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1.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 123(8): 1599-1625, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36917254

RESUMO

Respiratory function has become a global health priority. Not only is chronic respiratory disease a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, but the COVID-19 pandemic has heightened attention on respiratory health and the means of enhancing it. Subsequently, and inevitably, the respiratory system has become a target of the multi-trillion-dollar health and wellness industry. Numerous commercial, respiratory-related interventions are now coupled to therapeutic and/or ergogenic claims that vary in their plausibility: from the reasonable to the absurd. Moreover, legitimate and illegitimate claims are often conflated in a wellness space that lacks regulation. The abundance of interventions, the range of potential therapeutic targets in the respiratory system, and the wealth of research that varies in quality, all confound the ability for health and exercise professionals to make informed risk-to-benefit assessments with their patients and clients. This review focuses on numerous commercial interventions that purport to improve respiratory health, including nasal dilators, nasal breathing, and systematized breathing interventions (such as pursed-lips breathing), respiratory muscle training, canned oxygen, nutritional supplements, and inhaled L-menthol. For each intervention we describe the premise, examine the plausibility, and systematically contrast commercial claims against the published literature. The overarching aim is to assist health and exercise professionals to distinguish science from pseudoscience and make pragmatic and safe risk-to-benefit decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pandemias , Pseudociência , Exercícios Respiratórios
2.
Sports Med ; 53(1): 1-5, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687251

RESUMO

The global health and wellness industry has an estimated value of US$4 trillion. Profits derive from heath club memberships, exercise classes, diets, supplements, alternative 'therapies', and thousands of other products and services that are purported to improve health, recovery, and/or sports performance. The industry has expanded at an alarming rate, far outstripping the capacity of federal bodies to regulate the market and protect consumer interests. As a result, many products are sold on baseless or exaggerated claims, feigned scientific legitimacy, and questionable evidence of safety and efficacy. This article is a consciousness raiser. Herein, the implications of the mismatch between extraordinary health and performance claims and the unextraordinary scientific evidence are discussed. Specifically, we explore how pseudoscience and so-called 'quick fix' interventions undermine initiatives aimed at evoking long-term behavior change, impede the ongoing pursuit of sports performance, and lead to serious downstream consequences for clinical practice. Moreover, pseudoscience in health and wellness, if left unchecked and unchallenged, may have profound implications for the reputation of exercise science as a discipline. This is a call to action to unify exercise scientists around the world to more proactively challenge baseless claims and pseudoscience in the commercial health and wellness industry. Furthermore, we must shoulder the burden of ensuring that the next generation of exercise scientists are sufficiently skilled to distinguish science from pseudoscience, and information from mis- and disinformation. Better population health, sports performance, and the very reputation of the discipline may depend on it.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Pseudociência , Humanos , Exercício Físico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(42): 62887-62912, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836045

RESUMO

As of now, the COVID-19 pandemic has become uncontrolled and is spreading widely throughout the world. Additionally, new variants of the mutated viral variants have been found in some countries that are more dangerous than the original strain. Even vaccines cannot produce complete protective immunity against the newer strains of SARS-CoV-2. Due to such a dreadful situation, lots of fear and depression have been created among the public. People are looking for the treatment of the disease at any cost and there is a race in the market to provide treatment and make money, whether it is effective or not! In such a condition, many fraud products, remedies, and myths have come into the market, which is falsely claimed to be effective for the disease and can harm the patients. Hence, FDA has banned such products and remedies. In this review, we have compiled all such fraudulent and pseudosciences identified for COVID-19. Currently, in the pandemic time, health agencies are approving the repurposed medicines based on the small-scale clinical data for emergency uses that become ineffective (most of the cases) after large randomized clinical studies. Proper vigilance strategies need to be defined by the regulatory agencies of the nation and routine awareness programs shall be arranged for educating the people and healthcare workers on routine updates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pseudociência , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Genetics ; 219(4)2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739057

RESUMO

Genetics in the Soviet Union (USSR) achieved state-of-the-art results and had reached a peak of development by the mid-1930s due to the efforts of the scientific schools of several major figures, including Sergei Navashin, Nikolai Koltsov, Grigorii Levitsky, Yuri Filipchenko, Nikolai Vavilov, and Solomon Levit. Unfortunately, the Soviet government distrusted intellectually independent science and this led to state support for a fraudulent pseudoscientific concept widely known as Lysenkoism, which hugely damaged biology as a whole. Decades of dominance of the Lysenkoism had ruinous effects and the revival of biology in the USSR in the late 1950s-early 1960s was very difficult. In fact, this was realized to be a problem for Soviet science as a whole, and many mathematicians, physicists, chemists, and other scientists made efforts to rehabilitate genetics and to transfer biology to the "jurisdiction" of science from that of politics. The key events in the history of these attempts to pushback against state interference in science, and to promote the development of genetics and molecular biology, are described in this paper. These efforts included supportive letters to the authorities (e.g., the famous "Letter of three hundred"), (re)publishing articles and giving lectures on "forbidden" science, and organizing laboratories and departments for research in genetics and molecular biology under the cover of nuclear physics or of other projects respected by the government and Communist party leaders. The result was that major figures in the hard sciences played a major part in the revival of genetics and biology in the USSR.


Assuntos
Comunismo/história , Genética/história , Pseudociência , Política Pública , História do Século XX , Humanos , Política , Política Pública/história , U.R.S.S.
7.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(9): E721-738, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710033

RESUMO

The images in the American Medical Association's Historic Health Fraud and Alternative Medicine Collection include quack devices from the early 20th century, which gave rise to regulatory and professional oversight.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Pseudociência , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
São Paulo; Papirus 7 Mares; 20 ago. 2021. 192 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443082

RESUMO

O que leva alguém a negar fatos e evidências científicas? Que crenças e interesses orientam os negacionistas, levando-os a disseminar ideias sem nenhum compromisso com a realidade? Nesse livro, a microbiologista Natalia Pasternak e o jornalista Carlos Orsi fazem uma análise minuciosa e independente das principais teorias negacionistas, mostrando como todas podem ser facilmente refutadas com sólidos argumentos científicos. Em tempos obscuros, a obra oferece um norte ao leitor, para que não caia em armadilhas subjetivas, e prova que ciência não é questão de opinião. "Este livro vai interessar a todos os que se preocupam com a negação à ciência, fenômeno que os autores descrevem da Antiguidade às ideias de Galileu Galilei e Charles Darwin, à transgenia, ao aquecimento global, às vacinas e até a fatos históricos como o Holocausto. Espero que seja adotado nas escolas e universidades, é uma aula sobre os princípios que regem o pensamento científico." (Drauzio Varella)


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Movimento contra Vacinação , Pseudociência , Desinformação
12.
PLoS Biol ; 19(1): e3001068, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507935

RESUMO

The United States witnessed an unprecedented politicization of biomedical science starting in 2015 that has exploded into a complex, multimodal anti-science empire operating through mass media, political elections, legislation, and even health systems. Anti-science activities now pervade the daily lives of many Americans, and threaten to infect other parts of the world. We can attribute the deaths of tens of thousands of Americans from COVID-19, measles, and other vaccine-preventable diseases to anti-science. The acceleration of anti-science activities demands not only new responses and approaches but also international coordination. Vaccines and other biomedical advances will not be sufficient to halt COVID-19 or future potentially catastrophic illnesses, unless we simultaneously counter anti-science aggression.


Assuntos
Política , Pseudociência , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , U.R.S.S. , Estados Unidos
16.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(5): 321-333, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628068

RESUMO

Given the expansion of pseudoscience, there is a need to understand its mechanisms of diffusion. Our aim was to evaluate how pseudoscience operates among pharmacists. We performed 29 semi-structured interviews to assess the stance of pharmacists regarding pseudoscience. Interview data were analyzed qualitatively to seek common themes. Our results indicate that although pharmacists were broadly opposed to more extreme pseudoscientific practices, some attitudes were detected that may contribute to pseudoscience acceptance. We identified some of the processes by means of which pseudoscience boundaries with science are blurred: the minimization of risk, the hierarchy of health-related pseudoscientific therapies, inappropriate utilization of the notion of "innocuousness," and the use of the placebo effect as a justification for prescription. Discursive patterns typical of pseudoscientific argumentation were also recognized, such as contradictory arguments and the sequndum quid and ad antiquitatem fallacies, which, we conclude, may contribute to a greater acceptance of pseudoscience.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Pseudociência , Comunicação , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia
17.
Public Underst Sci ; 29(5): 459-472, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597365

RESUMO

Recent research has identified anti-vaccination propaganda in the so-called Russian Troll Tweets strongly associated with the 2016 US Presidential election. This study builds on this: hypothesising that if vaccination content was found in the sample, the Russia Tweets would be likely to contain other science content, and perhaps, similar pseudo or anti-science messages. As well as vaccination, climate change, genetically modified organisms, Ebola, flat Earth beliefs (flat Earthism) and Zika were found in the Russia tweets. Genetically modified organisms and flat Earthism appear to have been camouflage content - tweeted at similar rates to other Twitter users - while climate change, Ebola, Zika and vaccination appear to have been emphasised beyond the background rate for strategic disinformation purposes.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Mídias Sociais , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Desinformação , Humanos , Internet , Pseudociência
18.
Public Underst Sci ; 29(6): 597-613, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597367

RESUMO

Recent research highlights the implications of group dynamics in the acceptance and promotion of misconceptions, particularly in relation to the identity-protective attitudes that boost polarisation over scientific information. In this study, we successfully test a mediational model between right-wing authoritarianism and pseudoscientific beliefs. First, we carry out a comprehensive literature review on the socio-political background of pseudoscientific beliefs. Second, we conduct two studies (n = 1189 and n = 1097) to confirm our working hypotheses: H1 - intercorrelation between pseudoscientific beliefs, authoritarianism and three axioms (reward for application, religiosity and fate control); H2 - authoritarianism and social axioms fully explain rightists' proneness to pseudoscience; and H3 - the association between pseudoscience and authoritarianism is partially mediated by social axioms. Finally, we discuss our results in relation to their external validity regarding paranormal and conspiracy beliefs, as well as to their implications for group polarisation and science communication.


Assuntos
Política , Pseudociência , Atitude , Autoritarismo , Comunicação , Humanos
19.
São Paulo; Contexto; 09 mar. 2020. 160 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443076

RESUMO

O simples fato de vivermos no século XXI já nos faz beneficiários da ciência e dos seus frutos, mesmo que a gente não se dê conta dessa verdade. Os objetos que nos dão conforto, que nos dão prazer, que nos transportam, que nos emocionam, que nos informam (até este livro) só existem da forma como existem por conta dos conhecimentos científicos. O cidadão que ignora fatos científicos básicos pode se tornar presa fácil de curandeiros e charlatões, gente que mente para os outros e, não raro, para si mesma. A Coleção Cotidiano busca explicar temas complexos do nosso dia a dia de maneira dinâmica, sem perder a profundidade e relevância. Cada livro é escrito por especialistas em suas temáticas e conta com um moderno projeto gráfico


Assuntos
Humanos , Biologia/educação , Movimento contra Vacinação , Pseudociência , Desinformação
20.
BIS, Bol. Inst. Saúde (Impr.) ; 21(1): 105-109, 2020.
Artigo em Português | CONASS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISACERVO | ID: biblio-1353201

RESUMO

A difusão do conhecimento é muito importante, tanto entre os pares, no meio acadêmico-científico, como para a população, por meio da divulgação científica. O presente ensaio tem como objetivo discutir a importância do preparo de cientistas para a comunicação com seus pares acadêmicos e com a sociedade visto que hoje em dia os interesses mudaram e a postura exigida dos pesquisadores mudou também. Além disso, verifica-se a não valorização da ciência por parte da sociedade brasileira, e isso se mistura com a necessidade de se obter fundos para realizar estudos e a falta de mecanismos nacionais que permitam maior disseminação das pesquisas brasileiras. Uma divulgação científica malfeita ou sua escassez criam lacunas ocupadas por notícias falsas (fake news), teorias da conspiração ou a pseudociência. Todo cientista consciente de seupapel na sociedade merece que seu trabalho seja compreendido pelo maior número de pessoas, beneficiando a vida em comunidade e o uso sustentável dos recursos do planeta. A divulgação científica quando feita com dedicação e de forma deliberada auxilia também na criação de novas parcerias e o aporte de mais verbas para as pesquisas.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Pseudociência , Comunicação
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