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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 52, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether iris blood flow and iris thickness at the iris smooth muscle region affect the pupil diameter at rest and after drug-induced mydriasis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: T1DM patients and healthy children were recruited from the SCADE cohort. T2DM patients and healthy adults were recruited from patients undergoing cataract surgery at Shanghai General Hospital. Iris vessel density, pupil diameter (PD) and iris thickness were measured in both the resting and drug-induced mydriasis states. Iris vessel density was measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), PD was measured by a pupilometer, and iris thickness at the iris smooth muscle regions were measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). RESULTS: The study included 34 pediatric T1DM patients and 50 adult T2DM patients, both groups without diabetic retinopathy, and age-sex-matched healthy controls. At baseline, T1DM children and healthy children showed no differences in iris blood flow, iris thickness, or PD. However, the adult T2DM group exhibited higher vessel density at the pupil margin, thinner iris thickness at the iris dilator region, and smaller PD compared to healthy adults, with these differences being statistically significant (P < 0.05). After pupil dilation, there were no changes in iris blood flow and PD in the T1DM group compared to healthy children, whereas the T2DM group showed a significantly smaller PD compared to healthy adults. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that in the T2DM group, glycated hemoglobin was an independent factor of PD after dilation (ß=-0.490, p = 0.031), with no such factors identified in the T1DM group. CONCLUSION: The insufficiently dilated pupil diameter after drug-induced mydriasis is correlated to the level of glycated hemoglobin among T2DM patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registration number on the clinical trial website was NCT03631108.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Midríase , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dilatação Patológica , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Pressão Intraocular , Iris , Midríase/induzido quimicamente , Pupila/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Masculino , Feminino
2.
Opt Express ; 32(2): 2631-2643, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297787

RESUMO

Among various specifications of near eye display (NED) devices, a compact formfactor is essential for comfortable user experience but also the hardest one to accomplish due to the slowest progresses. A pinhole/pinlight array based light-field (LF) technique is considered as one of the candidates to achieve that goal without thicker and heavier refractive optics. Despite those promising advantages, however, there are critical issues, such as dark spots and contrast distortion, which degrade the image quality because of the vulnerability of the LF retinal image when the observer's eye pupil size changes. Regardless of previous attempts to overcome those artifacts, it was impossible to resolve both issues due to their trade-off relation. In this paper, in order to resolve them simultaneously, we propose a concept of multiplexed retinal projections to integrate the LF retinal image through rotating transitions of refined and modulated elemental images for robust compensation of eye pupil variance with improved conservation of contrast distribution. Experimental demonstrations and quantitative analysis are also provided to verify the principle.


Assuntos
Pupila , Retina , Refração Ocular , Óptica e Fotônica , Estimulação Luminosa
4.
J Refract Surg ; 40(2): e79-e88, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346120

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the optical performance and tolerance to misalignment of blue-light filtering monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: The optical properties of two monofocal IOLs featuring yellow chromophores, CT Lucia 621 PY (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) and Clareon CNA0T0 (Alcon Laboratories, Inc), were assessed in monochromatic and polychromatic light while introducing spherical aberration (SA). Optical quality metrics derived from the modulation transfer function were assessed after optimal IOL centration at 3- and 4.5-mm pupils. In addition, each IOL's tolerance to misalignment was examined by inducing up to 1 mm of decentration and the effect of tilting it by 5 degrees at 3 mm. RESULTS: The IOLs' resolution and contrast, while tested using a 3-mm aperture and an SA-neutral corneal model, indicated the CT Lucia 621 PY had a slightly higher modulation transfer function (MTF) at 50 lp/mm than the CNA0T0 under monochromatic conditions (0.77 vs 0.69). On introducing SA with (0.49 vs 0.40) and without (0.75 vs. 0.70) chromatic aberration, the CT Lucia 621 PY maintained its minimally better performance. When assessed with a 4.5-mm aperture in monochromatic light, the CT Lucia 621 PY displayed improved MTF with aberration-free cornea (0.71 vs 0.40) but performed worse after introducing SA (0.44 vs 0.62). However, both lenses achieved comparable MTF values under spherical and chromatic aberrations (0.28 vs 0.27). The IOL misalignment test revealed a better tolerance to tilt and decentration of the CT Lucia 621 PY across all conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The CT Lucia 621 PY and CNA0T0 showed similar optical quality in different situations, with equal simulated distance visual acuity for both models. However, the CT Lucia 621 PY's aspheric design offers an advantage when dealing with often imperfect physiological conditions, displaying a more robust performance under tilt and decentration. [J Refract Surg. 2024;40(2):e79-e88.].


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Humanos , Visão Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Pupila , Desenho de Prótese
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 598, 2024 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182869

RESUMO

The association between pupillary responses to repeated stimuli and adult refractive error has been previously demonstrated. This study evaluated whether this association exists in children and if it varies by season. Fifty children aged 8-17 years (average: 11.55 ± 2.75 years, 31 females) with refractive error between + 1.51 and - 5.69 diopters (non-cycloplegic) participated (n = 27 in summer, and n = 23 in winter). The RAPDx pupilometer measured pupil sizes while stimuli oscillated between colored light and dark at 0.1 Hz in three sequences: (1) alternating red and blue, (2) red-only, and (3) blue-only. The primary outcome was the difference in pupillary responses between the blue-only and red-only sequences. Pupillary constriction was greater in response to blue light than to red for those with shorter eyes in summer (ß = - 9.42, P = 0.034) but not in winter (ß = 3.42, P = 0.54). Greater constriction comprised faster pupillary escape following red light onset and slower redilation following stimulus offset of both colors (P = 0.017, 0.036, 0.035 respectively). The association between axial length and children's pupillary responses in summer, but not winter may be explained by greater light-associated release of retinal dopamine in summer. Shorter eyes' more robust responses are consistent with greater light exposure inhibiting axial elongation and reducing myopia risk.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Constrição Patológica , Pupila
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 242: 104123, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181698

RESUMO

In a world full of sensory stimuli, attention guides us between the external environment and our internal thoughts. While external attention involves processing sensory stimuli, internal attention is devoted to self-generated representations such as planning or spontaneous mind wandering. They both draw from common cognitive resources, thus simultaneous engagement in both often leads to interference between processes. In order to maintain internal focus, an attentional mechanism known as perceptual decoupling takes effect. This mechanism supports internal cognition by decoupling attention from the perception of sensory information. Two previous studies of our lab investigated to what extent perceptual decoupling is evident in voluntary eye movements. Findings showed that the effect is mediated by the internal task modality and workload (visuospatial > arithmetic and high > low, respectively). However, it remains unclear whether it extends to involuntary eye behavior, which may not share cognitive resources with internal activities. Therefore, the present experiment aimed to further elucidate attentional dynamics by examining whether internal attention affects the pupillary light response (PLR). Specifically, we consistently observed that workload and task modality of the internal task reduced the PLR to luminance changes of medium intensity. However, the PLR to strong luminance changes was less or not at all affected by the internal task. These results suggest that perceptual decoupling effects may be less consistent in involuntary eye behavior, particularly in the context of a salient visual stimulus.


Assuntos
Cognição , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Pupila
7.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 44(2): 472-480, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38234008

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the rising prevalence of myopia, especially among the young, orthokeratology (Ortho-K) stands out as a promising approach, not only to reduce myopia but also to control the progression of axial length (AL). This study examined how the intersection area between the pupil and defocus ring influenced retinal defocus and axial growth after Ortho-K. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 100 participants (100 eyes). Both AL and the refraction difference value (RDV), that is, the peripheral refractive error measured with respect to the central value after wearing Ortho-K lenses, were determined. Subjects were categorised into two groups based on the size of the intersection area after 3 months of lens wear: Group A (<4.58 mm2 ) and Group B (≥4.58 mm2 ). RESULTS: Group B demonstrated significantly lower changes in AL and RDV at 30-40° and 40-53° compared with Group A after 3 months of lens wear (all p < 0.05). After 6 months of lens wear, Group B showed significantly lower changes in AL and RDV in the 40-53° region compared with Group A (all p < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that as the intersection area increased, the changes in AL and RDV at 0-53°, 30-40° and 40-53° eccentricity decreased after both 3 and 6 months of lens wear (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A larger intersection area between the pupil and defocus ring within a certain time period can cause a greater amount of myopic defocus at 30-53° from the fovea. The results suggest that a larger intersection area might lead to more effective control of axial growth.


Assuntos
Miopia , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos , Erros de Refração , Humanos , Pupila , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Retina , Refração Ocular , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos/métodos
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2280, 2024 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280921

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the visual system adapts to the specific aberration pattern of an individual's eye. Alterations to this pattern can lead to reduced visual performance, even when the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the wavefront error remains constant. However, it is well-established that ocular aberrations are dynamic and can change with factors such as pupil size and accommodation. This raises an intriguing question: can the neural system adapt to continuously changing aberration patterns? To address this question, we measured the ocular aberrations in four subjects under various natural viewing conditions, which included changes in accommodative state and pupil size. We subsequently computed the associated Point Spread Functions (PSFs). For each subject, we examined the stability in the orientation of the PSFs and analyzed the cross-correlation between different PSFs. These findings were then compared to the characteristics of a distribution featuring PSF shapes akin to random variations. Our results indicate that the changes observed in the PSFs are not substantial enough to produce a PSF shape distribution resembling random variations. This lends support to the notion that neural adaptation is indeed a viable mechanism even in response to continuously changing aberration patterns.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular , Olho , Humanos , Face , Refração Ocular , Pupila/fisiologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(5): e2312898121, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277436

RESUMO

Perceptual decision-making is highly dependent on the momentary arousal state of the brain, which fluctuates over time on a scale of hours, minutes, and even seconds. The textbook relationship between momentary arousal and task performance is captured by an inverted U-shape, as put forward in the Yerkes-Dodson law. This law suggests optimal performance at moderate levels of arousal and impaired performance at low or high arousal levels. However, despite its popularity, the evidence for this relationship in humans is mixed at best. Here, we use pupil-indexed arousal and performance data from various perceptual decision-making tasks to provide converging evidence for the inverted U-shaped relationship between spontaneous arousal fluctuations and performance across different decision types (discrimination, detection) and sensory modalities (visual, auditory). To further understand this relationship, we built a neurobiologically plausible mechanistic model and show that it is possible to reproduce our findings by incorporating two types of interneurons that are both modulated by an arousal signal. The model architecture produces two dynamical regimes under the influence of arousal: one regime in which performance increases with arousal and another regime in which performance decreases with arousal, together forming an inverted U-shaped arousal-performance relationship. We conclude that the inverted U-shaped arousal-performance relationship is a general and robust property of sensory processing. It might be brought about by the influence of arousal on two types of interneurons that together act as a disinhibitory pathway for the neural populations that encode the available sensory evidence used for the decision.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Encéfalo , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Pupila/fisiologia , Sensação
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2420, 2024 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286801

RESUMO

Equiluminant stimuli help assess the integrity of colour perception and the relationship of colour to other visual features. As a result of individual variation, it is necessary to calibrate experimental visual stimuli to suit each individual's unique equiluminant ratio. Most traditional methods rely on training observers to report their subjective equiluminance point. Such paradigms cannot easily be implemented on pre-verbal or non-verbal observers. Here, we present a novel Pupil Frequency-Tagging Method (PFTM) for detecting a participant's unique equiluminance point without verbal instruction and with minimal training. PFTM analyses reflexive pupil oscillations induced by slow (< 2 Hz) temporal alternations between coloured stimuli. Two equiluminant stimuli will induce a similar pupil dilation response regardless of colour; therefore, an observer's equiluminant point can be identified as the luminance ratio between two colours for which the oscillatory amplitude of the pupil at the tagged frequency is minimal. We compared pupillometry-based equiluminance ratios to those obtained with two established techniques in humans: minimum flicker and minimum motion. In addition, we estimated the equiluminance point in non-human primates, demonstrating that this new technique can be successfully employed in non-verbal subjects.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Animais , Humanos , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Pupila , Exame Físico , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Luminosa
11.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 238: 105801, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37883903

RESUMO

In this study, it was investigated whether an emotional response would occur in pupil contagion by using skin conductance response (SCR) in 5- and 6-month-old infants. In the experiment, emotional responses to pupil diameter change (dilating/constricting) between the face and eyes regions were compared by using pupil diameter response and SCR. The results showed that pupil diameter responses to pupil diameter changes did not differ between face and eyes regions. The emotional response indicated by the SCR significantly increased when participants looked at dilating pupils of face stimuli compared with when participants looked at constricted pupils of face stimuli. In addition, we found a significant correlation between SCR and pupil dilation in the face. This means that pupil diameter expansion significantly increases emotional response in pupil dilation of the face region.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pupila , Lactente , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face
12.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 44(1): 168-176, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966110

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous transverse and a handful of longitudinal studies have shown that the slope of the static accommodation response/stimulus curve declines as complete presbyopia is approached. Changes in pupillary miosis and ocular spherical aberration (SA) are also evident. This study further investigated longitudinal changes in the relationships between the monocular static accommodative response, pupil diameter and SA of a single adult. METHODS: A wavefront analysing system, the Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System, was used in conjunction with a Badal optometer to allow continuous recording of the aberration structure of the dominant eye in a low myope for a range of accommodative demands (-0.83 to 7.63 D) over a period of 17 years until the age of 50. Monocular accommodative response was calculated as the equivalent refraction minimising wavefront error. The associated longitudinal changes in pupil size and SA with accommodation were also recorded. RESULTS: A decrease in accommodation response with age was found at almost all target vergences, with the changes being greatest for higher vergences. In addition, although absolute pupil diameter decreased with age, the rate of change in pupil diameter with accommodative stimulus remained approximately constant with age. Pupil constriction occurred for near stimuli even in full presbyopia. SA changed linearly with the accommodation response at all ages. CONCLUSIONS: The objective amplitude of accommodation declined linearly with age as complete presbyopia was approached, while the slope of the response/stimulus curve also fell. It was hypothesised that the retinal image blur associated with the larger lags of accommodation at higher accommodative stimuli was reduced by pupil constriction and the resulting lower levels of SA.


Assuntos
Miopia , Presbiopia , Adulto , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Refração Ocular , Acomodação Ocular , Miose
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 72(Suppl 1): S135-S139, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To discuss the features of an artifact on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), termed "pupil vignetting artifact," and describe how it may masquerade as true chorioretinal pathology. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational case series. METHODS: The authors studied 12 eyes at a vitreoretinal clinic in Eastern India, reviewing a dark shadow such as an artifact on OCTA images. RESULTS: In all 12 eyes, there was an appearance of a dark shadow on OCTA imaging, located at the macula, superior, superotemporal, or superonasal to the fovea, which did not correspond to any ischemic area responsible for flow-void or any media opacity casting a posterior shadow. It was believed to be an artifact caused by the vignetting effect of the pupil as the incident OCT beam clips the iris during OCTA scanning, and therefore reduces the amount of total light incident on the retina. The variability in the size, shape, and location of the artifact is contributed by a few factors such as variable angle of incident light on the pupil, pupillary dynamics, and curvature of the retinal surface. CONCLUSION: Pupil vignetting artifact is a unique undescribed phenomenon appearing at the macula on OCTA imaging that can masquerade as numerous true chorioretinal pathologies. This article aims to describe this artifact to avoid misinterpretation and further confusion in real-life clinical practice.


Assuntos
Pupila , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Artefatos , Iris , Angiografia , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Retinianos/patologia
14.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 257: 218-226, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the final cycloplegic refraction of tropicamide 1% and cyclopentolate 1% in children 3-16 years of age with brown irides. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, multicenter prospective clinical trial. METHODS: Included patients were randomized to either cyclopentolate 1% or tropicamide 1% in the first visit with autorefraction measurements. Each subject underwent a second cycloplegic refraction using the other agent on a separate visit with a minimum of 1-week interval and a maximum of 12 weeks. We measured the change in SE (ΔSE) for each eye by deducting the SE before cycloplegia from the SE after cycloplegia. RESULTS: A total of 185 eyes from 94 children aged 3-16 years (average= 8.79 ±3.11 years) were included. The average SE of both eyes before cycloplegia was -0.082 ± 4.8 diopters. The SE after instillation of cyclopentolate and tropicamide in both eyes was 1.07±5.2 and 0.96±5.1, respectively (P value < .001). The average ΔSE after cycloplegia was 1.15±1.2 for cyclopentolate and 1.04±1.2 for tropicamide (P value < .001). The difference between ΔSE of cyclopentolate and tropicamide was found statistically significant at 0.11±1.2 (P < .001), although clinically insignificant. The ΔSE between the 2 drops before and after cycloplegia in both eyes for all refractive error groups was clinically insignificant. The greatest effect of cyclopentolate and tropicamide was in hyperopic eyes with ΔSE of 1.54±1.4 and 1.39±1.4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tropicamide might be an effective and safe replacement for cyclopentolate in the refracting nonstrabismic pediatric population 3-16 years of age regardless of their refractive error status.


Assuntos
Presbiopia , Erros de Refração , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Tropicamida/farmacologia , Ciclopentolato/farmacologia , Midriáticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Acomodação Ocular , Soluções Oftálmicas , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Erros de Refração/tratamento farmacológico , Pupila
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 72(2): 246-248, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the pupil size of patients having migraine with photophobia versus normal subjects and to correlate the pupil size to the severity of headache. METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study. One hundred eyes of 50 patients who had migraine with photophobia were compared with same number of control subjects who had no history of headache. Pupil size was measured using the IOL Master 700 in all cases. Severity of headache was evaluated by the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) test questionnaire, and MIDAS grades from 1 to 4 ranging from minimal disability to severe disability were obtained in all cases. The pupil sizes in all grades were compared. RESULTS: The mean pupil size was 4.89 ± 0.9 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]) in patients of migraine with photophobia compared to 3.8 ± 0.49 mm (95% CI) in normal subjects, with a P value of <0.0001, which was statistically significant. Among the 50 patients with migraine, according to MIDAS grades, 20 had Grade 4 or severe disability, 15 had Grade 3 or moderate disability, 10 had Grade 2 or mild disability, and five had Grade 1 or minimal disability. Pupil size in Grade 4 category was the largest with a mean value of 5.6 ± 0.79 mm (95% CI). CONCLUSION: The pupil size in patients of migraine with photophobia is larger than in normal subjects and could be a trigger for the migraine attacks. The larger the pupil size, the more severe is the migraine disability.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Fotofobia , Humanos , Fotofobia/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pupila , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Cefaleia , Avaliação da Deficiência
16.
Neurobiol Aging ; 133: 107-114, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939430

RESUMO

Physical exercise has positive impacts on hippocampal memory decline with aging. One of the postulated neurobiological mechanisms of the decline is reduced catecholaminergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus. Recent human studies revealed that very light exercise rapidly enhances memory and pupil diameter, which suggests that light exercise may improve memory via neural circuits involved in the ascending arousal system, including the locus coeruleus, even in older adults. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of a single bout of light-intensity exercise (60% ventilatory threshold) on mnemonic discrimination performance, an index of hippocampal memory function, in healthy older adults using a randomized crossover design. Pupil diameter was measured during exercise as a physiological marker of the ascending arousal system. Discrimination of highly similar stimuli to the targets improved after exercise when compared to the resting control performance. Importantly, causal mediation analysis showed that pupil dilation during exercise mediated the memory improvement. These results suggest that brief light exercise rapidly enhances memory, possibly by upregulating the ascending arousal system.


Assuntos
Memória , Pupila , Idoso , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipocampo , Memória/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over
17.
J Vis ; 23(15): 77, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109571

RESUMO

The pupillary light response is driven by three classes of retinal photoreceptor. Cones and rods are involved in the initial constriction of the pupil, whereas melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) maintain constriction over longer timescales. Previous work has characterized the contributions of photoreceptor signals to pupil control, but relatively little is known about binocular combination of these signals when simultaneously stimulating the retina in both eyes. We measured changes in pupil size in 48 participants using a binocular eye-tracker, targeting specific photoreceptor classes with a binocular 10-primary light engine and the silent substitution method. We stimulated the periphery of the retina using light flickering at 0.4 and 0.5 Hz. Participants viewed a disc of either achromatic flickering light, or contrast modulations that targeted the ipRGCs, or the opponent colour pathways L-M or S-(L+M). Using a modified virtual reality headset, we presented the stimuli at a range of modulation amplitudes in three different ocular configurations: monocular, binocular, and dichoptic. We obtained clear pupil responses at both the first and the second harmonic frequencies. Suppression levels differed across conditions with the strongest suppression measured for the L-M condition. We account for the results in a single modelling framework where the weight of interocular suppression determines the binocular combination properties.


Assuntos
Pupila , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Retina , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Luz , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia
18.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 154(6): 3973-3985, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149818

RESUMO

Face masks offer essential protection but also interfere with speech communication. Here, audio-only sentences spoken through four types of masks were presented in noise to young adult listeners. Pupil dilation (an index of cognitive demand), intelligibility, and subjective effort and performance ratings were collected. Dilation increased in response to each mask relative to the no-mask condition and differed significantly where acoustic attenuation was most prominent. These results suggest that the acoustic impact of the mask drives not only the intelligibility of speech, but also the cognitive demands of listening. Subjective effort ratings reflected the same trends as the pupil data.


Assuntos
Máscaras , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Pupila/fisiologia , Cognição , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
19.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 139(5): 54-59, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37942597

RESUMO

A 24-year-old female patient with photophobia, discoria, redness and dryness in her right eye after intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy applied for posttraumatic subcutaneous hemorrhage received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography of the anterior eye segment. Her best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. Medically induced mydriasis revealed discoria with paresis of pupil dilatator in the left eye (pupil size 4.2 mm and 6.6 mm in the right and left eye, respectively). Anterior segment OCT showed anterior chamber cytosis and increased iris vascularity. The patient was prescribed topical 1.0% tropicamide 2 times per day and 1.0% dexamethasone 4 times per day for two weeks. Examination performed after 3 months showed no restoration of pupil dilatator function in the left eye. The case demonstrates potential ocular complications of IPL therapy, which may include iris burn with iritis and persistent pupil dilatator dysfunction.


Assuntos
Terapia de Luz Pulsada Intensa , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Iris , Pupila , Segmento Anterior do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
20.
Infant Behav Dev ; 73: 101890, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944367

RESUMO

The rise of pupillometry in infant research over the last decade is associated with a variety of methods for data preprocessing and analysis. Although pupil diameter is increasingly recognized as an alternative measure of the popular cumulative looking time approach used in many studies (Jackson & Sirois, 2022), an open question is whether the many approaches used to analyse this variable converge. To this end, we proposed a crowdsourced approach to pupillometry analysis. A dataset from 30 9-month-old infants (15 girls; Mage = 282.9 days, SD = 8.10) was provided to 7 distinct teams for analysis. The data were obtained from infants watching video sequences showing a hand, initially resting between two toys, grabbing one of them (after Woodward, 1998). After habituation, infants were shown (in random order) a sequence of four test events that varied target position and target toy. Results show that looking times reflect primarily the familiar path of the hand, regardless of target toy. Gaze data similarly show this familiarity effect of path. The pupil dilation analyses show that features of pupil baseline measures (duration and temporal location) as well as data retention variation (trial and/or participant) due to different inclusion criteria from the various analysis methods are linked to divergences in findings. Two of the seven teams found no significant findings, whereas the remaining five teams differ in the pattern of findings for main and interaction effects. The discussion proposes guidelines for best practice in the analysis of pupillometry data.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Pupila , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Motivação , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção Social
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