found in many tissues, their distribution and role in vascular reactivity are not clear. At a vascular level, they take part in the homeostasis functions involved in many physiological and pathologic processes (e.g., arterial pressure and inflammatory processes). The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the contractile response to phenylephrine of thoracic/abdominal aorta and the coronary artery during aging in rats. Three groups of rats were formed and sacrificed at three distinct ages: prepubescent, young and old adult. The results suggest that there is a higher participation of prostanoids in the contractile effect of phenylephrine in pre-pubescent rats, and a lower participation of the same in old rats. Contrarily, there seems to be a higher participation of prostanoids in the contractile response of the coronary artery of older than pre-pubescent rats. Considering that the changes in the expression of COX-2 were similar for the three age groups and the two tissues tested, and that expression of COX-1 is apparently greater in older rats, COX-1 and COX-2 may lose functionality in relation to their corresponding receptors during aging in rats.


Assuntos
Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Envelhecimento , Aorta , Aorta Abdominal , Pressão Arterial , Vasos Coronários , Coração , Homeostase , Processos Patológicos , Patologia , Fenilefrina , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases , Prostaglandinas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-85457

RESUMO

Malignant progression is greatly affected by dynamic cross-talk between stromal and cancer cells. Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that have key roles in cell–cell communication by transferring nucleic acids and proteins to target cells and tissues. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRs) and their delivery in exosomes have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Tumor-delivered miRs, interacting with stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment, modulate tumor progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune escape. Altered cell metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. A number of different types of tumor rely on mitochondrial metabolism by triggering adaptive mechanisms to optimize their oxidative phosphorylation in relation to their substrate supply and energy demands. Exogenous exosomes can induce metabolic reprogramming by restoring the respiration of cancer cells and supress tumor growth. The exosomal miRs involved in the modulation of cancer metabolism may be potentially utilized for better diagnostics and therapy.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Metabolismo , MicroRNAs , Metástase Neoplásica , Ácidos Nucleicos , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Processos Patológicos , Respiração , Células Estromais , Microambiente Tumoral , Nações Unidas
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