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1.
J Affect Disord ; 356: 267-273, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies indicate that individuals who have experienced a traumatic event can experience posttraumatic growth (PTG), some researchers have questioned the significance of PTG in associations with functioning. The role of PTG in functioning following trauma may be better elucidated by accounting for its joint effects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3847 trauma-exposed U.S. veterans. Participants completed assessments of potentially traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and PTG, as well as a broad range of sociodemographic, military, trauma, health, personality, and psychosocial characteristics. RESULTS: PTG was independently and moderately associated with higher mental, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning, but not physical functioning. Results showed a similar pattern of findings when examining relations between subdomains of PTG and these aspects of functioning. Additionally, among veterans who screened positive for PTSD, those who endorsed PTG reported higher levels of mental, cognitive, and/or psychosocial functioning than those who did not endorse PTG. LIMITATIONS: Findings may be limited by the use of a cross-sectional design, retrospective self-reports of PTG, and a predominantly older white male veteran sample. CONCLUSION: Results provide support for the functional significance of PTG and highlight the importance of considering PTSD symptoms to better understand the role of PTG in functioning. Clinical interventions to foster PTG may help promote post-trauma functioning.


Assuntos
Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Idoso , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Child Abuse Negl ; 152: 106805, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined psychosocial outcomes for Filipino survivors of online sexual abuse and exploitation of children (OSAEC). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify relationships between demographic variables, self-reported and caregiver-reported trauma symptoms, and psychosocial functioning among Filipino youth who have experienced OSAEC. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: This study utilized inclusion criteria of survivors of OSAEC between ages 12 and 18 who received residential care and were reintegrated into the community for at least one year (N = 48). Participants were in care at shelters associated with Project PAVE in the Philippines. METHODS: As measured by three assessment tools, relationships between demographic variables and psychosocial functioning were explored for risk and protective factors of trauma symptoms and psychosocial functioning to better understand this population's needs post-integration. RESULTS: Results suggest survivors continue to experience psychosocial symptoms after reintegration. Caregivers reported survivors reintegrated outside the home had significantly higher externalizing symptoms (MR = 6.67; H(3) = 14.85, p = .002, η2 = 0.27) compared to survivors reintegrated within the home and survivors who trafficked themselves to have higher internalizing symptoms (MR = 16.79; H(3) = 11.80; p = .008, η2 = 0.20) than survivors trafficked by a relative. Caregivers reported survivors who resided in the shelter for one month or less to have higher internalizing symptoms (MR = 20.12; H(2) = 11.06; p = .004; η2 = 0.20) than survivors who resided in the shelter for six months or longer. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of further research to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population in order to guide the most effective intervention, aftercare, and reintegration programs to support survivors and their caregivers.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Humanos , Filipinas , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Internet , Funcionamento Psicossocial
3.
Schizophr Bull ; 50(3): 557-566, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Loneliness, the subjective experience of feeling alone, is associated with physical and psychological impairments. While there is an extensive literature linking loneliness to psychopathology, limited work has examined loneliness in daily life in those with serious mental illness. We hypothesized that trait and momentary loneliness would be transdiagnostic and relate to symptoms and measures of daily functioning. STUDY DESIGN: The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment and passive sensing to examine loneliness in those with schizophrenia (N = 59), bipolar disorder (N = 61), unipolar depression (N = 60), remitted unipolar depression (N = 51), and nonclinical comparisons (N = 82) to examine relationships of both trait and momentary loneliness to symptoms and social functioning in daily life. STUDY RESULTS: Findings suggest that both trait and momentary loneliness are higher in those with psychopathology (F(4,284) = 28.00, P < .001, ηp2 = 0.27), and that loneliness significantly relates to social functioning beyond negative symptoms and depression (ß = -0.44, t = 6.40, P < .001). Furthermore, passive sensing measures showed that greater movement (ß = -0.56, t = -3.29, P = .02) and phone calls (ß = -0.22, t = 12.79, P = .04), but not text messaging, were specifically related to decreased loneliness in daily life. Individuals higher in trait loneliness show stronger relationships between momentary loneliness and social context and emotions in everyday life. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide further evidence pointing to the importance of loneliness transdiagnostically and its strong relation to social functioning. Furthermore, we show that passive sensing technology can be used to measure behaviors related to loneliness in daily life that may point to potential treatment implications or early detection markers of loneliness.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Solidão , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Adulto Jovem , Atividades Cotidianas
4.
Neurol Sci ; 45(4): 1335-1342, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a prominent symptom in post-COVID condition (PCC) sequelae, termed "long COVID." Herein, we aim to ascertain the effect of fatigue on psychosocial function in persons living with PCC. METHODS: This post hoc analysis evaluated the effects of vortioxetine on measures of fatigue as assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in psychosocial function as measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) in persons with PCC. We also evaluated the change in FSS on psychosocial functioning as measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). This post hoc analysis obtained data from a recently published placebo-controlled study evaluating vortioxetine's effect on objective cognitive functions in persons living with PCC. RESULTS: One hundred forty-four participants meeting World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for PCC were included in this analysis. At the end of 8 weeks of vortioxetine treatment, significant improvement of all domains was observed for psychosocial functioning. There was a significant between-group difference at treatment endpoint in the family, social, and work SDS subcategories (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant interaction effect between the treatment condition time point and FSS effect on the SDS social (χ2 = 10.640, p = 0.014) and work (χ2 = 9.342, p = 0.025) categories but a statistically insignificant effect on the family categories ((χ2 = 5.201, p = 0.158)). DISCUSSION: This post hoc analysis suggests that vortioxetine treatment significantly improves psychosocial function in persons with PCC. Our results also indicate that the improvement in psychosocial function was significantly mediated by improvement in measures of fatigue. Our results provide empirical support for recommendations to identify therapeutics for fatigue in persons living with PCC with a broader aim to improve psychosocial function in this common and severely impaired population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Vortioxetina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicações , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/etiologia
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 172: 200-209, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401365

RESUMO

Aims of the present study were to prospectively assess psychosocial functioning trajectories during the COVID pandemic and the possible impact of sociodemographic variables, as well as of COVID-19 pandemic-related factors, on these trajectories, in a sample of patients with pre-existing severe mental disorders. Moreover, we aimed at identifying predictors of impairment in psychosocial functioning over a period of 9 months of COVID-19 pandemic. Patients were recruited during the 3rd wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (T0, March-April 2021) while strict containment measures were applied in Italy, and reassessed after 3 months (T1, June-July 2021), and after 6 months from T1 (T2- November-December 2021), during the 4th wave of COVID pandemic. A sample of 300 subject (out of the 527 subjects recruited at baseline) completed the T2 evaluation. Patients were assessed by: Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) for psychosocial functioning, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item (GAD-7) for anxiety symptoms, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, for post-traumatic symptoms. Cluster analyses identified 4 trajectories of functioning: the High, Stable Functioning group (N = 77), the Improvement Functioning group (N = 62), the Progressive Impairment group (N = 83) and the Persistent Severe Impairment group (N = 78) respectively. We found that predictors of higher WSAS score at T2 were higher WSAS score at T0 (B = 0.43, p < .001), PHQ scores at baseline >10 (B = 2.89, p < .05), while not living alone was found to be a protective factor (B = -2.5, p < .05). Results of the present study provides insights into the vulnerability of individuals with psychiatric disorders during times of crisis. Study findings can contribute to a better understanding of the specific needs of this population and inform interventions and support strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pandemias , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão
6.
J Anxiety Disord ; 103: 102843, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310753

RESUMO

The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing anxiety disorder symptoms is well documented. However, limited research has investigated how symptom amelioration is temporally associated with changes in psychosocial functioning, such as interpersonal and social role functioning, during CBT. Participants were 288 (M age = 37.00 [SD = 14.41]; 59.0% female; 69.0% White; 6.6% Hispanic/Latino) outpatients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder who received CBT at a specialized hospital-based clinic. Participants completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45, a measure of symptom distress, social role performance, and interpersonal problems, at initial assessment and prior to each treatment session. Symptom distress and indicators of psychosocial functioning were robustly related during 25 sessions of CBT. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that reductions in symptom distress predicted subsequent improvements in psychosocial functioning during treatment, and vice versa. Associations from symptom distress to subsequent psychosocial functioning evidenced larger effect sizes than the reverse. Lower levels of severity at intake and presence of comorbid depression attenuated the association between symptom reduction and subsequent social role performance improvement. In sum, anxiety symptoms and psychosocial functioning bidirectionally improve during CBT for anxiety disorders. Maximally effective treatments may be those that simultaneously ameliorate symptoms and focus on improving functioning in key domains.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade , Comorbidade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Schizophr Res ; 266: 12-18, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One in five young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) also presents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. Among people diagnosed with BPD, auditory verbal hallucinations occur in 29-50 % and delusions in 10-100 %. Co-occurrence of psychotic symptoms and BPD is associated with greater clinical severity and greater difficulty accessing evidence based FEP care. This study aimed to investigate psychotic symptoms and psychosocial functioning among young people presenting to an early intervention mental health service. METHOD: According to the presence or absence of either FEP or BPD, 141 participants, aged 15-25 years, were assigned to one of four groups: FEP, BPD, combined FEP + BPD, or clinical comparison (CC) participants with neither FEP nor BPD. Participants completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews and interviewer and self-report measures of psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: The FEP + BPD group had significantly more severe psychopathology and poorer psychosocial functioning than the FEP group on every measure, apart from intensity of hallucinations. Comparing the FEP or BPD groups, the BPD group had greater psychopathology, apart from intensity of psychotic symptoms, which was significantly greater in the FEP group. These two groups did not significantly differ in their overall psychosocial functioning. Compared with CC young people, both the FEP + BPD and BPD groups differed significantly on every measure, with medium to large effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Young people with co-occurring FEP and BPD experience more severe difficulties than young people with either diagnosis alone. This combination of psychosis and severe personality pathology has been longitudinally associated with poorer outcomes among adults and requires specific clinical attention.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Alucinações/etiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397714

RESUMO

The post-treatment period (after the completion of primary cancer treatment) is a phase during which adults with cancer are particularly vulnerable to the physical and psychological side effects of treatment. Adopting healthy lifestyle habits during this time is essential to mitigate these effects. This scoping review investigated the associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) with two post-treatment psychosocial indicators among adults with cancer: psychological functioning and quality of life (QoL). An exhaustive search was performed in January 2023 across five databases, namely APA PsycInfo, MedLine, SPORTDiscuss, SCOPUS, and CINAHL, adhering to PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria; 16 used a cross-sectional design, while 4 used a longitudinal one. PA and ST were assessed mainly with accelerometers (n = 17), and psychosocial indicators with self-reported questionnaires (n = 20). Most studies linked higher PA levels to reduced anxiety (n = 3) and depression (n = 4) symptoms, and elevated ST to higher psychological symptoms (n = 3). Opposite associations were observed for QoL (n = 5). Altogether, PA appeared to be more strongly related to psychological functioning and QoL than ST. This scoping review highlights associations of PA and ST with psychological functioning and QoL among adults with cancer in the post-treatment period. However, future studies must prioritize longitudinal designs to establish directionality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Depressão/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia
9.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 70(3): 542-553, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312047

RESUMO

AIMS: Most evidence on psychosocial factors in recent-onset psychosis comes from high-income countries in Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA, while these factors are likely to differ under varying sociocultural and economic circumstances. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations of self-stigma, religiosity and perceived social support with symptom severity and psychosocial functioning in an Iranian cohort of people with recent-onset psychosis (i.e. illness duration of <2 years). METHODS: We used baseline data of 361 participants (N = 286 [74%] male, mean age = 34 years [Standard Deviation = 10.0]) from the Iranian Azeri Recent-onset Acute Phase Psychosis Survey (ARAS). We included assessments of self-stigma (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, ISMI), religiosity (based on Stark & Glock), perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), symptom severity (Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS) and psychosocial functioning (clinician-rated Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, GAF, and self-reported World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, WHODAS 2.0). Descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the study sample. Covariate-adjusted ordinal and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to investigate cross-sectional associations of baseline ISMI, religiosity and MSPSS with concurrent PANSS, GAF and WHODAS 2.0. RESULTS: Higher self-stigma was associated with poorer self-reported functioning (B = 0.375 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.186, 0.564]) and more severe concurrent symptoms (B = 0.436 [95% CI: 0.275, 0.597]). Being more religious was associated with poorer clinician-rated functioning (OR = 0.967 [95% CI: 0.944, 0.991]), but with less severe symptoms (B = -0.258 [95% CI: -0.427, -0.088]). Stronger social support was associated with poorer clinician-rated (OR = 0.956 [95% CI: 0.935, 0.978]) and self-reported functioning (B = 0.337 [95% CI: 0.168, 0.507]). CONCLUSION: This study shows that self-stigma, religiosity and perceived social support were associated with symptom severity and clinician-rated as well as self-reported psychosocial functioning in an Iranian cohort of people with recent-onset psychosis. The findings extend previous evidence on these psychosocial factors to one of the largest countries in the Middle East, and suggest that it may be worthwhile to develop strategies aimed at tackling stigma around psychosis and integrate the role of religiosity and social support in mental ill-health prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Adulto Jovem , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudos Transversais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autoimagem
10.
Diabetes Care ; 47(2): 290-294, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between diabetes stigma, socioeconomic status, psychosocial variables, and substance use in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of AYAs from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study who completed a survey on diabetes-related stigma, generating a total diabetes stigma score. Using multivariable modeling, stratified by diabetes type, we examined the relationship of diabetes stigma with variables of interest. RESULTS: Of the 1,608 AYAs who completed the diabetes-related stigma survey, 78% had type 1 diabetes, and the mean age was 21.7 years. Higher diabetes stigma scores were associated with food insecurity (P = 0.001), disordered eating (P < 0.0001), depressive symptoms (P < 0.0001), and decreased health-related (P < 0.0001) and diabetes-specific quality of life (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes stigma is associated with food insecurity, disordered eating, and lower psychosocial well-being.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social , Funcionamento Psicossocial
11.
LGBT Health ; 11(2): 164-169, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815823

RESUMO

Purpose: The unique psychosocial experiences of nonbinary individuals across the lifespan are understudied compared with those of binary transgender individuals. This study examined the psychosocial stressors faced by nonbinary youth compared with their binary transgender counterparts at the time of gender-affirming hormone (GAH) readiness assessment. Methods: This study compared the psychosocial functioning of nonbinary youth with their binary transgender peers, ages 14-18, utilizing the Youth Self Report (YSR) at the time of GAH readiness assessment. Clinically relevant subscale scores of the YSR were analyzed. Results: Data from 479 binary and 55 nonbinary individuals were analyzed for this study. Analysis found that nonbinary youth reported substantially more psychosocial distress in the form of total problems (ß = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.15-5.56]), internalizing problems (ß = 4.57, 95% CI [1.55-7.59]), depression (ß = 4.52, 95% CI [1.70-7.33]), and self-harm (odds ratio 2.65, 95% CI [1.26-5.56]) than their binary transgender peers. Conclusion: Nonbinary youth experienced higher psychosocial distress compared with their binary transgender counterparts. Future research is needed to better understand the possible health disparities experienced by nonbinary people across their lifespan so that their psychosocial needs can be better met.


Assuntos
Funcionamento Psicossocial , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Adolescente , Identidade de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Autorrelato , Hormônios
12.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 32(4): 489-496, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38030420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The severity and impact of hearing deficits among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders may become increasingly relevant with advancing age. This study evaluated hearing ability and associated psychosocial functioning among older adults aged 50-70. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Four outpatient psychiatry clinics in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50-70 years with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. MEASUREMENTS: Unaided pure tone air conduction audiometry conducted using a portable audiometry system determined the pure tone average (PTA) hearing threshold across four frequencies: 500, 1k, 2k, and 4k Hz. Better ear PTA defined the hearing threshold. Audiometry data retrieved from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aided interpretation of sample hearing loss rates. Standard measures evaluated psychiatric symptoms, perceived impact of hearing impairment, loneliness, and quality of life. RESULTS: Among audiometry completers (N = 40), 35% (n = 14) demonstrated subclinical hearing loss (16-25 dB) and 35% (n = 14) had mild or worse hearing loss (≥26 dB). Rates were higher than expected based on age-based population data. Those who perceived hearing handicap rated it moderate (12.2%) or severe (7.3%); those who perceived tinnitus rated the impact as mild to moderate (12.2%) or catastrophic (2.4%). Neither psychiatric symptoms nor interviewer-rated quality of life was associated with hearing ability. Greater loneliness was significantly correlated with worse audiologic performance (r = 0.475, p <0.01) and greater perceived hearing handicap (r = 0.480, p <0.01). CONCLUSION: Identifying the need for hearing loss treatment among aging adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is important given the potential implications for social functioning, cognitive, and mental health.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Audiometria de Tons Puros
13.
Sleep Health ; 10(2): 190-197, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most children stop napping between 2 and 5years old. We tested the association of early nap cessation (ie, children who stopped before their third birthday) and language, cognition functioning and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Data were from a national, longitudinal sample of Canadian children, with three timepoints. Children were 0-to-1 year old at T1, 2-to-3 years old at T2, and 4-to-5 years old at T3. Early nap cessation was tested as a correlate of children's psychosocial functioning (cross-sectionally and longitudinally), cognitive function (longitudinally), and language skills (longitudinally). There were 4923 children (50.9% male; 90.0% White) and their parents in this study who were included in the main analyses. Parents reported on demographics, perinatal and developmental variables, child functioning, and child sleep. Children completed direct assessments of receptive language and cognitive ability. Nap cessation, demographic, and developmental-control variables were tested as correlates of cross-sectional and longitudinal outcomes using linear regression (with a model-building approach). RESULTS: Early nap cessation correlated with higher receptive language ability (ß = 0.059 ± 0.028) and lower anxiety (ß = -0.039 ± 0.028) at T3, after controlling for known correlates of nap cessation, nighttime sleep, and other sociodemographic correlates of the outcomes. Cognitive ability, hyperactivity-inattention, and aggression were not correlated with nap cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Early nap cessation is related to specific benefits (ie, better receptive language and lower anxiety symptoms). These findings align with previous research. Future research should investigate differences associated with late nap cessation and in nap-encouraging cultures, and by ethnicity.


Assuntos
Sono , Humanos , Canadá , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Tempo , Cognição , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Recém-Nascido
14.
Neuroimage Clin ; 40: 103545, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38006651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, which can be exacerbated by depressive symptoms. In this study, we employed graph theory analysis to investigate the association among neuroimaging, clinical features, and psychosocial functioning in OCD patients, with a specific focus on the differential impact of depressive symptoms. METHODS: 216 OCD patients were divided into two subgroups based on depressive symptoms. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from a subset of 106 OCD patients along with 77 matched healthy controls (HCs). We analyzed the topological characteristics of the entire brain and the cognition-related subnetworks and performed Pearson correlation analyses to further explore the relationship with psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: OCD patients with more severe depressive symptoms exhibited greater impairment across all dimensions of psychosocial functioning. Graph theory analysis revealed more pronounced reductions in network efficiency within the entire brain, the default mode network (DMN), and the cingulo-opercular network (CON) among patients with non or mild depressive symptoms. Lower nodal efficiency and degree centrality of the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) were found in OCD patients and these variables were positively correlated with psychosocial functioning impairment. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the presence of depressive symptoms generally exacerbated psychosocial functioning impairment in OCD patients. Abnormalities in the functional integration of the entire brain, the DMN, and the CON in OCD patients may comprise the basis of cognitive deficits, while dysfunction of the right STG may affect the psychosocial functioning through its role in emotion, intention perception, and insight.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Humanos , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
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