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1.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611731

RESUMO

Although identical in molecular formula and weight, curcumin and cyclocurcumin show remarkable differences in their reactivity. Both are natural compounds isolated from the rhizome of turmeric, the former is involved in the diketo/keto-enol tautomerism through the bis-α,ß-unsaturated diketone unit according to the polarity of the solvent, while the latter could react by trans-cis isomerization due to the presence of the α,ß-unsaturated dihydropyranone moiety. Even if curcumin is generally considered responsible of the therapeutical properties of Curcuma longa L. due to its high content, cyclocurcumin has attracted great interest over the last several decades for its individual behavior and specific features as a bioactive compound. Cyclocurcumin has a hydrophobic nature characterized by fluorescence emission, solvatochromism, and the tendency to form spherical fluorescent aggregates in aqueous solution. Molecular docking analysis reveals the potentiality of cyclocurcumin as antioxidant, enzyme inhibitor, and antiviral agent. Promising biological activities are observed especially in the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Despite the versatility emerging from the data reported herein, the use of cyclocurcumin seems to remain limited in clinical applications mainly because of its low solubility and bioavailability.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Piranos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais
2.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611777

RESUMO

Iridoid components have been reported to have significant neuroprotective effects. However, it is not yet clear whether the efficacy and mechanisms of iridoid components with similar structures are also similar. This study aimed to compare the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of eight iridoid components (catalpol (CAT), genipin (GE), geniposide (GEN), geniposidic acid (GPA), aucubin (AU), ajugol (AJU), rehmannioside C (RC), and rehmannioside D (RD)) based on corticosterone (CORT)-induced injury in PC12 cells. PC12 cells were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC), model group (M), positive drug group (FLX), and eight iridoid administration groups. Firstly, PC12 cells were induced with CORT to simulate neuronal injury. Then, the MTT method and flow cytometry were applied to evaluate the protective effects of eight iridoid components on PC12 cell damage. Thirdly, a cell metabolomics study based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was performed to explore changes in relevant biomarkers and metabolic pathways following the intervention of administration. The MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that the eight iridoid components can improve cell viability, inhibit cell apoptosis, reduce intracellular ROS levels, and elevate MMP levels. In the PCA score plots, the sample points of the treatment groups showed a trend towards approaching the NC group. Among them, AU, AJU, and RC had a weaker effect. There were 38 metabolites (19 metabolites each in positive and negative ion modes, respectively) identified as potential biomarkers during the experiment, among which 23 metabolites were common biomarkers of the eight iridoid groups. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the eight iridoid components regulated the metabolism mainly in relation to D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, the TCA cycle, purine metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. In conclusion, the eight iridoid components could reverse an imbalanced metabolic state by regulating amino acid neurotransmitters, interfering with amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism, and harmonizing the level of oxidized substances to exhibit neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos Iridoides , Glicosídeos Iridoides , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Piranos , Animais , Ratos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Iridoides/farmacologia , Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores
3.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611899

RESUMO

2,6-Diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones and corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives were designed to lower the major toxicity of their parent anti-kinetoplatidal diarylideneacetones through a prodrug effect. Novel diastereoselective methodologies were developed and generalized from diarylideneacetones and 2,6-diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones to allow the introduction of a wide substitution profile and to prepare the related S-oxides. The in vitro biological activity and selectivity of diarylideneacetones, 2,6-diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones, and their S-sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites were evaluated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and various Leishmania species in comparison with their cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts hMRC-5. The data revealed that the sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones, in which the Michael acceptor sites are temporarily masked, are less toxic against mammal cells while the anti-trypanosomal potency was maintained against T. b. brucei, T. cruzi, L. infantum, and L. donovani, thus confirming the validity of the prodrug strategy. The mechanism of action is proposed to be due to the involvement of diarylideneacetones in cascades of redox reactions involving the trypanothione system. After Michael addition of the dithiol to the double bonds, resulting in an elongated polymer, the latter-upon S-oxidation, followed by syn-eliminations-fragments, under continuous release of reactive oxygen species and sulfenic/sulfonic species, causing the death of the trypanosomal parasites in the micromolar or submicromolar range with high selectivity indexes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Pró-Fármacos , Piranos , Safrol/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Humanos , Animais , Óxidos , Oxirredução , Mamíferos
4.
J Diabetes ; 16(4): e13526, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bexagliflozin and dapagliflozin are sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. No direct comparison of SGLT2 inhibitors in a randomized controlled trial has been reported to date. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial comparing bexagliflozin to dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults with disease inadequately controlled by metformin. Subjects (n = 406) were randomized to receive bexagliflozin (20 mg) or dapagliflozin (10 mg) plus metformin. The primary endpoint was noninferiority of bexagliflozin to dapagliflozin for the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 24. Secondary endpoints included intergroup differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h-postprandial glucose (PPG), body weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to week 24. The trial also evaluated the safety profiles. RESULTS: The model-adjusted mean change from baseline to week 24 HbA1c was -1.08% for bexagliflozin and -1.10% for dapagliflozin. The intergroup difference of 0.03% (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.14% to 0.19%) was below the prespecified margin of 0.4%, confirming the noninferiority of bexagliflozin. The changes from baseline in FPG, PPG, body weight, and SBP were -1.95 mmol/L, -3.24 mmol/L, -2.52 kg, and -6.4 mm Hg in the bexagliflozin arm and -1.87 mmol/L, -3.07 mmol/L, -2.22 kg, and -6.3 mm Hg in the dapagliflozin arm. Adverse events were experienced in 62.6% and 65.0% and serious adverse events affected 4.4% and 3.5% of subjects in the bexagliflozin and dapagliflozin arm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bexagliflozin showed nearly identical effects and a similar safety profile to dapagliflozin when used in Chinese patients on metformin.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glucosídeos , Metformina , Piranos , Adulto , Humanos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Peso Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucose , China , Glicemia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2453, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503758

RESUMO

Reactive sulfane sulfur species such as persulfides (RSSH) and H2S2 are important redox regulators and closely linked to H2S signaling. However, the study of these species is still challenging due to their instability, high reactivity, and the lack of suitable donors to produce them. Herein we report a unique compound, 2H-thiopyran-2-thione sulfine (TTS), which can specifically convert H2S to HSOH, and then to H2S2 in the presence of excess H2S. Meanwhile, the reaction product 2H-thiopyran-2-thione (TT) can be oxidized to reform TTS by biological oxidants. The reaction mechanism of TTS is studied experimentally and computationally. TTS can be conjugated to proteins to achieve specific delivery, and the combination of TTS and H2S leads to highly efficient protein persulfidation. When TTS is applied in conjunction with established H2S donors, the corresponding donors of H2S2 (or its equivalents) are obtained. Cell-based studies reveal that TTS can effectively increase intracellular sulfane sulfur levels and compensate for certain aspects of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) deficiency. These properties make TTS a conceptually new strategy for the design of donors of reactive sulfane sulfur species.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Piranos , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Tionas , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas/metabolismo
6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 87, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural tetramates are a family of hybrid polyketides bearing tetramic acid (pyrrolidine-2,4-dione) moiety exhibiting a broad range of bioactivities. Biosynthesis of tetramates in microorganisms is normally directed by hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) machineries, which form the tetramic acid ring by recruiting trans- or cis-acting thioesterase-like Dieckmann cyclase in bacteria. There are a group of tetramates with unique skeleton of 3-(2H-pyran-2-ylidene)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, which remain to be investigated for their biosynthetic logics. RESULTS: Herein, the tetramate type compounds bripiodionen (BPD) and its new analog, featuring the rare skeleton of 3-(2H-pyran-2-ylidene)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, were discovered from the sponge symbiotic bacterial Streptomyces reniochalinae LHW50302. Gene deletion and mutant complementation revealed the production of BPDs being correlated with a PKS-NRPS biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), in which a Dieckmann cyclase gene bpdE was identified by sit-directed mutations. According to bioinformatic analysis, the tetramic acid moiety of BPDs should be formed on an atypical NRPS module constituted by two discrete proteins, including the C (condensation)-A (adenylation)-T (thiolation) domains of BpdC and the A-T domains of BpdD. Further site-directed mutagenetic analysis confirmed the natural silence of the A domain in BpdC and the functional necessities of the two T domains, therefore suggesting that an unusual aminoacyl transthiolation should occur between the T domains of two NRPS subunits. Additionally, characterization of a LuxR type regulator gene led to seven- to eight-fold increasement of BPDs production. The study presents the first biosynthesis case of the natural molecule with 3-(2H-pyran-2-ylidene)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione skeleton. Genomic mining using BpdD as probe reveals that the aminoacyl transthiolation between separate NRPS subunits should occur in a certain population of NRPSs in nature.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Policetídeo Sintases , Pirrolidinonas , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Piranos/metabolismo , Esqueleto/metabolismo , Peptídeo Sintases/genética
7.
Food Chem ; 447: 139038, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507946

RESUMO

Several processes have been developed in the past to selectively extract oleuropein and its aglycones from olive derived materials. In the present manuscript, we outline a novel approach for processing olive leaves aqueous extracts. This allowed first to select microwave irradiation as the methodology able to provide a large enrichment in oleuropein. Subsequently, the use of lamellar solids led to the selective and high yield concentration of the same. Adsorption on solids also largely contributed to the long term chemical stability of oleuropein. Finally, an eco-friendly, readily available, and reusable catalyst like H2SO4 supported on silica was applied for the hydrolysis of oleuropein into hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid. This latter was in turn selectively isolated by an acid-base work-up providing its monoaldehydic dihydropyran form (7.8 % extractive yield), that was unequivocally characterized by GC-MS. The isolation of elenolic acid in pure form is described herein for the first time.


Assuntos
Olea , Piranos , Olea/química , Iridoides/análise , Glucosídeos Iridoides/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise
8.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 12(2): e1191, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527949

RESUMO

Ulotaront (SEP-363856) is a TAAR1 agonist, with 5-HT1A agonist activity, currently in clinical development for the treatment of schizophrenia. In vitro studies indicate ulotaront is an OCT2-specific inhibitor with IC50 of 1.27 µM. The primary objective of this study is to determine if a single dose of ulotaront affects the PK of metformin, an index substrate of OCT2, in subjects with schizophrenia. In a randomized, single-blind, 2-period crossover study, 25 adults with schizophrenia received a single dose of metformin-HCl 850 mg (approximately 663 mg metformin) with and without coadministration of 100 mg ulotaront. The plasma samples were analyzed by fully validated LC-MS/MS methods. The primary PK endpoints for metformin were AUCinf, AUClast, Cmax, and tmax. The highest-anticipated clinical dose of ulotaront (100 mg) had no statistically significant effect on the PK of a single dose of metformin based on Cmax and AUCinf. Geometric least squares mean ratios were 89.98% and 110.63%, respectively, with the 90% confidential interval (CI) for each parameter contained within 80%-125%. Median tmax was comparable across the treatments. Ulotaront does not act as a perpetrator of OCT2-mediated DDI against metformin. Co-administration of ulotaront is not expected to require dose adjustment of metformin or other drugs cleared by OCT2.


Assuntos
Metformina , Piranos , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas/genética , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Método Simples-Cego , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transportador 2 de Cátion Orgânico/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Science ; 383(6689): 1318-1325, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513014

RESUMO

Plants are constantly exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released during plant-plant communication, within-plant self-signaling, and plant-microbe interactions. Therefore, understanding VOC perception and downstream signaling is vital for unraveling the mechanisms behind information exchange in plants, which remain largely unexplored. Using the hormone-like function of volatile terpenoids in reproductive organ development as a system with a visual marker for communication, we demonstrate that a petunia karrikin-insensitive receptor, PhKAI2ia, stereospecifically perceives the (-)-germacrene D signal, triggering a KAI2-mediated signaling cascade and affecting plant fitness. This study uncovers the role(s) of the intermediate clade of KAI2 receptors, illuminates the involvement of a KAI2ia-dependent signaling pathway in volatile communication, and provides new insights into plant olfaction and the long-standing question about the nature of potential endogenous KAI2 ligand(s).


Assuntos
Furanos , Hidrolases , Petunia , Piranos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Petunia/fisiologia , Furanos/metabolismo , Piranos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/metabolismo
10.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(2): e23641, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348709

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a common anticancer chemotherapy drug, and myelosuppression is the most common serious side effect. Asperuloside (ASP), the active component of Hedyotis diffusa Willd., may have the effect of ameliorating chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. This study aimed to explore the effect and possible mechanism of ASP on CTX-induced myelosuppression. Male SPF C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, CTX (25 mg/kg) group, CTX + granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (5 µg/kg) group, CTX + high-dose ASP (50 mg/kg) group and CTX + low-dose ASP (25 mg/kg) group, with six mice in each group. The body weight of mice was monitored every other day, the hematopoietic progenitor cell colony number was measured by colony forming unit, and the relevant blood indicators were detected. Femoral bone marrow was observed by hematoxylin-eosin, C-kit expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and autophagy and adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting (WB). Then the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin was used to interfere with AMPK/mTOR pathway. Results showed that ASP significantly increased the body weight of CTX-induced mice, increased the number of hematopoietic progenitor cells, the expression of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, GM-CSF, thrombopoietin and erythropoietin in blood, and the expression of C-kit in bone marrow. In addition, ASP further promoted the expression of Beclin1 and LC-3II/I induced by CTX, and regulated the protein expressions in the AMPK/mTOR pathway. The use of dorsomorphin inhibited the alleviation effect of ASP on CTX-induced myelosuppression and the promotion effect of ASP on autophagy. In conclusion, ASP alleviated CTX-induced myelosuppression by promoting AMPK/mTOR pathway-mediated autophagy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos , Glucosídeos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Piranos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Autofagia , Peso Corporal , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Mamíferos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
11.
Gene ; 893: 147927, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374023

RESUMO

Recent semi-targeted metabolomics studies have highlighted a number of metabolites in wheat that associate with leaf rust resistance genes and/or rust infection. Here, we report the structural characterization of a novel glycosylated and partially saturated apocarotenoid, reminiscent of a reduced form of mycorradicin, (6E,8E,10E)-4,9-dimethyl-12-oxo-12-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)-3-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)dodeca-6,8,10-trienoic acid, isolated from Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) variety 'Thatcher' (Tc) flag leaves. While its accumulation was not associated with any of Lr34, Lr67 or Lr22a resistance genes, infection of Tc with leaf rust was found to deplete it, consistent with the idea of this metabolite being a glycosylated-storage form of an apocarotenoid of possible relevance to plant defense. A comparative analysis of wheat transcriptomic changes shows modulation of terpenoid, carotenoid, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glycosylase -related gene expression profiles, consistent with anticipated biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms. However, details of the exact nature of the relevant pathways remain to be validated in the future. Together these findings highlight another example of the breadth of unique metabolites underlying plant host-fungal pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Piranos
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 251: 116114, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354495

RESUMO

Plant nanobionic sensors enable real-time monitoring of signaling molecules in plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoprobes, which have been acknowledged as species-independent analytical tools. In this study, we developed a plant nanobionic sensor for in vivo detection of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) in living plants by designing a novel second near-infrared (NIR-II) fluorescent metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoprobe. The NIR-II fluorescent nanoprobe (IR-1061 micelle@ZIF-90) with a sandwich structure was synthesized by successive encapsulation of the hydrophobic NIR-II dye IR-1061 with the amphipathic polymer DSPE-mPEG 2000 and MOF ZIF-90. Interestingly, coating ZIF-90 around IR-1061 micelles increased the NIR-II fluorescence 16.6-fold. Utilizing the ultrahigh NIR-II fluorescent emission of the designed nanoprobes and specific recognition of ZIF-90 to ATP, the nanoprobes were applied to spatial and temporal monitoring eATP in model and non-model plants under environmental stress.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Boratos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanopartículas , Piranos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Corantes Fluorescentes/química
13.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 39(1): 109-126, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417828

RESUMO

BACKGRUOUND: No recent meta-analysis has holistically analyzed and summarized the efficacy and safety of omarigliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a meta-analysis to address this knowledge gap. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included patients with T2DM who received omarigliptin in the intervention arm. The control arm consisted of either a placebo (passive control group [PCG]) or an active comparator (active control group [ACG]). The primary outcome assessed was changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), while secondary outcomes included variations in glucose levels, achievement of glycemic targets, adverse events (AEs), and hypoglycemic events. RESULTS: From 332 initially screened articles, data from 16 RCTs involving 8,804 subjects were analyzed. Omarigliptin demonstrated superiority over placebo in reducing HbA1c levels (mean difference, -0.58%; 95% confidence interval, -0.75 to -0.40; P<0.00001; I2=91%). Additionally, omarigliptin outperformed placebo in lowering fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and in the percentage of participants achieving HbA1c levels below 7.0% and 6.5%. The glycemic efficacy of omarigliptin was similar to that of the ACG across all measures. Although the omarigliptin group experienced a higher incidence of hypoglycemic events compared to the PCG, the overall AEs, serious AEs, hypoglycemia, and severe hypoglycemia were comparable between the omarigliptin and control groups (PCG and ACG). CONCLUSION: Omarigliptin has a favorable glycemic efficacy and safety profile for managing T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis , Hipoglicemia , Piranos , Humanos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Glicemia/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/uso terapêutico
14.
Nutrients ; 16(4)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398846

RESUMO

Dietary polyphenols are reported to alleviate colitis by interacting with gut microbiota which plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. As a type of dietary polyphenol, whether ligustroside (Lig) could alleviate colitis has not been explored yet. Here, we aimed to determine if supplementation of ligustroside could improve colitis. We explored the influence of ligustroside intake with different dosages on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Compared to the DSS group, supplementation of ligustroside could reduce body weight (BW) loss, decrease disease activity indices (DAI), and relieve colon damage in colitis mice. Furthermore, ligustroside intake with 2 mg/kg could decrease proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in serum and increase immunoglobulin content and antioxidant enzymes in colon tissue. In addition, supplementation of ligustroside (2 mg/kg) could reduce mucus secretion and prevent cell apoptosis. Also, changes were revealed in the bacterial community composition, microbiota functional profiles, and intestinal metabolite composition following ligustroside supplementation with 2 mg/kg using 16S rRNA sequencing and non-targeted lipidomics analysis. In conclusion, the results showed that ligustroside was very effective in preventing colitis through reduction in inflammation and the enhancement of the intestinal barrier. Furthermore, supplementation with ligustroside altered the gut microbiota and lipid composition of colitis mice.


Assuntos
Colite , Glucosídeos , Piranos , Camundongos , Animais , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/prevenção & controle , Intestinos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Colo/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 186: 114489, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360388

RESUMO

Curcuminoids have many pharmacological effects. They or their metabolites may have side effects by suppressing 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17ß-HSD3). Herein, we investigated the inhibition of curcuminoids and their metabolites on human and rat 17ß-HSD3 and analyzed their structure-activity relationship (SAR) and performed in silico docking. Curcuminoids and their metabolites ranked in terms of IC50 values against human 17ß-HSD3 were bisdemethoxycurcumin (0.61 µM) > curcumin (8.63 µM) > demethoxycurcumin (9.59 µM) > tetrahydrocurcumin (22.04 µM) > cyclocurcumin (29.14 µM), and those against rat 17ß-HSD3 were bisdemethoxycurcumin (3.94 µM) > demethoxycurcumin (4.98 µM) > curcumin (9.62 µM) > tetrahydrocurcumin (45.82 µM) > cyclocurcumin (143.5 µM). The aforementioned chemicals were mixed inhibitors for both enzymes. Molecular docking analysis revealed that they bind to the domain between the androstenedione and NADPH active sites of 17ß-HSD3. Bivariate correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between LogP and pKa of curcumin derivatives with their IC50 values. Additionally, a 3D-QSAR analysis revealed that a pharmacophore model consisting of three hydrogen bond acceptor regions and one hydrogen bond donor region provided a better fit for bisdemethoxycurcumin compared to curcumin. In conclusion, curcuminoids and their metabolites possess the ability to inhibit androgen biosynthesis by directly targeting human and rat 17ß-HSD3. The inhibitory strength of these compounds is influenced by their lipophilicity and ionization characteristics.


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases , Curcumina , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Diarileptanoides , Piranos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Curcumina/farmacologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 24, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinomycin, an antibiotic, have potential as a veterinary drug for fish due to its anti-parasitic activity against several fish parasites. Thus the residual levels of salinomycin in muscles of two significant aquaculture species in Korea, olive flounder and black rockfish, were analyzed using HPLC-MS-MS. RESULTS: The proper method to analyze the residual salinomycin in fish muscles using LC-MS-MS was settled and the method was validated according to CODEX guidelines. The residues in three distinct groups for two fish species were analyzed using the matrix match calibration curves at points of five different times following oral administration. After oral administration, salinomycin rapidly breaks down in both olive flounder and black rockfish. After 7th days, the average residue in all groups of two fish spp. decreased below limit of quantitation (LOQ). CONCLUSION: Due to low residue levels in fish muscles, salinomycin may therefore be a treatment that is safe for both fish and humans. This result could contribute to establishment of MRL (minimal residual limit) for approval of salinomycin for use in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Linguado , Perciformes , 60436 , Piranos , Humanos , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Músculos/parasitologia , Administração Oral
17.
Anal Chem ; 96(5): 2264-2272, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266388

RESUMO

Lipid metabolism diseases have become a tremendous risk worldwide, along with the development of productivity and particular attention to public health. It has been an urgent necessity to exploit reliable imaging strategies for lipids and thus to monitor fatty liver diseases. Herein, by converting the NIR-I signal to the NIR-II signal with IR1061 for the monitoring of lipid, the in vivo imaging of fatty liver disease was promoted on the contrast and visual effect. The main advantages of the imaging promotion in this work included a long emission wavelength, rapid response, and high signal-background-ratio (SBR) value. After promoting the NIR-I signal to NIR-II signal, IR1061 achieved higher SBR value and exhibited a dose-dependent fluorescence intensity at 1100 nm along with the increase of the EtOH proportion as well as steady and selective optical responses toward liposomes. IR1061 was further applied in the in vivo imaging of lipid in fatty liver diseases. In spite of the differences in body weight gain and TC level between healthy mice and fatty liver diseases two models, IR1061 achieved high-resolution imaging in the liver region to monitor the fatty liver disease status. This work might be informatic for the clinical diagnosis and therapeutical treatments of fatty liver diseases.


Assuntos
Boratos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatias , Piranos , Animais , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Lipídeos
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 529, 2024 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177184

RESUMO

Hybrid molecules maintain their stronghold in the drug market, with over 60% of drug candidates in pharmaceutical industries. The substantial expenses for developing and producing biologically privileged drugs are expected to create opportunities for producing hybrid molecule-based drugs. Therefore, we have developed a simple and efficient copper-catalyzed approach for synthesizing a wide range of triazole-linked glycohybrids derived from pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. Employing a microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed approach, we developed a concise route using various 7-O-propargylated pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and 1-azidoglycosides. This strategy afforded a series of twenty-seven glycohybrids up to 98% yield with diverse stereochemistry. All were achieved within a remarkably shortened time frame. Our investigation extends to evaluating the anticancer potential of these synthesized triazole-linked pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine-based glycohybrids. In-vitro assays against MCF-7, MDA-MB231, and MDA-MB453 cell lines reveal intriguing findings. (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(acetoxymethyl)-6-(4-(((5-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)oxy)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate emerges as a standout with better anticancer activity against MDA-MB231 cells (IC50 = 29.1 µM), while (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-(acetoxymethyl)-6-(4-(((5-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)oxy)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate demonstrates the best inhibitory effects against MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 15.3 µM) in all derived compounds. These results align with our docking analysis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigations, further validating the in-vitro outcomes. This work not only underscores the synthetic utility of our devised protocol but also highlights the promising potential of these glycohybrids as candidates for further anticancer therapeutic exploration.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Cobre , Humanos , Triazóis/química , Pirimidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células MCF-7 , Piranos , Catálise , Antineoplásicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais
19.
Food Chem ; 443: 138536, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277930

RESUMO

A method for the simultaneous determination of the four stereoisomers of the chiral herbicide profoxydim in rice and husk was developed using the QuEChERS method and LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Four polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase columns were evaluated. All four stereoisomers were successfully separated on a Chiracel OJ-3R column. The effects of mobile phase, modifiers, mobile phase flow rate and temperature on the separation were also investigated. Different QuEChERS methods were compared for the development of an optimized sample preparation procedure. The method, following SANTE guidelines, showed excellent linearity (R2 ≥ 0.99), the LODs were below 4.0 µg kg-1, and the LOQs did not exceed 12.5 µg kg-1. The overall average recoveries at three levels (12.5, 25.0 and 250 µg kg-1) ranged from 76.77 % to 106.53 %, with RSD values less than 7 %. The method is demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of profoxydim stereoisomers in rice and husk.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno , Herbicidas , Oryza , Piranos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , 60705 , Oryza/química , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
20.
Exp Neurol ; 373: 114672, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169196

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a serious neurological disease with limited therapeutic options; thus, it is particularly important to find effective treatments. Restoration of gut microflora diversity is an important factor in the treatment of ischemic stroke, but the mechanism remains unclear. Cornuside is known for its unique anti-inflammatory and circulation-promoting effects; however, whether it can effectively treat ischemic stroke and its therapeutic mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion model (MCAO/R) to mimic ischemic stroke in humans and to assess the cerebral protective effects of cornuside in rats with ischemic stroke. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing, we explored the cornuside mechanism in the brain-gut axis that confers protection against ischemic stroke. In conclusion, cornuside can inhibit the IL-17F/TRAF6/NF-κB pathway by improving the dysregulation of intestinal microflora, and reduce intestinal inflammation and neuroinflammation, which treated ischemic stroke rats.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Glucosídeos , AVC Isquêmico , Piranos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
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