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2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4624, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816389

RESUMO

Variations in chromosome number are occasionally observed among oomycetes, a group that includes many plant pathogens, but the emergence of such variations and their effects on genome and virulence evolution remain ambiguous. We generated complete telomere-to-telomere genome assemblies for Phytophthora sojae, Globisporangium ultimum, Pythium oligandrum, and G. spinosum. Reconstructing the karyotype of the most recent common ancestor in Peronosporales revealed that frequent chromosome fusion and fission drove changes in chromosome number. Centromeres enriched with Copia-like transposons may contribute to chromosome fusion and fission events. Chromosome fusion facilitated the emergence of pathogenicity genes and their adaptive evolution. Effectors tended to duplicate in the sub-telomere regions of fused chromosomes, which exhibited evolutionary features distinct to the non-fused chromosomes. By integrating ancestral genomic dynamics and structural predictions, we have identified secreted Ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (ANKs) as a novel class of effectors in P. sojae. Phylogenetic analysis and experiments further revealed that ANK is a specifically expanded effector family in oomycetes. These results revealed chromosome dynamics in oomycete plant pathogens, and provided novel insights into karyotype and effector evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Oomicetos , Filogenia , Telômero , Telômero/genética , Oomicetos/genética , Oomicetos/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Pythium/genética , Pythium/patogenicidade , Phytophthora/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Cromossomos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , Genoma/genética
3.
Microbiol Res ; 285: 127742, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723390

RESUMO

In recent years, numerous oomycete mycoviruses have been discovered; however, very few studies have focused on their effects on the host oomycete phenotype. In this study, we investigated the impact of toti-like Pythium ultimum RNA virus 2 (PuRV2) infection on the phytopathogenic soil-borne oomycete Globisporangium ultimum, which serves as a model species for Globisporangium and Pythium, specifically the UOP226 isolate in Japan. We generated a PuRV2-free isogenic line through hyphal tip isolation using high-temperature culture and subsequently compared the phenotypic characteristics and gene expression profiles of UOP226 and the PuRV2-free isogenic line. Our findings revealed that the metalaxyl sensitivity of UOP226 was greater than that of the PuRV2-free isogenic line, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colony morphology remained unchanged in the absence of the fungicide. Furthermore, transcriptome analyses using RNA-seq revealed significant downregulation of ABC-type transporter genes, which are involved in fungicide sensitivity, in UOP226. Our results suggest that PuRV2 infection influences the ecology of G. ultimum in agricultural ecosystems where metalaxyl is applied.


Assuntos
Alanina , Micovírus , Fungicidas Industriais , Doenças das Plantas , Vírus de RNA , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Micovírus/genética , Micovírus/fisiologia , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Micovírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus de RNA/genética , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Pythium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/virologia , Japão , Transcriptoma
4.
J Basic Microbiol ; 64(7): e2300643, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578065

RESUMO

Bacterial endophytes from plants harbor diverse metabolites that play major roles in biocontrol and improve plant growth. In this study, a total of 12 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the ginger rhizome. The strain K3 was highly effective in preventing mycelia growth of Pythium myriotylum (78.5 ± 1.5% inhibition) in dual culture. The cell-free extract (2.5%) of endophyte K3 inhibited 76.3 ± 4.8% mycelia growth, and 92.4 ± 4.2% inhibition was observed at a 5% sample concentration. The secondary metabolites produced by Bacillus licheniformis K3 showed maximum activity against Pseudomonas syringae (24 ± 1 mm zone of inhibition) and Xanthomonas campestris (28 ± 3 mm zone of inhibition). The strain K3 produced 28.3 ± 1.7 IU mL-1 protease, 28.3 ± 1.7 IU mL-1 cellulase, and 2.04 ± 0.13 IU mL-1 chitinase, respectively. The ginger rhizome treated with K3 in the greenhouse registered 53.8 ± 1.4% soft rot incidence, and the streptomycin-treated pot registered 78.3 ± 1.7% disease incidence. The selected endophyte K3 improved ascorbate peroxidase (1.37 ± 0.009 µmole ASC min-1 mg-1 protein), catalase (8.7 ± 0.28 µmole min-1 mg-1 protein), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (26.2 ± 0.99 Umg-1) in the greenhouse. In addition, K3 treatment in the field trial improved rhizome yield (730 ± 18.4 g) after 180 days (p < 0.01). The shoot length was 46 ± 8.3 cm in K3-treated plants, and it was about 31% higher than the control treatment (p < 0.01). The lytic enzyme-producing and growth-promoting endophyte is useful in sustainable crop production through the management of biotic stress.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Endófitos , Doenças das Plantas , Pythium , Zingiber officinale , Pythium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Zingiber officinale/microbiologia , Zingiber officinale/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus licheniformis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Rizoma/microbiologia , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibiose , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Quitinases/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9867, 2024 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684826

RESUMO

Ridomil Gold SL (45.3% a.i. mefenoxam) is a widely used chemical fungicide for the control of oomycetes. However, its impact on fungal communities remains unexplored. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of mefenoxam on the temporal dynamics of fungal taxonomic and functional diversities during carrot cultivation under four treatment groups: mefenoxam application with and without Pythium inoculation, and untreated control groups with and without Pythium inoculation. Our in vitro sensitivity assay showed that the maximum recommended concentration of mefenoxam, 0.24 ppm, did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. irregulare. At 100 ppm, mycelial growth was only reduced by 11.4%, indicating that the isolate was resistant to mefenoxam. MiSeq sequencing data revealed transient taxonomic variations among treatments 2 weeks post-treatment. Mortierella dominated the fungal community in the mefenoxam-Pythium combination treatment, as confirmed through PCR using our newly designed Mortierella-specific primers. Conversely, mefenoxam-Pythium combination had adverse effects on Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Fusarium, and decrease the overall alpha diversity. However, these compositional changes gradually reverted to those observed in the control by the 12th week. The predicted ecological functions of fungal communities in all Pythium and mefenoxam treatments shifted, leading to a decrease in symbiotrophs and plant pathogen functional groups. Moreover, the community-level physiological profiling approach, utilizing 96-well Biolog FF microplates, showed discernible variations in the utilization of 95 diverse carbon sources among the treatments. Notably, arbutin, L-arabinose, Tween 80, and succinamic acid demonstrated a strong positive association with Mortierella. Our findings demonstrate that a single application of mefenoxam at its recommended rate triggers substantial taxonomic and functional shifts in the soil fungal community. Considering this impact, the conventional agricultural practice of repeated mefenoxam application is likely to exert considerable shifts on the soil ecosystem that may affect agricultural sustainability.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Daucus carota , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais , Pythium , Daucus carota/microbiologia , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Micobioma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortierella/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortierella/genética
6.
Biomater Adv ; 160: 213863, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642516

RESUMO

To obtain the collaborative antifungal potential of nanocomposites conjugated with graphene oxide (GO), a combination of GO with chitosan (CS/GO) and GO with chitosan (CS) and polyaniline (PANI/CS/GO) was carried out. The synthesized GO-nanocomposites were recognized by several techniques. Vanillin (Van.) and cinnamaldehyde (Cinn.) were loaded on the prepared nanocomposites as antioxidants through a batch adsorption process. In vitro release study of Van. and Cinn. from the nanocomposites was accomplished at pH 7 and 25°C. The antimicrobial activity of GO, CS/GO, and PANI/CS/GO was studied against tomato Fusarium oxysporum (FOL) and Pythium debaryanum (PYD) pathogens. The loaded ternary composite PANI/CS/GO exhibited the best percent of reduction against the two pathogens in vitro studies. The Greenhouse experiment revealed that seedlings' treatment by CS/GO/Van. and PANI/CS/GO/Van significantly lowered both disease index and disease incidence. The loaded CS/GO and PANI/CS/GO nanocomposites had a positive effect on lengthening shoots. Additionally, when CS/GO/Cinn., CS/GO/Van. and PANI/CS/GO/Van. were used, tomato seedlings' photosynthetic pigments dramatically increased as compared to infected control. The results show that these bio-nanocomposites can be an efficient, sustainable, nontoxic, eco-friendly, and residue-free approach for fighting fungal pathogens and improving plant growth.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos , Benzaldeídos , Quitosana , Fusarium , Grafite , Nanocompostos , Solanum lycopersicum , Grafite/farmacologia , Grafite/química , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Nanocompostos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Benzaldeídos/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Acroleína/química
7.
Acta Trop ; 254: 107195, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548212

RESUMO

A clinical case of an adult horse with invasive, ulcerative, proliferative, pyogranulomatous disease of the skin (tumor) in the shoulder region is presented. The mass had a granulomatous and crater-shaped appearance, with serosanguinous discharge and the presence of fistulas with caseous material. The tumor was removed by surgery and sent to the laboratory for diagnosis. Histopathology was performed using Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver stain. The presence of necrotic material, fibrosis, infiltrated cells, and brown-colored hyphae, characteristic of members of the genus Pythium, were observed. To identify the infecting species, conventional PCRs for the amplification of the ITS-1 was carried out. Histopathological and PCR tests confirmed infection by a Pythium insidiosum strain closely associated with previous records from the US and Central America. Our report represents the first molecularly confirmed case of equine pythiosis in Mexico.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Pitiose , Pythium , Animais , Pitiose/diagnóstico , Pitiose/microbiologia , Pitiose/patologia , Cavalos , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Pythium/genética , Pythium/classificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Masculino , Histocitoquímica , Pele/patologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/parasitologia
9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503567

RESUMO

AIMS: Determine the wheat rhizosphere competence of Trichoderma gamsii strain A5MH and in planta suppression of the Pythium root and Fusarium crown rot pathogens Globisporangium irregulare and Fusarium pseudograminearum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wheat was continuously cropped (eight years) at a minimum tillage, low growing season rainfall (GSR ≤ 170 mm) site shown as highly conducive to Pythium root and Fusarium crown rots. Root isolation frequency (RIF) and qPCR were used to determine the rhizosphere dynamics of strain A5MH and the target pathogens at tillering, grain harvest, and in postharvest stubble over the final 2 years. Strain A5MH actively colonized the wheat rhizosphere throughout both growing seasons, had high root abundance at harvest [log 4.5 genome copies (GC) g-1] and persisted in standing stubble for at least 293-d postinoculation. Globisporangium irregulare was most abundant in roots at tillering, whereas F. pseudograminearum was only abundant at harvest and up to 9-fold greater in the drier, second year (GSR 105 mm). Strain A5MH decreased RIF of both pathogens by up to 40%, root abundance of G. irregulare by 100-fold, and F. pseudogaminearum by 700-fold, but was ineffective against crown rot in the second year when pathogen abundance was >log 6.0 GC g-1 root. Strain A5MH increased crop emergence and tillering biomass by up to 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Further trials are required to determine if the A5MH-induced pathogen suppression translates to yield improvements in higher rainfall regions where non-cereal rotations reduce crown rot inoculum.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Hypocreales , Pythium , Estações do Ano , Triticum , Fusarium/genética , Rizosfera , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Grão Comestível
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(3)2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499351

RESUMO

Pythiosis is caused due to a filamentous eukaryotic micro-organism called Pythium insidiosum and the disease occurs commonly in horses and cattle. Subcutaneous pythiosis infection in humans is rare with no clear clinical guidelines for treatment. We present a case of a man in his 20s with non-resolving ulcers noted over lower extremity after exposure to swamp water draining animal remains. The patient received several courses of oral antibiotics with no improvement in symptoms before getting admitted to our institution. A diagnosis of subcutaneous pythiosis was made after deep wound culture following debridement detected P. insidiosum by use of PCR. Due to the rare incidence of such infection in humans and no clear guidelines available for treatment, the case was discussed with infectious disease specialists outside our institution and with veterinary physicians. An emergent approval for use of immunotherapy in conjunction with surgical debridement and antimicrobials was obtained from Food and Drug administration. The patient underwent successful treatment of infection and skin graft following treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Pitiose , Pythium , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Cavalos , Bovinos , Pitiose/diagnóstico , Pitiose/terapia , Desbridamento , Imunoterapia , Extremidade Inferior
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(9): 4649-4657, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383306

RESUMO

Oomycetes are well-known phytopathogens that seriously threaten many important crops worldwide. In this study, the endophytic actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. NEAU-S7GS2 demonstrated significant antagonistic activity against Phytophthora and Pythium and showed a potent biocontrol effect on suppression of soybean phytophthora root rot and pepper phytophthora blight. Two compounds were subsequently isolated as the main active components by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as lydicamycins A and B. These two compounds showed high antioomycete activity against Phytophthora and Pythium with EC50 values of 0.73-2.67 µg/mL, which are equal to or lower than those of commercialized drug metalaxyl. In vivo bioassay using detached leaves demonstrated that lydicamycin A had a better control efficiency against soybean phytophthora root rot than metalaxyl. Taken together, these results suggest that the biocontrol agent Streptomyces sp. NEAU-S7GS2 and lydicamycins have the potential to be developed as promising pesticides to control diseases caused by oomycetes.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Pythium , Streptomyces , Glycine max , Produtos Agrícolas , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Álcoois Graxos , Pirrolidinonas
12.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 134: 105030, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342358

RESUMO

Cutaneous pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone (O3) have been used individually in the treatment of infected wounds. The goals of the study were a) to characterize the antimicrobial action of the photo-ozone therapy (LLLT-O3) against equine Pythium insidiosum, and b) to assess the cytotoxic potential of the LLLT-O3 in keratinocytes. Specimens of pathogen were isolated from 10 horses. After culturing, 120 hyphae plugs were distributed among four groups (n=30 hyphae plugs/group): LLLT (laser irradiation for 160 sec;), O3 (exposition to O3 for 15 min;), LLLT-O3 (LLLT and O3 treatments in sequence) and control (untreated plugs). The hyphae growth was measured during the first 14 days post-treatment. Where there was an absence of hyphae growth, the plug was recultured for an additional 7 days. The cytotoxic potential of the treatments against HaCaT keratinocytes was assessed by colorimetric assays. The LLLT-O3 and O3 treatments inactivated, respectively, 92.3% (28/30) and 30% (9/30) of the samples. No growth was detected after 7 days reculture of inactivated hyphae plugs on new media. Hyphae growth was visualized in 100% of the control and LLLT hyphae plugs. The viability of HaCaT cells was not affected by the isolated treatments (LLLT and O3), while the LLLT-O3 showed slight cytotoxic effect (20%) when compared to the control group (P<0.05). Photo-ozone therapy inactivated equine P. insidiosum hyphae with minimal cytotoxicity in skin cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Pitiose , Pythium , Animais , Cavalos , Pitiose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298514, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408078

RESUMO

The use of fungicides to manage disease has led to multiple environmental externalities, including resistance development, pollution, and non-target mortality. Growers have limited options as legacy chemistry is withdrawn from the market. Moreover, fungicides are generally labeled for traditional soil-based production, and not for liquid culture systems. Biocontrol agents for disease management are a more sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional agroprotectants. Pythium ultimum is a soil borne oomycete plant pathogen with a broad taxonomic host range exceeding 300 plants. Cucumber seedlings exposed to P. ultimum 1 day after a protective inoculation with bacterial endophyte accession IALR1619 (Pseudomonas sp.) recorded 59% survival; with the control assessed at 18%. When the pathogen was added 5 days post endophyte inoculation, 74% of the seedlings treated survived, compared to 36% of the control, indicating a longer-term effect of IALR1619. Under hydroponic conditions, IALR1619 treated leaf type lettuce cv. 'Cristabel' and Romaine cv. 'Red Rosie' showed 29% and 42% higher shoot fresh weight compared to their controls, respectively. Similar results with less growth decline were observed for a repeat experiment with IALR1619. Additionally, an experiment on hydroponic lettuce in pots with perlite was carried out with a mixture of P. ultimum and P. dissotocum after IALR1619 inoculation. The endophyte treated 'Cristabel' showed fresh weight gain, but the second cultivar 'Pensacola' yielded no increase. In summary, the endophyte IALR1619 provided short term as well as medium-term protection against Pythium blight in cucumber seedlings and may be used as an alternative to conventional fungicides in a greenhouse setting. This study also demonstrated the potential of ALR1619 as a biocontrol agent against Pythium blight in hydroponic lettuce.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Pythium , Pseudomonas , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Lactuca , Hidroponia , Plântula , Plantas , Solo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2304372, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314761

RESUMO

The mechanisms of Pythium insidiosum-antigen (PIA) immunotherapy activating a patient's immune system are unknown. We evaluated the interleukin-8 (IL-8) serum levels during P. insidiosum infection and after vaccination with PIA in vascular pythiosis cases. Furthermore, we studied the anti-P. insidiosum activity of neutrophils stimulated with various concentrations of PIA ex vivo in 3 strains of P. insidiosum isolated from vascular pythiosis patients. IL-8 serum levels were evaluated using the ELISA technique. We assessed the effect of PIA-stimulated neutrophils on the viability of zoospores using MTT assay, visualized neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation via microscopy, and measured the levels of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using PicoGreen dsDNA quantitation assay in 3 strains of P. insidiosum isolated from vascular pythiosis patients. Serum levels of IL-8 gradually lowered from the early to the end phases of vaccination with PIA among the surviving group of vascular pythiosis cases. Neutrophils stimulated with 0.01 µg/ml PIA reduced zoospore viability significantly compared to PIA-unstimulated neutrophils for strain 1 and strain 3 (p < .05). Neutrophils stimulated with 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/ml PIA exhibited significantly lower zoospore viability than PIA-unstimulated neutrophils for strain 2 (p < .05). IL-8 can be used as a biomarker for monitoring vascular pythiosis cases treated with the PIA vaccine. Also, anti-P. insidiosum activity of PIA-stimulated neutrophils was probably due to the disruption of cellular activity in zoospores rather than the mechanisms based on the formation of NETs.


Assuntos
Pitiose , Pythium , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-8/farmacologia , Pythium/genética , Pitiose/terapia , Neutrófilos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
15.
J Mycol Med ; 34(1): 101460, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266397

RESUMO

This study evaluated the repositioning of the ketolide antibacterial telithromycin (TLT) against the oomycete Pythium insidiosum and verified the combination of TLT and the antimicrobials azithromycin (AZM) and amorolfine hydrochloride (AMR), which have known anti-P. insidiosum activity. Susceptibility tests of P. insidiosum isolates (n = 20) against the drugs were carried out according to CLSI protocol M38-A2, and their combinations were evaluated using the checkerboard microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.5-4 µg/mL for TLT, 2-32 µg/mL for AZM, and 16-64 µg/mL for AMR. For the TLT+AZM combination, 52.75 % of interactions were indifferent, 43.44 % were antagonistic, and 9.70 % were synergistic. As for interactions of the TLT+AMR combination, 60.43 % were indifferent, 39.12 % were antagonistic, and 10.44 % synergistic interactions. This study is the first to evaluate the repositioning of the antibacterial TLT against mammalian pathogenic oomycetes, and our results show that its isolated action is superior to its combinations with either AZM or AMR. Therefore, we recommend including TLT in future research to evaluate therapeutic approaches in different clinical forms of human and animal pythiosis.


Assuntos
Cetolídeos , Morfolinas , Pitiose , Pythium , Animais , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cetolídeos/farmacologia , Cetolídeos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pitiose/tratamento farmacológico , Pitiose/microbiologia , Mamíferos
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(2): e0162023, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38179943

RESUMO

Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. Clinical manifestations of pythiosis include an eye, blood vessel, skin, or gastrointestinal tract infection. Pythiosis has been increasingly reported worldwide, with an overall mortality rate of 28%. Radical surgery is required to save patients' lives due to the limited efficacy of antimicrobial drugs. Effective medical treatments are urgently needed for pythiosis. This study aims to find anti-P. insidiosum agents by screening 17 agricultural fungicides that inhibit plant-pathogenic oomycetes and validating their efficacy and safety. Cyazofamid outperformed other fungicides as it can potently inhibit genetically diverse P. insidiosum isolates while exhibiting minimal cellular toxicities. The calculated therapeutic scores determined that the concentration of cyazofamid causing significant cellular toxicities was eight times greater than the concentration of the drug effectively inhibiting P. insidiosum. Furthermore, other studies showed that cyazofamid exhibits low-to-moderate toxicities in animals. The mechanism of cyazofamid action is likely the inhibition of cytochrome b, an essential component in ATP synthesis. Molecular docking and dynamic analyses depicted a stable binding of cyazofamid to the Qi site of the P. insidiosum's cytochrome b orthologous protein. In conclusion, our search for an effective anti-P. insidiosum drug indicated that cyazofamid is a promising candidate for treating pythiosis. With its high efficacy and low toxicity, cyazofamid is a potential chemical for treating pythiosis, reducing the need for radical surgeries, and improving recovery rates. Our findings could pave the way for the development of new and effective treatments for pythiosis.IMPORTANCEPythiosis is a severe infection caused by Pythium insidiosum. The disease is prevalent in tropical/subtropical regions. This infectious condition is challenging to treat with antifungal drugs and often requires surgical removal of the infected tissue. Pythiosis can be fatal if not treated promptly. There is a need for a new treatment that effectively inhibits P. insidiosum. This study screened 17 agricultural fungicides that target plant-pathogenic oomycetes and found that cyazofamid was the most potent in inhibiting P. insidiosum. Cyazofamid showed low toxicity to mammalian cells and high affinity to the P. insidiosum's cytochrome b, which is involved in energy production. Cyazofamid could be a promising candidate for the treatment of pythiosis, as it could reduce the need for surgery and improve the survival rate of patients. This study provides valuable insights into the biology and drug susceptibility of P. insidiosum and opens new avenues for developing effective therapies for pythiosis.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Imidazóis , Pitiose , Pythium , Sulfonamidas , Animais , Humanos , Pythium/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/uso terapêutico , Pitiose/tratamento farmacológico , Pitiose/microbiologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Citocromos b/metabolismo , Mamíferos
17.
Plant Sci ; 340: 111972, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176527

RESUMO

Little is known about the molecular basis of host defense in resistant wild species Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith against the soil-borne, necrotrophic oomycete pathogen Pythium myriotylum Drechsler, which causes the devastating soft rot disease in the spice crop ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). We investigated the pattern of host defense between Z. zerumbet and ginger in response to P. myriotylum inoculation. Analysis of gene expression microarray data revealed enrichment of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, particularly lignin biosynthesis genes, in pathogen-inoculated Z. zerumbet compared to ginger. RT-qPCR analysis showed the robust activation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis genes in Z. zerumbet, including the core genes PAL, C4H, 4CL, and the monolignol biosynthesis and polymerization genes such as CCR, CAD, C3H, CCoAOMT, F5H, COMT, and LAC. Additionally, Z. zerumbet exhibited the accumulation of the phenolic acids including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, and ferulic acid that are characteristic of the cell walls of commelinoid monocots like Zingiberaceae and are involved in cell wall strengthening by cross linking with lignin. Z. zerumbet also had higher total lignin and total phenolics content compared to pathogen-inoculated ginger. Phloroglucinol staining revealed the enhanced fortification of cell walls in Z. zerumbet, specifically in xylem vessels and surrounding cells. The trypan blue staining indicated inhibition of pathogen growth in Z. zerumbet at the first leaf whorl, while ginger showed complete colonization of the pith within 36 h post inoculation (hpi). Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and induction of SA regulator NPR1 and the signaling marker PR1 were observed in Z. zerumbet. Silencing of PAL in Z. zerumbet through VIGS suppressed downstream genes, leading to reduced phenylpropanoid accumulation and SA level, resulting in the susceptibility of plants to P. myriotylum. These findings highlight the essential role of PAL-dependent mechanisms in resistance against P. myriotylum in Z. zerumbet. Moreover, our results suggest an unconventional role for SA in mediating host resistance against a necrotroph. Targeting the phenylpropanoid pathway could be a promising strategy for the effective management of P. myriotylum in ginger.


Assuntos
Pythium , Zingiber officinale , Zingiberaceae , Pythium/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/farmacologia , Lignina , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/genética
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 55(1): 867-873, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37999913

RESUMO

This study sought to evaluate the in vitro and ex vivo susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to ozonized sunflower oil (OSO) and verify the morphological alterations of OSO-exposed hyphae. Susceptibility assays were performed according to the broth microdilution protocol M38-A2/CLSI, and the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal oomicidal (MOC) concentrations were also determined. Non-ozonated sunflower oil (SO) was used as the oil control. Additionally, kunkers from equine pythiosis were exposed to OSO. Damages caused by OSO and SO on P. insidiosum hyphae ultrastructure were verified using scanning electron microscopy. The MIC range for OSO was 7000 to 437.5 mg/mL, and the values for SO were higher, ranging from 56000 to 14000 mg/mL. The MOC was equal to MIC for both oil formulations. The OSO fully inhibited the oomycete growth from kunkers, although there was P. insidiosum growth in the kunker control in 24 h of incubation. The SEM analyses showed that both OSO and SO caused morphological alterations in P. insidiosum hyphae, highlighting the presence of cavitation along the hyphae with loss of continuity of the cell wall, which was more evident in the OSO-treated hyphae. The OSO had the best oomicidal activity, leading us to believe that our findings may support future research containing this formulation to be applied in integrative medicine protocols to control pythiosis in animals and humans.


Assuntos
Pitiose , Pythium , Humanos , Animais , Cavalos , Óleo de Girassol , Pitiose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
19.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 141(12): e232948, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127083

RESUMO

This case report describes a diagnosis of Curvularia fungal keratitis in a man aged 60 years who presented with a paracentral corneal infiltrate in the right eye with tentacular projections.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Ceratite , Pythium , Humanos , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(12): 3584-3586, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991287

RESUMO

Pythium insidiosum keratitis (PIK) is a devastating corneal infection resulting in blindness in a large number of cases. Clinically and morphologically, it closely mimics fungal keratitis, and hence is also labeled as "parafungus." Although many clinical studies have documented evidence regarding the virulence of microorganism, and anatomical and functional outcomes, it remains a clinical challenge and diagnostic dilemma for most clinicians. Till today, PIK is being diagnosed and treated with certainty at only limited centers across the globe. But the question is why this is so? Taking this as the research question, this section on current ophthalmology aims to highlight the understanding of barriers to diagnosing and treating PIK, the suggestions to improve diagnosis and treatment, and the future prospects.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Ceratite , Pitiose , Pythium , Animais , Humanos , Pitiose/diagnóstico , Pitiose/terapia , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/terapia , Ceratite/microbiologia , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Ceratoplastia Penetrante
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