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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-13197

RESUMO

O tema aborda o SUS e a identificação das desigualdades raciais em saúde.


Assuntos
Racismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Preconceito
2.
J Sch Psychol ; 105: 101317, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876545

RESUMO

Scholars have developed culturally responsive frameworks and interventions to support educators as they aim to create inclusive and equitable classroom environments. Despite the number of frameworks on the topic, research on culturally responsive practices (CRPs) is limited by the lack of clear definitions or evidence on the effectiveness of in-classroom culturally responsive interventions. With the aim to understand which characteristics are important for in-classroom CRPs, this qualitative study explored students' perceptions of practices teachers use to respond to students' learning and cultural identities. We conducted 23 focus groups with 103 Black, Latine, and White students in middle and high school from two midwestern schools. After analyzing the data, we identified four overarching themes: (a) inclusive classroom instruction, (b) emotional safety in the classroom, (c) relational quality with the teachers, and (d) racism and other "isms" in the classroom. Students consistently commented on the importance of teacher support for students' emotional and academic well-being while also describing teachers that demeaned them or their peers, in turn, obstructing their learning. The findings hold promise to clarify and strengthen professional development CRP interventions as students offer insight about teacher cultural responsiveness and non-responsiveness.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adolescente , Competência Cultural , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Racismo
3.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(6): 214-223, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The criteria-oriented assessment of the population with a migration background that is common in Germany is currently being criticized from a social science and methodological perspective, among others. In particular, its usefulness as an indicator of perceived discrimination against the population with a migration background can be critically questioned based on the current state of research METHOD: Based on a population-representative data set (N=1,989) for the city of Berlin, the subjective perception of a migration background based on self-attribution and anticipated external attribution of a migration background was recorded in addition to the objective assessment of a migration background. Furthermore, socio-demographic and migration-specific characteristics as well as perceived discrimination were assessed. Using descriptive and inferential statistical methods, differences between the objective and subjective assessment of a migration background and their relationship with perceived discrimination were analyzed. RESULTS: Less than half (38%, 154/400) of the respondents identified as having a migrant background using the criterion-oriented approach reported describing themselves as migrants. 36% (144/405) reported that they believed that others in Germany described them as a person with a migrantion background. Respondents with a migration background are significantly more likely to experience discrimination on grounds of skin color, religion or country of origin compared to respondents without a migration background. Furthermore, it was found that both the self-attribution and the anticipated attribution by others as a migrant are positively associated with experiences of discrimination and racism. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that migration-sensitive research should not simply differentiate between people with and without a migration background according to official criteria. Rather, the subjective perceptions of one's own attribution as a migrant seem more suitable as indicators of discrimination and should be taken into account in future research or surveys on experiences of discrimination.


Assuntos
Racismo , Humanos , Racismo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alemanha , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Preconceito , Adolescente , Migrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Science ; 384(6701): 1183, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870302
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116396, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825373

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Immigrants represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population, yet the many ways in which structural inequities, including racism, xenophobia, and sexism, influence their health remains largely understudied. Perspectives from immigrant women can highlight intersectional dimensions of structural gendered racism and the ways in which racial and gender-based systems of structural oppression interact. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to show the multilevel manifestations of structural gendered racism in the health experiences of immigrant women living in New York City. METHOD: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted in 2020 and 2021 with 44 cisgender immigrant women from different national origins in New York City to explore how immigrant women experienced structural gendered racism and its pathways to their health. Interviews were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative approach. RESULTS: Participants expressed intersectional dimensions of structural gendered racism and the anti-immigrant climate through restrictive immigration policy and issues related to citizenship status, disproportionate immigration enforcement and criminalization, economic exploitation, and gendered interpersonal racism experienced across a range of systems and contexts. Participants weighed their concerns for safety and facing racism as part of their life course and health decisions for themselves and their families. CONCLUSIONS: The perspectives and experiences of immigrant women are key to identifying multilevel solutions for the burdens of structural gendered racism, particularly among individuals and communities of non-U.S. national origin. Understanding how racism, sexism, xenophobia, and intersecting systems of oppression impact immigrant women is critical for advancing health equity.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Racismo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto
6.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(2): 216-224, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824426

RESUMO

Competent forensic practice has required continued training and professional practice in differentiating between genuine and malingered presentations, especially within the spectrum of psychotic disorders. Historically, practitioners valued racial, ethnic, and cultural differences but often considered them as peripheral matters. In contemporary forensic practice, however, language and culture play preponderant roles. This commentary is focused on core features of malingering via a cultural lens. Three core, race-informed principles, such as biases against the African American Language, are highlighted and discussed. Related subjects for forensic practice include relevant clinical constructs such as malingering bias and "imposed etics," specifically, the imposition of mainstream values and discounting of cultural differences.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Legal , Simulação de Doença , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico , Simulação de Doença/etnologia , Racismo , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Etnicidade/psicologia
7.
J Sch Psychol ; 104: 101290, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871413

RESUMO

Research has long demonstrated the benefits of family-school partnerships. However, these benefits often fail to generalize to all families, especially Black families. A present and historical pattern of discrimination and exclusion has contributed to the lack of benefits yielded from Black family-school partnerships. A major contributing factor is the narrow way in which schools define family engagement. Such narrow definitions often marginalize families from non-dominant backgrounds, particularly Black families, and reinforce harmful narratives that Black parents and families are uninvolved in their children's education. The combination of continued discrimination and exclusion as well as harmful narratives has impacted Black family-school partnering. However, schools can work to repair harm and rebuild partnerships with Black families. In this article, we advance a framework for such work. After grounding the need for this framework in a historical context, we emphasize three essential components to forming equitable Black family-school partnerships: (a) grounding relationship building in social justice, (b) integrating reciprocity in family-school relationships, and (c) usage of multiple and non-dominant methods and modalities to build relationships.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Comportamento Cooperativo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Criança , Racismo , Família/etnologia , Justiça Social
8.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(6): 205-213, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865996

RESUMO

Although mental health is a human right, even in a country with a well-developed healthcare system like Germany, it is not possible to ensure non-discriminatory access to mental health care for all people, regardless of their origin. For individuals with a history of flight or migration it is particularly difficult to gain access to adequate psychotherapeutic care. This review addresses key barriers contributing to the lack of outpatient care for people with a history of flight or migration. Lack of knowledge about the treatment system, fear of stigma, structural barriers, language barriers, lack of networking of healthcare providers, lack of knowledge of mental health practitioners, as well as stereotypes, discrimination, and racism towards people with a refugee or migration history were identified as the most important barriers with sufficient evidence. Innovative concepts such as peer support can enable non-discriminatory treatment access. In addition, there is an urgent need to train the profession of psychotherapists in racism- and discrimination-sensitive work and to integrate these aspects into psychotherapeutic education and training.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Psicoterapia , Refugiados , Humanos , Alemanha , Refugiados/psicologia , Estigma Social , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia
9.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 143, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic inequities in palliative care are well-established. The way researchers design and interpret studies investigating race- and ethnicity-based disparities has future implications on the interventions aimed to reduce these inequities. If racism is not discussed when contextualizing findings, it is less likely to be addressed and inequities will persist. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the characteristics of 12 years of academic literature that investigates race- or ethnicity-based disparities in palliative care access, outcomes and experiences, and determine the extent to which racism is discussed when interpreting findings. METHODS: Following Arksey & O'Malley's methodology for scoping reviews, we searched bibliographic databases for primary, peer reviewed studies globally, in all languages, that collected race or ethnicity variables in a palliative care context (January 1, 2011 to October 17, 2023). We recorded study characteristics and categorized citations based on their research focus-whether race or ethnicity were examined as a major focus (analyzed as a primary independent variable or population of interest) or minor focus (analyzed as a secondary variable) of the research purpose, and the interpretation of findings-whether authors directly or indirectly discussed racism when contextualizing the study results. RESULTS: We identified 3000 citations and included 181 in our review. Of these, most were from the United States (88.95%) and examined race or ethnicity as a major focus (71.27%). When interpreting findings, authors directly named racism in 7.18% of publications. They were more likely to use words closely associated with racism (20.44%) or describe systemic or individual factors (41.44%). Racism was directly named in 33.33% of articles published since 2021 versus 3.92% in the 10 years prior, suggesting it is becoming more common. CONCLUSION: While the focus on race and ethnicity in palliative care research is increasing, there is room for improvement when acknowledging systemic factors - including racism - during data analysis. Researchers must be purposeful when investigating race and ethnicity, and identify how racism shapes palliative care access, outcomes and experiences of racially and ethnically minoritized patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Racismo , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e082481, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore and characterise the discrimination and racism experienced in healthcare from the perspective of Dutch patients with a migration background. DESIGN: This was a qualitative phenomenological study incorporating an inductive thematic analysis of the answers provided to a free form online survey. Descriptive and differential analyses were conducted for the closed-ended questions. SETTING: This study used an online survey distributed in Dutch about experiences of discrimination and racism in healthcare to the general population in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The survey was completed by 188 participants (Mage=39.89, SDage=10.2). Of whom 80 (Mage=37.92, SDage=10.87) met the eligibility criteria for thematic analysis (ie, has a migration background or a relative with a migration background and experienced discrimination in healthcare based on their background) and were thus included in the analysis. RESULTS: From the total sample, women, relative to men, were 2.31 times more likely to report experiencing healthcare discrimination (OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.37). The majority of the participants (60.1%) had a Moroccan or Turkish background. Six themes were identified relating to experienced discrimination in healthcare based on one's migration background: (1) explicit discrimination, (2) prejudice, (3) not being taken seriously, (4) discriminatory behaviour, (5) language barriers and (6) pain attribution to cultural background. Some participants reported that their attire or religion was linked to their migration background, thus contributing to their experiences of discrimination. CONCLUSION: Dutch patients with a migration background may experience discrimination based on their ethnic identity or other factors related to their backgrounds, such as their faith, culture and skin colour. Discrimination manifests as intersectional and may take different forms (eg, discrimination based on the intersection between race and gender). Therefore, healthcare discrimination may increase health inequities and lead to unequal access to healthcare services. Implicitly or explicitly discriminating against patients is immoral, unethical, illegal and hazardous for individual and public health. Further research on the magnitude of discrimination in healthcare and its relation to health is needed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Racismo , Humanos , Racismo/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Países Baixos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Idoso , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Discriminação Social
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 638, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A challenge facing many Academic Health Centers (AHCs) attempting to revise health professions education to include the impact of racism as a social and structural determinant of health (SSDoH) is a lack of broad faculty expertise to reinforce and avoid undermining learning modules addressing this topic. To encourage an institutional culture that is in line with new anti-racism instruction, we developed a six-part educational series on the history of racism in America and its impact on contemporary health inequities for teaching structural competency to health professions academicians. METHODS: We developed a six-hour elective continuing education (CE) series for faculty and staff with the following objectives: (1) describe and discuss race as a social construct; (2) describe and discuss the decolonization of the health sciences and health care; (3) describe and discuss the history of systemic racism and structural violence from a socio-ecological perspective; and (4) describe and discuss reconciliation and repair in biomedicine. The series was spread over a six-month period and each monthly lecture was followed one week later by an open discussion debriefing session. Attendees were assessed on their understanding of each objective before and after each series segment. RESULTS: We found significant increases in knowledge and understanding of each objective as the series progressed. Attendees reported that the series helped them grapple with their discomfort in a constructive manner. Self-selected attendees were overwhelmingly women (81.8%), indicating a greater willingness to engage with this material than men. CONCLUSIONS: The series provides a model for AHCs looking to promote anti-racism and structural competency among their faculty and staff.


Assuntos
Racismo , Humanos , Racismo/história , Estados Unidos , Docentes de Medicina , Currículo , Masculino , História do Século XX , Educação Médica Continuada/história , Feminino
13.
Body Image ; 50: 101730, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823220

RESUMO

Latinx young adults in the U.S. experience significant disparities related to body image and sexual health. These challenges partly stem from the intersections of racism, ethnocentrism, and colorism perpetuated through Eurocentric beauty standards and norms surrounding sexuality. Despite the salience of skin tone within the Latinx community, the impact of skin tone ideologies on body shame and sexual risk remains unexplored. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the influence of skin tone ideologies (i.e., colorist attraction and skin tone self-concept) on sexual risk and body shame among a sample of 539 Latinx young adults. The study also explored the potential moderating effect of self-esteem on colorist attraction and skin tone self-concept on body shame and sexual risk. Results revealed that both colorist attraction and skin-tone self-concept were positively associated with body shame. Colorist attraction was positively associated with sexual risk, whereas skin tone self-concept was not associated. Furthermore, self-esteem moderated the positive significant association between skin tone self-concept and body shame, such that the association was only significant among Latinx young adults who reported mean and high levels of self-esteem; self-esteem did not moderate any of the other study's associations. These findings inform the development of tailored mental and sexual health interventions to reduce health disparities among Latinx young adults, considering the influence of skin tone socialization.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Hispânico ou Latino , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual , Vergonha , Pigmentação da Pele , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2416588, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869898

RESUMO

Importance: Racial discrimination increases the risk of adverse brain health outcomes, potentially via neuroplastic changes in emotion processing networks. The involvement of deep brain regions (brainstem and midbrain) in these responses is unknown. Potential associations of racial discrimination with alterations in deep brain functional connectivity and accelerated epigenetic aging, a process that substantially increases vulnerability to health problems, are also unknown. Objective: To examine associations of racial discrimination with brainstem and midbrain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and DNA methylation age acceleration (DMAA) among Black women in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2012, and February 28, 2015, and included a community-based sample of Black women (aged ≥18 years) recruited as part of the Grady Trauma Project. Self-reported racial discrimination was examined in association with seed-to-voxel brain connectivity, including the locus coeruleus (LC), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and superior colliculus (SC); an index of DMAA (Horvath clock) was also evaluated. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trauma exposure, and age were used as covariates in statistical models to isolate racial discrimination-related variance. Data analysis was conducted between January 10 and October 30, 2023. Exposure: Varying levels of racial discrimination exposure, other trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Main Outcomes and Measures: Racial discrimination frequency was assessed with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, other trauma exposure was evaluated with the Traumatic Events Inventory, and current PTSD was evaluated with the PTSD Symptom Scale. Seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analyses were conducted with LC, PAG, and SC seeds. To assess DMAA, the Methylation EPIC BeadChip assay (Illumina) was conducted with whole-blood samples from a subset of 49 participants. Results: This study included 90 Black women, with a mean (SD) age of 38.5 (11.3) years. Greater racial discrimination was associated with greater left LC RSFC to the bilateral precuneus (a region within the default mode network implicated in rumination and reliving of past events; cluster size k = 228; t85 = 4.78; P < .001, false discovery rate-corrected). Significant indirect effects were observed for the left LC-precuneus RSFC on the association between racial discrimination and DMAA (ß [SE] = 0.45 [0.16]; 95% CI, 0.12-0.77). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, more frequent racial discrimination was associated with proportionately greater RSFC of the LC to the precuneus, and these connectivity alterations were associated with DMAA. These findings suggest that racial discrimination contributes to accelerated biological aging via altered connectivity between the LC and default mode network, increasing vulnerability for brain health problems.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Racismo , Humanos , Feminino , Racismo/psicologia , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epigênese Genética , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
16.
CMAJ ; 196(22): E751-E759, 2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addressing anti-Black racism in medical education in Canada has become increasingly urgent as more Black learners enter medical institutions and bring attention to the racist harms they face. We sought to gather evidence of experiences of racism among Black medical learners and to explore the contexts within which racism is experienced by learners. METHODS: Drawing on critical race and structural violence theories, we conducted interviews with Black medical faculty, students, residents, and staff at the University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine between May and July 2022. We thematically analyzed interviews using instrumental case study methodology. RESULTS: Thematic analyses from 13 interviews revealed 5 central themes describing experiences of racism and the compounding nature of racist exposures as learners progressed in medicine. Medical learners experienced racism through uncomfortable encounters and microaggressions. Blatant acts of racism were instances where patients and superiors harmed students in various ways, including through use of the N-word by a superior in 1 instance. Learners also experienced curricular racism through the absence of the Black body in the curriculum and the undue pathologizing of Blackness. Medical hierarchies reinforced anti-Black racism by undermining accountability and protecting powerful perpetrators. Finally, Black women medical learners identified intersecting oppressions and misogynoir that compounded their experience of racism. We propose that experiences of racism may worsen as learners progress in medicine in part because of increases in the sources of and exposure to racism. INTERPRETATION: Anti-Black racism in medical education in Canada is experienced subtly through microaggressions or blatantly from different sources including medical faculty. As Black learners progress in medicine, anti-Black racism may become worse because of the compounding effects of exposures to a wider range of sources of racist behaviour.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Racismo , Humanos , Feminino , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Masculino , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Canadá , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Entrevistas como Assunto , Currículo , Saskatchewan
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2416491, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865126

RESUMO

Importance: Racial discrimination is a psychosocial stressor associated with youths' risk for psychiatric symptoms. Scarce data exist on the moderating role of amygdalar activation patterns among Black youths in the US. Objective: To investigate the association between racial discrimination and risk for psychopathology moderated by neuroaffective processing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used longitudinal self-report and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from Black youth participants in the US from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Data were analyzed from January 2023 to May 2024. Exposures: At time 1 of the current study (12 months after baseline), youths self-reported on their experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination and their feelings of marginalization. Amygdalar response was measured during an emotionally valenced task that included blocks of faces expressing either neutral or negative emotion. Main Outcomes and Measures: At 24 and 36 months after baseline, youths reported their internalizing (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and externalizing symptoms (aggression and rule-breaking symptoms). Results: A total of 1596 youths were a mean (SD) age of 10.92 (0.63) years, and 803 were female (50.3%). Families in the study had a mean annual income range of $25 000 to $34 999. Two factors were derived from factor analysis: interpersonal racial discrimination and feelings of marginalization (FoM). Using structural equation modeling in a linear regression, standardized ß coefficients were obtained. Neural response to faces expressing negative emotion within the right amygdala significantly moderated the association between FoM and changes in internalizing symptoms (ß = -0.20; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.07; P < .001). The response to negative facial emotion within the right amygdala significantly moderated the association between FoM and changes in externalizing symptoms (ß = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.43; P = .02). Left amygdala response to negative emotion significantly moderated the association between FoM and changes in externalizing symptoms (ß = -0.16; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.01; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Black adolescents in the US, findings suggest that amygdala function in response to emotional stimuli can both protect and intensify the affective outcomes of feeling marginalized on risk for psychopathology, informing preventive interventions aimed at reducing the adverse effects of racism on internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Black youths.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Racismo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Autorrelato
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(24): e2402375121, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830090

RESUMO

Recent work has emphasized the disproportionate bias faced by minorities when interacting with law enforcement. However, research on the topic has been hampered by biased sampling in administrative data, namely that records of police interactions with citizens only reflect information on the civilians that police elect to investigate, and not civilians that police observe but do not investigate. In this work, we address a related bias in administrative police data which has received less empirical attention, namely reporting biases around investigations that have taken place. Further, we investigate whether digital monitoring tools help mitigate this reporting bias. To do so, we examine changes in reports of interactions between law enforcement and citizens in the wake of the New York City Police Department's replacement of analog memo books with mobile smartphones. Results from a staggered difference in differences estimation indicate a significant increase in reports of citizen stops once the new smartphones are deployed. Importantly, we observe that the rise is driven by increased reports of "unproductive" stops, stops involving non-White citizens, and stops occurring in areas characterized by a greater concentration of crime and non-White residents. These results reinforce the recent observation that prior work has likely underestimated the extent of racial bias in policing. Further, they highlight that the implementation of digital monitoring tools can mitigate the issue to some extent.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Polícia , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Tecnologia Digital , Smartphone , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos
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