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1.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(6): e14630, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847348

RESUMO

This study evaluated whether the treatment of pseudopregnancy in bitches with vitamin B6 modulates uterine expression of receptors for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ERα), androgen (AR), thyroid hormone (TRα) and the kisspeptin/Kiss1r system. Eighteen pseudopregnant bitches were treated for 20 days in groups receiving placebo (n = 6); cabergoline (5 µg/kg/day; n = 6); or vitamin B6 (50 mg/kg/day; n = 6). Blood was collected on the 1st day of drug administration and 120 h later to measure serum prolactin (PRL). After treatment, they were ovariohysterectomized and uterine fragments were collected for histomorphometry and immunohistochemical evaluation of PR, ERα, AR, TRα, Kiss1 and Kiss1r. After 120 h of cabergoline or vitamin B6 treatment, PRL levels were reduced in the bitches, confirming the antiprolactinemic effect of these drugs. Furthermore, regardless of treatment, the animals exhibited uterine histomorphometry consistent with dioestrus. The PR showed strong immunostaining in all regions and an increase in scores was observed for this receptor in animals treated with vitamin B6 in deep glands. In contrast, ERα and Kiss1R receptors showed weak to no immunostaining in all uterine regions and no changes between groups. Regarding AR, most animals treated with vitamin B6 showed increased trends in the deep gland and myometrium marking scores. In contrast, in both vitamin B6 and cabergoline treatments, a reduction in TRα marking scores was observed compared to the control group. In addition, on the endometrial surface, a reduction was observed in the marked area of Kiss1 after administration of cabergoline when compared to the pseudopregnant control group. These findings shed valuable insight into the use of vitamin B6 as a drug with actions similar to cabergoline in reducing PRL and uterine modulation in bitches.


Assuntos
Cabergolina , Kisspeptinas , Prolactina , Pseudogravidez , Útero , Animais , Feminino , Cães , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Cabergolina/farmacologia , Prolactina/metabolismo , Pseudogravidez/veterinária , Pseudogravidez/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Ergolinas/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0296414, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771805

RESUMO

Vasectomized mice play a key role in the production of transgenic mice. However, vasectomy can cause great physical and psychological suffering to mice. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a suitable replacement for vasectomized mice in the production of transgenic mice. In this study, we generated C57BL/6J mice (Piwil1 D633A-INS99, Piwil1mt/mt) with a 99-base insertion in the Miwi (Piwil1) gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and showed that Piwil1mt/+ heterozygous mice were normally fertile and that homozygous Piwil1mt/mt males were sterile and females were fertile. Transplantation of normal fertilized eggs into wild pseudopregnant females following mating with Piwil1mt/mt males produced no Piwil1mt/mt genotype offspring, and the number of offspring did not differ significantly from that of pseudopregnant mice following mating and breeding with ligated males. The CRISPR‒Cas9 system is available for generating Miwi-modified mice, and provides a powerful resource to replace ligated males in assisted reproduction research.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonautas , Pseudogravidez , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Argonautas/genética , Proteínas Argonautas/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pseudogravidez/genética
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(5): e14571, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698645

RESUMO

In this study, we examined whether the frequency of exogenous oestrogen treatment affects the induction of artificial lactation and milk production. Furthermore, we analysed changes in milk components obtained from artificially lactating sows. Pseudopregnant induced by treatment with 30 mg of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) on Day 10 (Day 0 = the last day of estrus) were divided into three groups: those administered 5 mg of EDP once on Day 39 (n = 5), twice on Days 32 and 39 (n = 5) and three times on Days 25, 32 and 39 (n = 6). All animals were treated with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on Day 46 for induced lactation. Artificial lactation was induced in 66.7%-80.0% of sows, and the EDP treatment frequency before PGF2α administration had no significant effect on either the induction rate of artificial lactation or the milk yield during the experimental period. The milk composition (levels of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, lactose and immunoglobulin) did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the number of EDP treatments prior to PGF2α administration had no effect on either the efficiency of artificial lactation induction or milk production.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Estradiol , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Lactação , Leite , Pseudogravidez , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Pseudogravidez/veterinária , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Gravidez
4.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 57(1): 89-94, 20240401.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554457

RESUMO

Introducción: Según el DSM-V, la pseudociesis se incluye en la categoría "otros síntomas somáticos específicos y trastornos relacionados" y se define como la falsa creencia de estar embarazada que se asocia con signos objetivos y síntomas de embarazo. La confirmación de la pseudociesis se consigue con un resultado negativo de la gonadotropina coriónica humana beta en la sangre y/o la orina asociado a un hallazgo ecográfico negativo. Materiales y métodos: se presenta el caso de mujer con síntomas y signos de embarazo que corresponden a pseudociesis, la paciente siguió creyendo que estaba embarazada debido a sus síntomas, a pesar de que las pruebas de embarazo dieron negativo. Conclusión: La pseudociesis es una enfermedad poco frecuente que a menudo se asocia a otras comorbilidades psiquiátricas y diagnósticos diferenciales poco claros. Es necesario la realización de más estudios, incluyendo series de casos y revisiones sistemáticas para comprender mejor esta infrecuente condición y sus otras variantes.


Introduction: According to the DSM-V, pseudocyesis is included in the category "other specific somatic symptoms and related disorders" and is defined as a false belief of being pregnant that is associated with objective signs and symptoms of pregnancy. Confirmation of pseudocyesis is achieved with a negative blood and/or urine beta-human chorionic gonadotropin result and a negative ultrasound finding. Materials and methods: We present a case of a woman with symptoms and signs of pregnancy corresponding to pseudocyesis, the patient continued to believe she was pregnant because of her symptoms, despite negative pregnancy tests. Conclusion: Pseudocyesis is a rare condition that is often associated with other psychiatric comorbidities and unclear differential diagnoses. Further studies, including case series and systematic reviews, are needed to better understand this rare condition and its other variants.


Assuntos
Pseudogravidez , Gravidez , Delírio/psicologia
5.
Chemosphere ; 356: 141906, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583534

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide. As an endocrine disruptor, it causes ovarian dysfunction, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that ATR could affect ovarian steroidogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. In the current study, rats aged 28 days were treated with PMSG and HCG to obtain amounts of corpora lutea. Then, rats were injected with ATR (50 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.9%) for 7 days. Sera were collected to detect biochemical indices and progesterone (P4) level, ovaries were collected for antioxidant status, HE, qPCR, and WB analysis. Results showed that ATR exposure affected growth performance as well as serum TP, GLB, and ALB levels, increased serum P4 level and ovarian mRNA and protein levels of StAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B. ATR treatment increased ovarian mRNA and protein levels of CREB but not PKA expression. ATR treatment increased ovarian mRNA abundances of Nrf-2 and Nqo1, MDA level, and decreased SOD, GST, and T-AOC levels. ATR exposure increased the mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory cytokines including Tnf-α, Il-1ß, Il-6, Il-18, and Inos. ATR exposure increased the mRNA and protein level of Caspase 3 and the ratio of BAX/BCL-2. In conclusion, NRF-2/NQO1 signaling pathway and CREB might be involved in the regulation of ATR in luteal steroidogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in rat ovary.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Atrazina , Herbicidas , Inflamação , Ovário , Estresse Oxidativo , Progesterona , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Feminino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Pseudogravidez , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Genes Cells ; 28(12): 906-914, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37886801

RESUMO

A simple method for producing pseudopregnant mice supports pup production. In this study, pregnant ICR were obtained mice without mating with vasectomized mice via administration of mouse Kisspeptin-10 (mKp-10) and transferring blastocysts to the uterus. Blastocyst transfer after mKp-10 administration to mice with gapping and reddish pink vagina resulted in 65.2% (15/23) pregnancies, and 39.1% (34/87) of the transferred blastocysts showed full-term growth. Vaginal smears were observed for accurate estrus cycle determination, and subsequent administration of mKp10 to mice during the estrus stage and blastocyst transfer resulted in 95.2% (20/21) pregnancies and 50.7% (104/205) birth rates. Regarding 2-cell transfer after administration of mKp-10, 100% (8/8) of the mice became pregnant, and 45.0% (36/80) of the embryos were born. Administration of mKp-10 to mice during the estrus stage is a convenient way to generate pseudopregnant mice.


Assuntos
Pseudogravidez , Útero , Gravidez , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estro
7.
J Vis Exp ; (197)2023 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37486140

RESUMO

For successfully maintaining pregnancy with embryo transfer or artificial insemination, female recipient mice must be induced into a pseudopregnant state. Female mice are traditionally paired overnight with vasectomized males, and the following morning, the presence of a copulation plug is assessed. To increase the efficiency of producing pseudopregnant females, a cervical manipulation technique has been standardized to be used in combination with non-surgical embryo transfer or artificial insemination techniques in mice. The blunt end of a small plastic rod is inserted vaginally to contact the cervix and is vibrated for 30 s by contact with a trimmer. The procedure is quick and does not require anesthesia or analgesia. This technique increases the reliability and predictability of producing pseudopregnant females and entirely eliminates the requirement for vasectomized males. For CD1 mice, the efficiency of pseudopregnancy induction using cervical manipulation was 83% for females in estrus (N = 76) but only 38% of females in estrus were plugged by vasectomized males (N = 24). Artificial insemination in CD1 mice was performed by estrus synchronization with hormones, cervical manipulation, and the uterine transfer of sperm. Artificial insemination recipients receiving cervical manipulation (N = 76) had a pregnancy rate of 72% and an average litter size of 8.3 pups. This method can also be used to produce pseudopregnant females for non-surgical embryo transfer. Therefore, inducing pseudopregnancy by cervical manipulation is a convenient and efficient alternative to mating with a vasectomized male when performing non-surgical assisted reproduction techniques. Using cervical manipulation provides 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) benefits for assisted reproduction techniques by reducing the number of animals required and eliminating the necessity for surgically altered males.


Assuntos
Pseudogravidez , Sêmen , Gravidez , Masculino , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Pseudogravidez/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Inseminação Artificial
8.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 35(7): e13278, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37127859

RESUMO

Sleep disruptions are a common occurrence during the peripartum period. While physical and environmental factors associated with pregnancy and newborn care account for some sleep disruptions, there is evidence that peripartum fluctuations in estrogens may independently impact sleep. However, the impact of these large fluctuations in estrogens on peripartum sleep is unclear because it is difficult to tease apart the effects of estrogens on sleep from effects associated with the growth and development of the fetus or parental care. We therefore used a hormone-simulated pseudopregnancy (HSP) in female Syrian hamsters to test the hypothesis that pregnancy-like increases in estradiol decrease sleep in the absence of other factors. Adult female Syrian hamsters were ovariectomized and given daily hormone injections that simulate estradiol levels during early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and the postpartum period. Home cage video recordings were captured at seven timepoints and videos were analyzed for actigraphy. During "late pregnancy," total sleep time and sleep efficiency were decreased in hormone-treated animals during the white light period compared to pretest levels. Likewise, during "late pregnancy," locomotion was increased in the white light period for hormone-treated animals compared to pretest levels. These changes continued into the "postpartum period" for animals who continued to receive estradiol treatment, but not for animals who were withdrawn from estradiol. At the conclusion of the experiment, animals were euthanized and cFos expression was quantified in the ventral lateral preoptic area (VLPO) and lateral hypothalamus (LH). Animals who continued to receive high levels of estradiol during the "postpartum" period had significantly more cFos in the VLPO and LH than animals who were withdrawn from hormones or vehicle controls. Together, these data suggest that increased levels of estradiol during pregnancy are associated with sleep suppression, which may be mediated by increased activation of hypothalamic nuclei.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Pseudogravidez , Cricetinae , Animais , Gravidez , Feminino , Estradiol/farmacologia , Mesocricetus , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Sono
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3604, 2023 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36869082

RESUMO

Embryo transfer (ET) is an essential reproductive technology for the production of new animal strains and maintenance of genetic resources. We developed a method, named Easy-ET, to induce pseudopregnancy in female rats by artificial stimulation using sonic vibration instead of mating with vasectomized males. This study examined the application of this method for the induction of pseudopregnancy in mice. Offspring were obtained from two-cell embryos transferred into females with pseudopregnancy induced using sonic vibration in proestrus on the day before embryo transfer. Furthermore, high developmental rates of offspring were observed when pronuclear and two-cell embryos were transferred to females in estrus that were stimulated on the day of embryo transfer. Genome-edited mice were also obtained using frozen-warmed pronuclear embryos with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas) nucleases introduced using the technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE) method, which were transferred to females with pseudopregnancy induced on the day of embryo transfer. This study demonstrated that induction of pseudopregnancy by sonic vibration was also possible in mice.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo , Pseudogravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Vibração , Delusões , Comunicação Celular
11.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13815, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36752079

RESUMO

This study was conducted to examine the effects of different pseudopregnancy periods in nonpregnant sows on artificial lactation induction efficiency and milk composition. Sixteen pseudopregnant sows (n = 4 per group) were treated with 5 mg of estradiol dipropionate at 28 (Group D38), 35 (Group D45), 42 (Group D52), and 49 (Group D59) days after the end of estrus, followed by prostaglandin F2α as 0.175-mg cloprostenol twice at 12 h intervals 10 days later. The overall success rate of lactation induction was 81.3%. The lactation rates were significantly higher in Groups D38, D45, and D59 (100.0%) than in Group D52 (25.0%). The milk immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration was significantly higher in Group D38 than in Group D59. However, IgA levels and milk compositions (protein, ash, and lactose) did not differ among the groups. Lactation induction was successful between 38 and 59 days of pseudopregnancy. Apart from IgG, pseudopregnancy length did not affect milk components from 38 to 59 days of pseudopregnancy.


Assuntos
Estro , Pseudogravidez , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Pseudogravidez/veterinária , Prostaglandinas F , Leite , Lactação
12.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 57(12): 1636-1643, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052807

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), known for its role during foetal sexual differentiation, is secreted by the Sertoli cells in males and the granulosa cells in females during post-natal life. As serum AMH concentrations correlate with follicle numbers, AMH is utilized as a marker of ovarian reserve in many species. In dogs and cats, AMH is used as a diagnostic tool to determine spay or neuter status. In the available literature, no research regarding serum AMH levels in rabbits has been published yet. The objectives of the present study were to (1) measure serum AMH concentrations in female rabbits and investigate the value of AMH as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between spayed and intact does and (2) relate measured AMH levels to pseudopregnancy and ovarian follicle numbers. For AMH measurement, serum samples were obtained from sexually intact (n = 64) and spayed (n = 22) female rabbits. Spayed does were of various breeds; intact rabbits were Zika hybrid rabbits. In the intact does, AMH measurement was complemented by determination of progesterone levels, gynaecological examination and histopathological evaluation of the uterus and ovaries, including follicle counts. Serum AMH and progesterone concentrations were measured using a human-based chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and an enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA), respectively. Depending on progesterone levels, sexually intact does were classified into follicular (n = 52) or luteal phase (n = 12). Median serum AMH levels were 1.53 ng/ml (range 0.77-3.36 ng/ml) in intact and 0.06 ng/ml (range ≤0.01-0.23 ng/ml) in spayed does. AMH concentrations between the intact and spayed rabbits differed significantly and did not overlap (p < .001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for a cut-off level of 0.50 ng/ml. Follicular or luteal phase had no significant influence on measured AMH levels (t = 0.061, df = 62, p = .951). While the number of secondary follicles correlated significantly with AMH concentrations (rs  = 0.410, p = .001), the number of primary or antral follicles did not (rs  = 0.241, p = .055 and rs  = 0.137, p = .281, respectively). In conclusion, a single determination of serum AMH concentrations was adequate to distinguish spayed from intact female rabbits. Among sexually intact individuals, whether does were in follicular or luteal phase had no significant influence on measured serum AMH concentrations. The relationship between small growing follicles and AMH levels as described in other species could be partially confirmed, as secondary follicles correlated significantly with AMH.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Folículo Ovariano , Pseudogravidez , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Coelhos , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Progesterona
13.
Reproduction ; 163(5): 309-321, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275842

RESUMO

Decidualization of uterine stromal cells plays an important role in the establishment of normal pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that Acyl-CoA binding protein (Acbp) is critical to cellular proliferation, differentiation, mitochondrial functions, and autophagy. The characterization and physiological function of Acbp during decidualization remain largely unknown. In the present study, we conducted the expression profile of Acbp in the endometrium of early pregnant mice. With the occurrence of decidualization, the expression of Acbp gradually increased. Similarly, Acbp expression was also strongly expressed in decidualized cells following artificial decidualization, both in vivo and in vitro. We applied the mice pseudopregnancy model to reveal that the expression of Acbp in the endometrium of early pregnant mice was not induced by embryonic signaling. Moreover, P4 significantly upregulated the expression of Acbp, whereas E2 appeared to have no regulating effect on Acbp expression in uterine stromal cells. Concurrently, we found that interfering with Acbp attenuated decidualization, and that might due to mitochondrial dysfunctions and the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The level of autophagy was increased after knocking down Acbp. During induced decidualization, the expression of ACBP was decreased with the treatment of rapamycin (an autophagy inducer), while increased with the addition of Chloroquine (an autophagy inhibitor). Our work suggests that Acbp plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells during decidualization through regulating mitochondrial functions, fatty acid oxidation, and autophagy.


Assuntos
Decídua , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam , Animais , Decídua/metabolismo , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Pseudogravidez , Células Estromais/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1187, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075219

RESUMO

Psuedopregnancy for embryo transfer (ET) is usually induced in rats by mating with vasectomized males. Previously, we successfully induced pseudopregnancy using sonic vibration instead (Easy-ET method). The transferred embryos developed normally. Conventionally, stimulation is performed 7 × 30 s with 5 min intervals at the day before ET. However, this protocol is time-consuming because it imitates natural mating behavior. Here, we investigated pseudopregnancy induction with shorter stimulation times. Stimulation was performed 2 × 30 s, with 30 s intervals at the proestrus stage at the day before ET. Of the transferred pronuclear or two-cell embryos, 43% or 62% developed normally, respectively. Furthermore, 67% or 68% of transferred pronuclear or two-cell embryos in rats at estrus stage stimulated on the day of ET developed normally, respectively. Pseudopregnancy was successfully induced with shorter stimulation. Furthermore, this protocol may be used to perform a single-day stimulation and ET operation at the estrus stage.


Assuntos
Pseudogravidez , Animais , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Som
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 1764929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512862

RESUMO

The increase of oxidative stress is one of the important characteristics of mammalian luteal regression. Previous investigations have revealed the essential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in luteal cell death during luteolysis, while it is unknown how ROS is regulated in this process. Considering the decrease of blood flow and increase of PGF2α during luteolysis, we hypothesized that the HIF-1α pathway may be involved in the regulation of ROS in the luteal cell of the late corpus luteum (CL). Here, by using a pseudopregnant rat model, we showed that the level of both HIF-1α and its downstream BNIP3 was increased during luteal regression. Consistently, we observed the increase of autophagy level during luteolysis, which is regulated in a Beclin1-independent manner. Comparing with early (Day 7 of pseudopregnancy) and middle CL (Day 14), the level of ROS was significantly increased in late CL, indicating the contribution of oxidative stress in luteolysis. Inhibition of HIF-1α by echinomycin (Ech), a potent HIF-1α inhibitor, ameliorated the upregulation of BNIP3 and NIX, as well as the induction of autophagy and the accumulation of ROS in luteal cells on Day 21 of pseudopregnancy. Morphologically, Ech treatment delayed the atrophy of the luteal structure at the late-luteal stage. An in vitro study indicated that inhibition of HIF-1α can also attenuate PGF2α -induced ROS and luteal cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the decrease of cell apoptosis can also be observed by ROS inhibition under PGF2α treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that HIF-1α signaling is involved in the regression of CL by modulating ROS production via orchestrating autophagy. Inhibition of HIF-1α could obviously hamper the apoptosis of luteal cells and the process of luteal regression.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Luteólise/metabolismo , Gravidez , Pseudogravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Theriogenology ; 167: 94-98, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799011

RESUMO

Canine (Canis familiaris) pseudocyesis, pseudopregnancy, false pregnancy or nervous lactation is a frequent syndrome observed in non-pregnant, late diestrous or early anestrous females that is characterized by different degrees of mammary gland enlargement, maternal behavior and lactation. Further education about this frequent canine physiological event is still necessary to ensure optimal diagnosis and treatment strategies. Thus, the aim of this article was to review and update the physiopathology, physical and behavioral signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of pseudocyesis in bitches in which it is a clinical problem.


Assuntos
Lactação , Pseudogravidez , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Gravidez
17.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543586

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate whether ovulation in gilts could be synchronized for embryo collection by the administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) or estradiol dipropionate (EDP) to induce pseudopregnancy, followed by the treatment with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ) on 10 days after. Ten gilts each received a total of 20 mg of EB or EDP on Day 10 or EB on Day 10 and 14 to induce pseudopregnancy (Day 0 = onset of estrus). Donors received PGF2α 10 or 15 days (as a control) after the first administration of estrogens and subsequently eCG and hCG, and were then inseminated artificially. The embryos were collected 7 days after the administration of hCG, and assessed for embryo yield and their developmental stages. All protocols resulted in good embryo yield (9.8-13.2 embryos in average), and the embryos showed average ability to develop to the expanded blastocyst stage (3.29-4.03 as developmental scores) without any significant differences among the protocols. These results suggest that the administration of PGF2α 10 days after the treatment of gilts with EB or EDP would allow synchronization of ovulation and embryo collection, as well as shortening the period from estrus detection to embryo collection, thus improving embryo collection efficiency.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Pseudogravidez , Criação de Embriões para Pesquisa/métodos , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(2): 49-52, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398200

RESUMO

For the production and rederivation of mouse strains, pseudopregnant female mice are used for embryo transfer and serve as surrogate mothers to support embryo development to term. Vasectomized males are commonly used to render pseudopregnancy in females, generated by surgical procedures associated with considerable pain and discomfort. Genetically modified mouse strains with a sterility phenotype provide a non-surgical replacement and represent an important application of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement). However, the maintenance of such genetically modified mouse strains requires extensive breeding and genotyping procedures, which are regulated procedures under national legislation. As an alternative, we have explored the use of sterile male hybrids that result when two wild-type mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, interbreed. We find the male STUSB6F1 hybrid, resulting from the mating of female STUS/Fore with male C57BL/6J, ideally suited and demonstrate that its performance for the production of oviduct and uterine transfer recipients is indistinguishable when compared to surgically vasectomized mice. The use of these sterile hybrids avoids the necessity for surgical procedures or the breeding of sterile genetically modified lines and can be generated by the simple mating of two wild-type laboratory strains-a non-regulated procedure. Furthermore, in contrast with the breeding of genetically sterile mice, all male offspring are sterile and suitable for the generation of pseudopregnancy, allowing their efficient production with minimal breeding pairs.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Vasectomia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Pseudogravidez , Vasectomia/veterinária
19.
Reprod Sci ; 28(1): 60-68, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651899

RESUMO

It has been well established that uterine function during the peri-implantation period is precisely regulated by ovarian estrogen and progesterone. The embryo enters the uterine cavity before implantation. However, the impact of pre-implantation embryo on uterine function is largely unknown. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq analysis of mouse uterus on day 4 morning of natural pregnancy (with embryos in the uterus) and pseudo-pregnancy (without embryos in the uterus). We found that 146 genes were upregulated, and 77 genes were downregulated by the pre-implantation embryo. Gene ontology and gene network analysis highlighted the activation of inflammatory reaction in the uterus. By examining the promoter region of differentially expressed genes, we found that NF-kappaB was a causal transcription factor. Finally, we validated 4 inflammation-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR. These 4 genes are likely the main mediators of the inflammatory reaction in the uterus triggered by the pre-implantation embryo. Our data indicated that the pre-implantation embryo causes uterine inflammatory reaction, which in turn might contribute to the establishment of uterine receptivity and embryo implantation.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Implantação do Embrião , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/imunologia , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Quimiocinas CXC/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Gravidez , Pseudogravidez/genética , Pseudogravidez/imunologia , Pseudogravidez/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Útero/imunologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931507

RESUMO

Endocrine profiling is an increasingly utilized tool for detecting pregnancies in wild populations of mammals. Given the difficulty in calculating reproductive rates of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) the use of endocrine techniques for determining pregnancy rates could be particularly useful for management of the population. The goals of this study were to 1) determine if progesterone and total estrogen concentrations in ovarian tissues of female walruses could be used to determine reproductive state and 2) determine if walruses undergo a functional postpartum estrus, as is seen in other pinnipeds. Ovaries were collected from female walruses (n = 13) hunted in subsistence hunts by Alaska Native communities. Females were categorized as postpartum, full-term pregnant, pregnant diapause or unbred. Total estrogen concentrations were greatest in unbred (n = 2) and pregnant (n = 2) females. Progesterone concentrations were also nominally larger in unbred (n = 2) than pregnant (n = 2) and postpartum (n = 9) animals. Small samples sizes precluded the use of statistical comparisons among groups. Corpora lutea tissue samples in this study did not reflect the presence of a postpartum estrus in the month of May as postpartum females yielded lower total estrogen concentrations than unbred or pregnant animals. Both unbred animals were in a state of pseudopregnancy, which has not been physiologically described for this species before. The progesterone profiles in late (59 ng/g) and early (140 ng/g) pregnancy were lower than expected and fell within the range of the postpartum females (36-210 ng/g), suggesting low production of the hormone by the corpus luteum during these phases of pregnancy. Profiling reproductive hormones in free-ranging walruses demonstrates that an endocrine approach may be a valuable tool for determining reproductive status of females, however increased sample sizes and time of year must be considered to accurately separate pregnant versus pseudopregnant individuals.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/fisiologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Pseudogravidez/veterinária , Morsas/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino
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