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1.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(4): e1237, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe myocarditis is often accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. CXCL4 is a chemokine that has been reported to have pro-inflammatory and profibrotic functions. The exact role of CXCL4 in cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. METHODS: Viral myocarditis (VMC) models were induced by intraperitoneal injection of Coxsackie B Type 3 (CVB3). In vivo, CVB3 (100 TCID50) and CVB3-AMG487 (CVB3: 100 TCID50; AMG487: 5 mg/kg) combination were administered in the VMC and VMC+AMG487 groups, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, severity score, Masson staining, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to measure myocardial morphology in VMC. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to quantify inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL4). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels were analyzed by commercial kits. CXCL4, CXCR3B, α-SMA, TGF-ß1, Collagen I, and Collagen III were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: In vivo, CVB3-AMG487 reduced cardiac injury, α-SMA, Collagen I and Collagen III levels, and collagen deposition in VMC+AMG487 group. Additionally, compared with VMC group, VMC+AMG group decreased the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α). In vitro, CXCL4/CXCR3B axis activation TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 pathway promote mice cardiac fibroblasts differentiation. CONCLUSION: CXCL4 acts as a profibrotic factor in TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 pathway-induced cardiac fibroblast activation and ECM synthesis, and eventually progresses to cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, our findings revealed the role of CXCL4 in VMC and unveiled its underlying mechanism. CXCL4 appears to be a potential target for the treatment of VMC.


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Infecções por Coxsackievirus , Miocardite , Pirimidinonas , Camundongos , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-6 , Colágeno , Fibrose
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6266, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491114

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for antifibrotic therapies to prevent the progression of liver cirrhosis. Previously, we conducted an exploratory trial to assess the safety and antifibrotic efficacy of PRI-724, a selective CBP/ß-catenin inhibitor, in patients with liver cirrhosis. PRI-724 was well tolerated and exerted a potential antifibrotic effect. Here, we investigated whether the profiles of circulating microRNAs packaged in extracellular vesicles (EV-miRNAs) are associated with responses to liver fibrosis treatments. Eighteen patients who received PRI-724 for 12 weeks in a phase 1/2a study were classified as responders (n = 10) or non-responders (n = 8) based on changes in liver stiffness. Plasma samples were obtained before and after PRI-724 administration and the levels of EV-miRNAs were analyzed. Three miRNAs (miR-6510-5p, miR-6772-5p, and miR-4261) were identified as predictors of response or non-response to PRI-724, and the levels of three other miRNAs (miR-939-3p, miR-887-3p, and miR-7112-5p) correlated with the efficacy of treatment. Expression of miR-887-3p was detected in hepatocytes and was decreased significantly in liver tissue following PRI-724 treatment. In addition, transfection of a miR-887-3p mimic activated hepatic stellate cells. Thus, decreases in the miR-887-3p level in blood may reflect recovery from liver fibroses in patients with liver cirrhosis treated with PRI-724, although further validation studies are warranted to confirm this.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Pirimidinonas , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo
3.
Se Pu ; 42(3): 256-263, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503702

RESUMO

Herbicides play an important role in preventing and controlling weeds and harmful plants and are increasingly used in agriculture, forestry, landscaping, and other fields. However, the effective utilization rate of herbicides is only 20%-30%, and most herbicides enter the atmosphere, soil, sediment, and water environments through drift, leaching, and runoff after field application. Herbicide residues in the environment pose potential risks to ecological safety and human health. Therefore, establishing analytical methods to determine herbicide residues in environmental samples is of great importance. In this study, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI+) was developed for the determination of isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil residues in soil, sediment, and water. The instrumental detection parameters, including electrospray ionization mode, mobile phase, and chromatographic column, were optimized. The mobile phases were methanol (A) and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B). Gradient elution was performed as follows: 0-1.0 min, 60%A; 1.0-2.0 min, 60%A-90%A; 2.0-3.0 min, 90%A; 3.0-4.0 min, 90%A-60%A; 4.0-5.0 min, 60%A. The samples were salted after extraction with acetonitrile and cleaned using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. Different solid-phase extraction columns and leaching conditions were investigated during sample pretreatment. Working curves in the neat solvent and matrix were constructed by plotting the measured peak areas as a function of the concentrations of the analytes in the neat solvent and matrix. Good linearities were found for isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil in the solvent and matrix-matched standards in the range of 0.0005-0.02 mg/L, with r≥0.9961. The matrix effects of the three herbicides in soil, sediment, and water ranged from -10.1% to 16.5%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil were 0.05, 0.01, and 0.02 µg/kg, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) for isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil were 0.2, 0.05, and 0.05 µg/kg, respectively. The herbicides were applied to soil, sediment, and water at spiked levels of 0.005, 0.1, and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries for isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil in soil, sediment, and water were in the ranges of 77.2%-101.9%, 77.9%-105.1%, and 80.8%-107.1%, respectively. The RSDs for isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil were in the ranges of 1.4%-12.8%, 1.2%-7.7%, and 1.5%-11.5%, respectively. The established method was used to analyze actual samples collected from four different sites in Zhejiang Province (Xiaoshan, Taizhou, Dongyang, and Yuhang) and one site in Heilongjiang (Jiamusi). The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate, stable, and highly practical. It can be used to detect isoxaflutole, metazachlor, and saflufenacil residues in soil, sediment, and water and provides a reference for monitoring the residual pollution and environmental behavior of herbicides.


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Herbicidas , Pirimidinonas , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Herbicidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água/análise , Solo/química , Solventes/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida
4.
Future Oncol ; 20(12): 727-738, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488039

RESUMO

OPTYX is a multi-center, prospective, observational study designed to further understand the actual experience of patients with advanced prostate cancer treated with relugolix (ORGOVYX®), an oral androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), by collecting clinical and patient-reported outcomes from routine care settings. The study aims to enroll 1000 consented patients with advanced prostate cancer from community, academic and government operated clinical practices across the USA. At planned timepoints, real-world data analysis on treatment patterns, adherence and safety as well as health outcomes and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) after treatment discontinuation will be published in scientific peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. This study will provide real-world data for practitioners and researchers in their understanding of the safety and effectiveness of relugolix. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05467176 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


What is this summary about? This is a protocol summary for a research study named OPTYX. Who can participate in this research? Men 18 or older with advanced prostate cancer initiating treatment with relugolix, an oral androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), at the time of enrollment or within the 1 month before enrollment (remaining on treatment at enrollment) and are willing and able to complete patient assessments during the study. What institutions are performing this research? Community practices, academic institutions and Veterans Health Administration facilities across the USA. What are the research assessments to obtain the results? Data will be collected from the routine medical visits twice yearly including patient demographics, medical history (co-morbidities and cardiac risk factors), prostate cancer history and treatments and test results (routine lab testosterone, PSA levels and imaging). Relugolix response and all serious adverse events (SAEs) and any nonserious adverse events (AE) leading to relugolix treatment discontinuation will be assessed. Patients will be asked to respond to evaluations about their health-related quality of life and adherence to relugolix treatment. How long would the study last? Up to 5 years from enrollment date and/or up to 2 years after relugolix discontinuation. Follow-up will end with consent withdrawal, loss to follow-up, death, or study termination, whichever comes first. What do the results of the study mean? Real-world understanding of the experience and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced prostate cancer in routine clinical care and their clinical trajectory following cessation of relugolix therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Pirimidinonas , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134067, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513441

RESUMO

High-performance antibodies are core reagents for highly sensitive immunoassays. Herein, based on a novel hapten, a hybridoma secreting the high-affinity anti-ethirimol monoclonal antibody (mAb-14G5F6) was isolated with an IC50 value of 1.35 µg/L and cross-reactivity below 0.20% for 13 analogs. To further address the challenge of hybridoma preservation and antibody immortalization, a recombinant full-length antibody (rAb-14G5F6) was expressed using the HEK293(F) expression system based on the mAb-14G5F6 gene. The affinity, specificity, and tolerance of rAb-14G5F6, as characterized by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and noncompetitive surface plasmon resonance, exhibited high concordance with those of mAb-14G5F6. Further immunoassays based on rAb-14G5F6 were developed for irrigation water and strawberry fruit with limits of detection of 0.0066 and 0.036 mg/kg, respectively, recoveries of 80100%, and coefficients of variation below 10%. Furthermore, homology simulation and molecular docking revealed that GLU(L40), GLY(L107), GLY(H108), and ASP(H114) play important roles in forming hydrogen bonds and pi-anion ionic bonds between rAb-14G5F6 and ethirimol, resulting in the high specificity and affinity of rAb-14G5F6 for ethirimol, with a KD of 5.71 × 10-10 mol/L. Overall, a rAb specific for ethirimol was expressed successfully in this study, laying the groundwork for rAb-based immunoassays for monitoring fungicide residues in agricultural products and the environment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Frutas , Pirimidinonas , Humanos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Frutas/química , Água/análise , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células HEK293 , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
6.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474577

RESUMO

While numerous Fabaceae seeds are a good nutritional source of high-quality protein, the use of some species is hampered by toxic effects caused by exposure to metabolites that accumulate in the seeds. One such species is the faba or broad bean (Vicia faba L.), which accumulates vicine and convicine. These two glycoalkaloids cause favism, the breakdown of red blood cells in persons with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Because this is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, faba bean breeding efforts have focused on developing cultivars with low levels of these alkaloids. Consequently, quantification methods have been developed; however, they quantify vicine and convicine only and not the derivatives of these compounds that potentially generate the same bio-active molecules. Based on the recognition of previously unknown (con)vicine-containing compounds, we screened the fragmentation spectra of LC-MS/MS data from five faba bean cultivars using the characteristic fragments generated by (con)vicine. This resulted in the recognition of more than a hundred derivatives, of which 89 were tentatively identified. (Con)vicine was mainly derivatized through the addition of sugars, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dicarboxylic acids, with a group of compounds composed of two (con)vicine residues linked by dicarboxyl fatty acids. In general, the abundance profiles of the different derivatives in the five cultivars mimicked that of vicine and convicine, but some showed a derivative-specific profile. The description of the (con)vicine diversity will impact the interpretation of future studies on the biosynthesis of (con)vicine, and the content in potentially bio-active alkaloids in faba beans may be higher than that represented by the quantification of vicine and convicine alone.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Fabaceae , Glucosídeos , Pirimidinonas , Uridina/análogos & derivados , Vicia faba , Vicia faba/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 113, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of mirabegron and vibegron in female OAB patients. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized crossover study of female patients with OAB. The patients were assigned to Group MV (mirabegron for 8 weeks, followed by vibegron for 8 weeks) or group VM (vibegron for 8 weeks, followed by mirabegron for 8 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in OABSS from baseline, and the secondary endpoint was the change in FVC parameters. After completion of the study, each patient was asked which drug was preferable. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients were enrolled (40 and 43 in groups MV and VM, respectively). At 8th and 16th week, 33 and 29 in Group MV and 34 and 27 in Group VM continued to receive the treatment. The change in PVR was not significantly different between treatment with mirabegron and vibegron. The changes in OABSS, nighttime frequency, mean, and maximum voided volume were similar between mirabegron and vibegron. The mean change in the daytime frequency was greater in the vibegron than in the mirabegron. Of the 56 patients, 15 (27%) and 30 (53%) preferred mirabegron and vibegron, respectively. The remaining 11 patients (20%) showed no preference. The change in the urgency incontinence score during vibegron was better in patients who preferred vibegron to mirabegron. CONCLUSION: The efficacies of mirabegron and vibegron in female patients was similar. The patients' preference for vibegron could depend on the efficacy of vibegron for urgency incontinence.


Assuntos
Pirimidinonas , Pirrolidinas , Tiazóis , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Incontinência Urinária , Agentes Urológicos , Humanos , Feminino , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/complicações , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos Prospectivos , Acetanilidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Método Duplo-Cego , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/uso terapêutico
8.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 80(5): 639-656, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dabrafenib and trametinib represent targeted therapy options under investigation for treatment of gliomas harboring BRAF V600 mutations. We systematically reviewed the literature and conducted meta-analyses to assess the efficacy and safety of these agents. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched from inception to September 2023 for studies examining dabrafenib and/or trametinib for gliomas. Outcomes included response rates (ORR, CR, PR), progression rates (PD), 6- and 12-month PFS, adverse events, and dosing modifications. Meta-analyses were conducted using random effect models. RESULTS: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated overall response rates (ORR) of 50% (95% confidence interval (CI): 35-65%) for low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 40% (95% CI: 29-51%) for high-grade gliomas (HGG). Pooled ORR was 45% (95% CI: 36-54%) for both glioma grades. The complete response rate was 13% (95% CI: 05-27%) for HGG and 5% (95% CI: 1-10%) for both LGG and HGG. Six-month progression-free survival (PFS) rates reached 87% in LGG and 67% in HGG and a pooled 6-month PFS 78% (95% CI: 58-98%), declining at 12 months to 67% and 44%, respectively, with a pooled 12-month PFS 56% (95% CI: 34-79%). Grade 1-4 adverse events occurred in 100% of LGG and 63% of HGG patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dabrafenib and trametinib demonstrate promising anti-tumor efficacy in gliomas, particularly low-grade tumors, achieving durable disease stabilization in many patients. However, toxicity significantly limited tolerability. Additional research should further examine efficacy and refine safe administration protocols across glioma subtypes.


Assuntos
Glioma , Imidazóis , Pirimidinonas , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/induzido quimicamente , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Mutação , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
9.
Clin Nucl Med ; 49(4): 342-343, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389206

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 79-year-old man with a history of metastatic prostate cancer was initially treated with Eligard and switched to relugolix in 2021. The 2022 bone scan presented superscan and extensive osseous metastatic lesions; some had intense PSMA uptake on the initial PSMA PET scan without nodal or visceral metastatic lesions. We treated him with Pluvicto and relugolix. The intermediate PSMA scan demonstrated prominent bone marrow PSMA uptake. However, PSA decreased 58.5%. We hypothesized that the patient might have a bone flare. The final PSMA scan confirmed our hypothesis. Based on our knowledge, this is the first case of Pluvicto-induced bone flare.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Pirimidinonas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos de Fenilureia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
10.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 63(2): e23222, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas are rare malignant neoplasms. High-quality evidence about the best treatment strategy is lacking. We present the case of a 52-year-old male with a BRAFV600E -mutated PACC who experienced a complete remission after chemotherapy with BRAF-/MEK-inhibitors. CASE: The patient presented with upper abdomen pain, night sweat, and weight loss. CT scan showed a pancreatic tumor extending from the pancreas head to body. Histological workup identified an acinar cell carcinoma. As the tumor was inoperable, chemotherapy with FOFIRNIOX was initiated and initially showed a slight regression of disease. The regimen had to be discontinued due to severe side effects. Molecular analysis identified a BRAFV600E mutation, so the patient was started on BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors (dabrafenib/trametinib). After 16 months, CT scans showed a near complete remission with a markedly improved overall health. DISCUSSION: Studies suggest that up to one-fourth of PACCs carry a BRAF mutation and might therefore be susceptible to a BRAF-/MEK-inhibitor therapy. This offers a new therapeutic pathway to treat this rare but malignant neoplasm.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Acinares , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/genética , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/induzido quimicamente , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3308, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332020

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation impairs genome stability by inducing the formation of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] in plant genomes. (6-4)PPs disrupt growth and development by interfering with transcription and DNA replication. To resist UV stress, plants employ both photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair that excises oligonucleotide containing (6-4)PPs through two subpathways: global and transcription-coupled excision repair (TCR). Here, we analyzed the genome-wide excision repair-mediated repair of (6-4)PPs in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that (6-4)PPs can be repaired by TCR; however, the main subpathway to remove (6-4)PPs from the genome is global repair. Our analysis showed that open chromatin genome regions are more rapidly repaired than heterochromatin regions, and the repair level peaks at the promoter, transcription start site and transcription end site of genes. Our study revealed that the repair of (6-4)PP in plants showed a distinct genome-wide repair profile compared to the repair of other major UV-induced DNA lesion called cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs).


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Reparo do DNA , Arabidopsis/genética , Pirimidinonas , Dímeros de Pirimidina , Dano ao DNA , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4008, 2024 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369538

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is regarded as the deadliest subtype of breast cancer because of its high heterogeneity, aggressiveness, and limited treatment options. Toxoflavin has been reported to possess antitumor activity. In this study, a series of toxoflavin analogs were synthesized, among which D43 displayed a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806). Additionally, D43 inhibited DNA synthesis in TNBC cells, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, D43 consistently promoted intracellular ROS generation, induced DNA damage, and resulted in apoptosis in TNBC cells. These effects could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine. Moreover, D43 significantly inhibited the growth of breast cancer patient-derived organoids and xenografts with a favorable biosafety profile. In conclusion, D43 is a potent anticancer agent that elicits significant antiproliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage effects in TNBC cells, and D43 holds promise as a potential candidate for the treatment of TNBC.


Assuntos
Pirimidinonas , Triazinas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Apoptose , Dano ao DNA
13.
Thyroid ; 34(3): 336-346, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226606

RESUMO

Background: The dabrafenib plus trametinib combination (DT) has revolutionized the treatment of BRAFV600E-mutated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (BRAFm-ATC). However, patients eventually develop resistance and progress. Single-agent anti-PD-1 inhibitor spartalizumab has shown a median overall survival (mOS) of 5.9 months. Combination of immunotherapy with BRAF/MEK inhibitors (BRAF/MEKi) seems to improve outcomes compared with BRAF/MEKi alone, although no direct comparison is available. BRAF-targeted therapy before surgery (neoadjuvant approach) has also shown improvement in survival. We studied the efficacy and safety of DT plus pembrolizumab (DTP) compared with current standard-of-care DT alone as an initial treatment, as well as in the neoadjuvant setting. Methods: Retrospective single-center study of patients with BRAFm-ATC treated with first-line BRAF-directed therapy between January 2014 and March 2023. Three groups were evaluated: DT, DTP (pembrolizumab added upfront or at progression), and neoadjuvant (DT before surgery, and pembrolizumab added before or after surgery). The primary endpoint was mOS between DT and DTP. Secondary endpoints included median progression-free survival (mPFS) and response rate with DT versus DTP as initial treatments, and the exploratory endpoint was mOS in the neoadjuvant group. Results: Seventy-one patients were included in the primary analysis: n = 23 in DT and n = 48 in DTP. Baseline demographics were similar between groups, including the presence of metastatic disease at start of treatment (p = 0.427) and prior treatments with surgery (p = 0.864) and radiation (p = 0.678). mOS was significantly longer with DTP (17.0 months [confidence interval CI, 11.9-22.1]) compared with DT alone (9.0 months [CI, 4.5-13.5]), p = 0.037. mPFS was also significantly improved with DTP as the initial treatment (11.0 months [CI, 7.0-15.0]) compared with DT alone (4.0 months [CI, 0.7-7.3]), p = 0.049. Twenty-three patients were in the exploratory neoadjuvant group, where mOS was the longest (63.0 months [CI, 15.5-110.5]). No grade 5 adverse events (AEs) occurred in all three cohorts, and 32.4% had immune-related AEs, most frequently hepatitis and colitis. Conclusions: Our results show that in BRAFm-ATC, addition of pembrolizumab to dabrafenib/trametinib may significantly prolong survival. Surgical resection of the primary tumor after initial BRAF-targeted therapy in selected patients may provide further survival benefit. However, conclusions are limited by the retrospective nature of the study. Additional prospective data are needed to confirm this observation.


Assuntos
Imidazóis , Piridonas , Pirimidinonas , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Oximas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Mutação
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 137(2): 222-231, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage triggers cell cycle arrest and has a suppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Wee1, a cell cycle regulator, can eliminate G2/M arrest by phosphorylating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Meanwhile, programed death-1/programed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PDL-1) blockade is closely related to TME. This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Wee1 inhibitor AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 antibody (anti-PD-1 Ab) on radiosensitization of hepatoma. METHODS: The anti-tumor activity of AZD1775 and IR was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on human and mouse hepatoma cells HepG2, Hepa1-6, and H22. The anti-hepatoma mechanism of AZD1775 and IR revealed by flow cytometry and Western blot in vitro . A hepatoma subcutaneous xenograft mice model was constructed on Balb/c mice, which were divided into control group, IR group, AZD1775 group, IR + AZD1775 group, IR + anti-PD-1 Ab group, and the IR + AZD1775 + anti-PD-1 Ab group. Cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in TME were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Combining IR with AZD1775 synergistically reduced the viability of hepatoma cells in vitro . AZD1775 exhibited antitumor effects by decreasing CDK1 phosphorylation to reverse the IR-induced G2/M arrest and increasing IR-induced DNA damage. AZD1775 treatment also reduced the proportion of PD-1 + /CD8 + T cells in the spleen of hepatoma subcutaneous xenograft mice. Further studies revealed that AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 Ab could enhance the radiosensitivity of hepatoma by enhancing the levels of interferon γ (IFNγ) + or Ki67 + CD8 T cells and decreasing the levels of CD8 + Tregs cells in the tumor and spleen of the hepatoma mice model, indicating that the improvement of TME was manifested by increasing the cytotoxic factor IFNγ expression, enhancing CD8 + T cells proliferation, and weakening CD8 + T cells depletion. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 Ab synergistically sensitize hepatoma to radiotherapy by enhancing IR-induced DNA damage and improving cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in TME.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Pirazóis , Pirimidinonas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Apoptose , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Oncogene ; 43(11): 789-803, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273024

RESUMO

WEE1 and CHEK1 (CHK1) kinases are critical regulators of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and DNA damage response pathways. The WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 and the CHK1 inhibitor SRA737 are in clinical trials for various cancers, but have not been thoroughly examined in prostate cancer, particularly castration-resistant (CRPC) and neuroendocrine prostate cancers (NEPC). Our data demonstrated elevated WEE1 and CHK1 expressions in CRPC and NEPC cell lines and patient samples. AZD1775 resulted in rapid and potent cell killing with comparable IC50s across different prostate cancer cell lines, while SRA737 displayed time-dependent progressive cell killing with 10- to 20-fold differences in IC50s. Notably, their combination synergistically reduced the viability of all CRPC cell lines and tumor spheroids in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Importantly, in a transgenic mouse model of NEPC, both agents alone or in combination suppressed tumor growth, improved overall survival, and reduced the incidence of distant metastases, with SRA737 exhibiting remarkable single agent anticancer activity. Mechanistically, SRA737 synergized with AZD1775 by blocking AZD1775-induced feedback activation of CHK1 in prostate cancer cells, resulting in increased mitotic entry and accumulation of DNA damage. In summary, this preclinical study shows that CHK1 inhibitor SRA737 alone and its combination with AZD1775 offer potential effective treatments for CRPC and NEPC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Masculino , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
16.
Bioorg Chem ; 144: 107114, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224637

RESUMO

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia in adults. PDE1 (Phosphodiesterase 1) is a subfamily of the PDE super-enzyme families that can hydrolyze the second messengers cAMP and cGMP simultaneously. Previous research has shown that suppressing the gene expression of PDE1 can trigger apoptosis of human leukemia cells. However, no selective PDE1 inhibitors have been used to explore whether PDE1 is a potential target for treating AML. Based on our previously reported PDE9/PDE1 dual inhibitor 11a, a series of novel pyrazolopyrimidinone derivatives were designed in this study. The lead compound 6c showed an IC50 of 7.5 nM against PDE1, excellent selectivity over other PDEs and good metabolic stability. In AML cells, compound 6c significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis. Further experiments indicated that the apoptosis induced by 6c was through a mitochondria-dependent pathway by decreasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increasing the cleavage of caspase-3, 7, 9, and PARP. All these results suggested that PDE1 might be a novel target for AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase , Pirazóis , Pirimidinonas , Adulto , Humanos , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(2): 999-1006, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175165

RESUMO

A series of novel pyrido [1,2-α] pyrimidinone mesoionic derivatives bearing a propenylbenzene group at the 1-position were synthesized on the basis of the structure of mesoionic insecticides triflumezopyrim and dicloromezotiaz via a rationally conceived pharmacophore model and evaluated for their insecticidal activities against three insect vectors. The bioassay results showed that some compounds exerted remarkable insecticidal activities against M. domestica, Ae. albopictus, and B. germanica. Particularly, compound 26l displayed outstanding insecticidal activity against Ae. Albopictus, with an LC50 value of 0.45 µg/mL, far superior to that of imidacloprid (LC50 = 1.82 µg/mL) and equivalent to that of triflumezopyrim (0.35 µg/mL). Meanwhile, compound 34l presented a broad insecticidal spectrum, with LC50 values of 1.51 µg/g sugar, 0.52 µg/mL and 0.14 µg/adult, which were about 2.88, 3.50, and 1.50 times better than that of imidacloprid (LC50 = 4.35 µg/g sugar, 1.82 µg/mL and 0.21 µg/adult against M. domestica, Ae. albopictus, and B. germanica, respectively) and equivalent to that of triflumezopyrim against M. domestica (1.13 µg/g sugar) and Ae. albopictus (0.35 µg/mL) but lower than the potency against B. germanica (0.06 µg/g sugar). The molecular docking study by energy minimizations revealed that introducing propenylbenzene at the 1-position of compounds 26l and 34l could embed into the binding pocket of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and form pi-alkyl interaction with LEU306. These results demonstrated that compounds 26l and 34l could be promising candidates for vector control insecticides, which deserved further investigation.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Inseticidas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirimidinonas/química , Açúcares
18.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 124(2): 84-91, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug for the treatment of many solid cancers. DNA damage is thought to be the key mechanism of cisplatin's anticancer activity. However, cisplatin may also affect cellular metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cisplatin on the types of ATP production (OXPHOS versus glycolysis) and their rate in prostate cancer cells and to determine the potentially protective effect of autophagy and amino acids during cisplatin treatment. We also wanted to investigate the potential synergy between the metabolic effects of cisplatin on ATP production and the inhibition of autophagy. METHODS: Cisplatin treatment can significantly affect the metabolism of cancer cells. Important metabolic pathways can be altered, leading to changes in energy production and nutrient utilization. Autophagy and amino acid pool modulations can serve as protective mechanisms significantly affecting tumor cell survival under metabolic stress caused by anticancer treatment. By enabling the recycling of amino acids, autophagy helps cancer cells maintain cellular homeostasis and overcome nutrient limitations. Thus, inhibition of autophagy could have a supportive effect on the metabolic effects of cisplatin. RESULTS: After cisplatin treatment, ATP production by way of OXPHOS was significantly decreased in 22Rv1 and PC-3 cells. On the other hand, ATP production by glycolysis was not significantly affected in 22Rv1 cells. DU145 cells with dysfunctional autophagy were the most sensitive to cisplatin treatment and showed the lowest ATP production. However, short-term autophagy inhibition (24h) by autophinib or SAR405 in 22Rv1 and PC-3 cells did not alter the effect of cisplatin on ATP production. Levels of some amino acids (arginine, methionine) significantly affected the fitness of cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Persistent defects of autophagy can affect the metabolic sensitivity of cancer cells due to interference with arginine metabolism. Amino acids contained in the culture medium had an impact on the overall effect of cisplatin (Fig. 3, Ref. 38).


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Neoplasias da Próstata , Pirazóis , Piridinas , Pirimidinas , Pirimidinonas , Masculino , Humanos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Arginina
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(4): e2311313121, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241436

RESUMO

Pharmacological therapies are promising interventions to slow down aging and reduce multimorbidity in the elderly. Studies in animal models are the first step toward translation of candidate molecules into human therapies, as they aim to elucidate the molecular pathways, cellular mechanisms, and tissue pathologies involved in the anti-aging effects. Trametinib, an allosteric inhibitor of MEK within the Ras/MAPK (Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathway and currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, emerged as a geroprotector candidate because it extended lifespan in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we confirm that trametinib consistently and robustly extends female lifespan, and reduces intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, tumor formation, tissue dysplasia, and barrier disruption in guts in aged flies. In contrast, pro-longevity effects of trametinib are weak and inconsistent in males, and it does not influence gut homeostasis. Inhibition of the Ras/MAPK pathway specifically in ISCs is sufficient to partially recapitulate the effects of trametinib. Moreover, in ISCs, trametinib decreases the activity of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III), a conserved enzyme synthesizing transfer RNAs and other short, non-coding RNAs, and whose inhibition also extends lifespan and reduces gut pathology. Finally, we show that the pro-longevity effect of trametinib in ISCs is partially mediated by Maf1, a repressor of Pol III, suggesting a life-limiting Ras/MAPK-Maf1-Pol III axis in these cells. The mechanism of action described in this work paves the way for further studies on the anti-aging effects of trametinib in mammals and shows its potential for clinical application in humans.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Piridonas , Pirimidinonas , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Mamíferos
20.
Trials ; 25(1): 68, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas are common for reproductive-aged women and affect women's quality of life due to heavy menstrual bleeding or dysmenorrhea. Leiomyomas grow according to estradiol exposure and decrease after post-menopause. In case serious symptoms are caused by leiomyomas, pharmacotherapy or surgical treatment is proposed. Prior to surgical treatment, pharmacotherapies aimed at the reduction of leiomyoma and uterine volume or improvement of anemia are introduced to conduct minimum invasive surgery (i.e., to reduce blood loss or surgical duration). Recently, relugolix (40 mg orally once daily) as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist has proved its sufficient efficacy in suppressing estradiol levels without the transient estradiol flare-up compared with GnRH agonist. However, long-term administration should not be permitted liable to for climacteric disorder or osteoporosis, and evidence is lacking on the actual efficacy and extent of adverse effects of the every-other-day dosing regimen. This trial aimed to prove non-inferiority in volume reduction effect on leiomyoma and safety (i.e., reduction of adverse effects) by every-other-day administration after 2 months of everyday administration compared to daily administration throughout the duration. METHODS: A minimization adaptive randomized control trial (RCT) will be conducted. Patients (over 20 years old) harboring leiomyoma who will be undergoing surgical treatment will be invited to participate. Patients who are enrolled in the intervention group will receive every-other-day administration for 16 weeks after 8 weeks of daily administration. Patients who are enrolled in the control group will receive daily throughout the 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the leiomyoma volume reduction, and the secondary endpoints are the reduction of uterine volume, the occurrence of the climacteric disorder, genital bleeding days, change rate of serum hormone or bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density after 24 weeks compared to before administration. DISCUSSION: This study aims to prove both the non-inferiority in leiomyoma volume reduction and superiority in adverse effects occurrence reduction, which will provide a novel method to escape adverse effects while maintaining the effect of leiomyoma reduction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials jRCTs051230078. Registered on 26 July 2023.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , Compostos de Fenilureia , Pirimidinonas , Neoplasias Uterinas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estradiol/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Antagonistas de Hormônios , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia
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