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2.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 208: 111307, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564840

RESUMO

Early works that used thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) to measure absorbed dose from alpha particles reported relatively high variation (10%) between TLDs, which is undesirable for modern dosimetry applications. This work outlines a method to increase precision for absorbed dose measured using TLDs with alpha-emitting radionuclides by applying an alpha-specific chip factor (CF) that individually characterizes the TLD sensitivity to alpha particles. Variation between TLDs was reduced from 21.8% to 6.7% for the standard TLD chips and 7.9% to 3.3% for the thin TLD chips. It has been demonstrated by this work that TLD-100 can be calibrated to precisely measure the absorbed dose to water from alpha-emitting radionuclides.


Assuntos
Dosímetros de Radiação , Dosimetria Termoluminescente , Dosimetria Termoluminescente/métodos , Radioisótopos , Radiometria/métodos , Calibragem
3.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 48(2): 150-155, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605613

RESUMO

Objective: A quality control (QC) system based on the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) system was used to realize the Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) position verification and dose verification functions on Primus and VenusX accelerators. Methods: The MLC positions were calculated by the maximum gradient method of gray values to evaluate the deviation. The dose of images acquired by EPID were reconstructed using the algorithm combining dose calibration and dose calculation. The dose data obtained by EPID and two-dimensional matrix (MapCheck/PTW) were compared with the dose calculated by Pinnacle/TiGRT TPS for γ passing rate analysis. Results: The position error of VenusX MLC was less than 1 mm. The position error of Primus MLC was significantly reduced after being recalibrated under the instructions of EPID. For the dose reconstructed by EPID, the average γ passing rates of Primus were 98.86% and 91.39% under the criteria of 3%/3 mm, 10% threshold and 2%/2 mm, 10% threshold, respectively. The average γ passing rates of VenusX were 98.49% and 91.11%, respectively. Conclusion: The EPID-based accelerator quality control system can improve the efficiency of accelerator quality control and reduce the workload of physicists.


Assuntos
Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Eletrônica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radiometria/métodos
4.
J Vis Exp ; (204)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465937

RESUMO

The in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is a widely used technique in radiobiology research, biological dosimetry, genotoxicity studies, and in vitro radiosensitivity testing. This cytogenetic method is based on the detection of micronuclei in binucleated cells resulting from chromosomal fragments lagging during cell division. Fresh whole blood samples are the most preferred sample type for the CBMN assay. However, the disadvantages of working with fresh blood samples include immediate processing after blood collection and the limited number of repeated analyses that can be performed without extra blood sampling. As the need for fresh blood samples can be logistically challenging, CBMN assay on cryopreserved whole blood samples would be of great advantage, especially in large-scale patient studies. This paper describes a protocol to freeze whole blood samples and to perform the CBMN assay on these frozen blood samples. Blood samples from healthy volunteers have been frozen and thawed at different time points and then, subjected to a modified micronucleus assay protocol. The results demonstrate that this optimized procedure allows the performance of the CBMN assay on frozen blood samples. The described cryopreservation protocol may also be very useful for other cytogenetic assays and a variety of functional assays requiring proliferating lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Citocinese , Radiometria , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Divisão Celular , Radiometria/métodos , Linfócitos , Criopreservação
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474163

RESUMO

This work presents an ecological, flexible 2D radiochromic dosimeter for measuring ionizing radiation in the kilogray dose range. Cotton woven fabric made of cellulose was volume-modified with nitrotetrazolium blue chloride as a radiation-sensitive compound. Its features include a color change during exposure from yellowish to purple-brown and flexibility that allows it to adapt to various shapes. It was found that (i) the dose response is up to ~80 kGy, (ii) it is independent of the dose rate for 1.1-73.1 kGy/min, (iii) it can be measured in 2D using a flatbed scanner, (iv) the acquired images can be filtered using a mean filter, which improves its dose resolution, (v) the dose resolution is -0.07 to -0.4 kGy for ~0.6 to ~75.7 kGy for filtered images, and (vi) two linear dose subranges can be distinguished: ~0.6 to ~7.6 kGy and ~9.9 to ~62.0 kGy. The dosimeter combined with flatbed scanner reading and data processing using dedicated software packages constitutes a comprehensive system for measuring dose distributions for objects with complex shapes.


Assuntos
Dosímetros de Radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Celulose , Radiometria/métodos
6.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 207: 111235, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430824

RESUMO

The use of radiopharmaceuticals has gained a special place in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers and evaluation of the function of different organs of the body. In this study, the absorbed dose distribution of organs after injection of 188Re-Mu-9 has been investigated using MIRD method and MCNP-4C simulation code. The 188Re-Mu-9 labeled was injected the mouse body and the amount of 188Re-labeled accumulation was evaluated after 1, 4 and 2 4 h. Having a map of the distribution of radiopharmaceutical activity in the animal body, it is possible to convert it into a human model to obtain the internal dose received by 188Re-Mu-9 injection using the MIRD calculation method and the MCNP simulation code. According to the results of the study, the animal/human model can be acceptable method for dose estimation of antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Rênio , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Radioisótopos , Rênio/uso terapêutico , Radiometria/métodos
7.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 207: 111256, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432035

RESUMO

3D printing technology has rapidly spread for decades, allowing the fabrication of medical implants and human phantoms and revolutionizing healthcare. The objective of this study is to evaluate some radiological properties of commercially available 3D printing materials as potential tissue mimicking materials. Among fifteen materials, we compared their properties with nine human tissues. In all materials and tissues, exposure and energy absorption buildup factors were calculated for photon energies between 0.015 and 15 MeV and penetration depths up to 40 mean free path. Furthermore, the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit (version 10.5) was used to simulate their percentage depth dose distributions. In addition, equivalent atomic numbers, effective atomic numbers, attenuation coefficients, and CT numbers have been examined. All parameters were considered in calculating the average relative error (σ), which was used as a statistical comparison tool. With σ between 6 and 7, we found that Polylactic Acid (PLA) was capable of simulating eye lenses, blood, soft tissue, lung, muscle, and brain tissues. Moreover, Polymethacrylic Acid (PMAA) material has a σ value of 4 when modeling adipose and breast tissues, respectively. Aside from that, variations in 3D printing materials' infilling percentage can affect their CT numbers. We therefore suggest the PLA for mimicking soft tissue, muscle, brain, eye lens, lung and blood tissues, with an infill of between 92.7 and 94.3 percent. We also suggest an 89 percent infill when simulating breast tissue. Furthermore, with a 96.7 percent infill, the PMAA faithfully replicates adipose tissue. Additionally, we found that a 59 percent infill of Fe-PLA material is comparable to cortical bone. Due to the benefits of creating individualized medical phantoms and equipment, the results might be seen as an added value for both patients and clinicians.


Assuntos
Ácidos Polimetacrílicos , Impressão Tridimensional , Radiometria , Humanos , Raios gama , Poliésteres , Imagens de Fantasmas
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6119, 2024 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480827

RESUMO

Non-invasive methods of detecting radiation exposure show promise to improve upon current approaches to biological dosimetry in ease, speed, and accuracy. Here we developed a pipeline that employs Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectrum to identify a signature of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in mouse ear pinnae over time. Mice exposed to 0.1 to 2 Gy total body irradiation were repeatedly measured by FTIR at the stratum corneum of the ear pinnae. We found significant discriminative power for all doses and time-points out to 90 days after exposure. Classification accuracy was maximized when testing 14 days after exposure (specificity > 0.9 with a sensitivity threshold of 0.9) and dropped by roughly 30% sensitivity at 90 days. Infrared frequencies point towards biological changes in DNA conformation, lipid oxidation and accumulation and shifts in protein secondary structure. Since only hundreds of samples were used to learn the highly discriminative signature, developing human-relevant diagnostic capabilities is likely feasible and this non-invasive procedure points toward rapid, non-invasive, and reagent-free biodosimetry applications at population scales.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação , Radiometria , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise de Fourier , Radiometria/métodos , Proteínas , Radiação Ionizante , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Doses de Radiação
9.
Radiat Oncol ; 19(1): 40, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess a large panel of MR compatible detectors on the full range of measurements required for a 0.35 T MR-linac commissioning by using a specific statistical method represented as a continuum of comparison with the Monte Carlo (MC) TPS calculations. This study also describes the commissioning tests and the secondary MC dose calculation validation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plans were created on the Viewray TPS to generate MC reference data. Absolute dose points, PDD, profiles and output factors were extracted and compared to measurements performed with ten different detectors: PTW 31010, 31021, 31022, Markus 34045 and Exradin A28 MR ionization chambers, SN Edge shielded diode, PTW 60019 microdiamond, PTW 60023 unshielded diode, EBT3 radiochromic films and LiF µcubes. Three commissioning steps consisted in comparison between calculated and measured dose: the beam model validation, the output calibration verification in four different phantoms and the commissioning tests recommended by the IAEA-TECDOC-1583. MAIN RESULTS: The symmetry for the high resolution detectors was higher than the TPS data of about 1%. The angular responses of the PTW 60023 and the SN Edge were - 6.6 and - 11.9% compared to the PTW 31010 at 60°. The X/Y-left and the Y-right penumbras measured by the high resolution detectors were in good agreement with the TPS values except for the PTW 60023 for large field sizes. For the 0.84 × 0.83 cm2 field size, the mean deviation to the TPS of the uncorrected OF was - 1.7 ± 1.6% against - 4.0 ± 0.6% for the corrected OF whereas we found - 4.8 ± 0.8% for passive dosimeters. The mean absolute dose deviations to the TPS in different phantoms were 0 ± 0.4%, - 1.2 ± 0.6% and 0.5 ± 1.1% for the PTW 31010, PTW 31021 and Exradin A28 MR respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The magnetic field effects on the measurements are considerably reduced at low magnetic field. The PTW 31010 ionization chamber can be used with confidence in different phantoms for commissioning and QA tests requiring absolute dose verifications. For relative measurements, the PTW 60019 presented the best agreement for the full range of field size. For the profile assessment, shielded diodes had a behaviour similar to the PTW 60019 and 60023 while the ionization chambers were the most suitable detectors for the symmetry. The output correction factors published by the IAEA TRS 483 seem to be applicable at low magnetic field pending the publication of new MR specific values.


Assuntos
Aceleradores de Partículas , Radiometria , Humanos , Radiometria/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Calibragem
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7134, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532018

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the deliverability of dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) by gantry wobble owing to the intrinsic inter-segment break of the Elekta linear accelerator (LINAC) and its adverse influence on the dose to the patient. The deliverability of DCAT was evaluated according to the plan parameters, which affect the gantry rotation speed and resultant positional inaccuracies; the deliverability according to the number of control points and dose rates was investigated by using treatment machine log files and dosimetry devices, respectively. A non-negligible degradation in DCAT deliverability due to gantry wobble was observed in both the treatment machine log files and dosimetry devices. The resulting dose-delivery error occurred below a certain number of control points or above a certain dose rate. Dose simulations in the patient domain showed a similar impact on deteriorated deliverability. For targets located primarily in the isocenter, the dose differences were negligible, whereas for organs at risk located mainly off-isocenter, the dose differences were significant up to - 8.77%. To ensure safe and accurate radiotherapy, optimal plan parameters should be selected, and gantry angle-specific validations should be conducted before treatment.


Assuntos
Radioterapia Conformacional , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aceleradores de Partículas , Radiometria/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 85-92, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a plastic scintillating plate-based beam monitoring system to perform quality assurance (QA) measurements in pencil beam scanning proton beam. METHODS: Single spots and scanned fields were measured with the high-resolution dosimetry system, consisting of a plastic scintillation plate coupled to a camera in a dark box at the isocenter. The measurements were taken at 110-190 MeV beam energies with 30° gantry angle intervals at each energy. Spot positions were determined using the plastic scintillating plate-based dosimetry system at the isocenter for 70-230 MeV beam energies with 30° gantry angle intervals. The effect of gantry angle on dose distribution was also assessed by determining the scanning pattern for daily QA and 25 fields treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy. RESULTS: Spot size, field flatness, and field symmetry of plastic scintillating plate-based dosimetry system were consistent with EBT3 at all investigated energies and angles. In all investigated energies and angles, the spot size measured was ±10% of the average size of each energy, the spot position measured was within ±2 mm, field flatness was within ±2%, and field symmetry was within ±1%. The mean gamma passing rates with the 3%/3 mm gamma criterion of the scanning pattern and 25 fields were 99.2% and 99.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This system can be effective for QA determinations of spot size, spot position, field flatness, and field symmetry over 360° of gantry rotation in a time- and cost-effective manner, with spatial resolution comparable to that of EBT3 film.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Humanos , Prótons , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
12.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 389-395, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Total skin electron beam therapy, commonly known as TSET, is a good choice of treatment for patients suffering from mycosis fungoides. The aim of this study was to introduce a new approach to the beam profile measurement using diodes and to calculate the monitor units required for the TSET treatment by the use of a simple setup of output measurement. Dosimetric measurements required for the treatment were taken to establish the Stanford technique in the department, and the measured data was compared with the published data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-energy Linear Accelerator Clinac-DHX, Varian medical system, Palo Alto, CA, was commissioned for TSET. The output of the machine was measured by the use of a Parallel-Plate Chamber (PPC40) as per the TRS 398 recommendation. Diode dosimeters (EDD2 and EDD5) were used for beam profile measurements due to easy setup and to reduce the measurement time. RESULTS: Homogeneous dose distribution within a field size of 80 cm x160 cm was observed with the variation of -5.0% on the horizontal axis and -5.4% on the vertical axis. The calculated monitor unit to deliver 200 cGy per fraction per field at the source to surface (SSD) of 416 cm was 489 MU. CONCLUSION: The technique described for the output measurements is simple and accurate. Results of the absorbed dose and MU measured were within good agreement compared to the published literature.


Assuntos
Aceleradores de Partículas , Radiometria , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radiometria/métodos
13.
Med Phys ; 51(4): 2905-2923, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FLASH Radiotherapy (RT) is an emergent cancer RT modality where an entire therapeutic dose is delivered at more than 1000 times higher dose rate than conventional RT. For clinical trials to be conducted safely, a precise and fast beam monitor that can generate out-of-tolerance beam interrupts is required. This paper describes the overall concept and provides results from a prototype ultra-fast, scintillator-based beam monitor for both proton and electron beam FLASH applications. PURPOSE: A FLASH Beam Scintillator Monitor (FBSM) is being developed that employs a novel proprietary scintillator material. The FBSM has capabilities that conventional RT detector technologies are unable to simultaneously provide: (1) large area coverage; (2) a low mass profile; (3) a linear response over a broad dynamic range; (4) radiation hardness; (5) real-time analysis to provide an IEC-compliant fast beam-interrupt signal based on true two-dimensional beam imaging, radiation dosimetry and excellent spatial resolution. METHODS: The FBSM uses a proprietary low mass, less than 0.5 mm water equivalent, non-hygroscopic, radiation tolerant scintillator material (designated HM: hybrid material) that is viewed by high frame rate CMOS cameras. Folded optics using mirrors enable a thin monitor profile of ∼10 cm. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) data acquisition system generates real-time analysis on a time scale appropriate to the FLASH RT beam modality: 100-1000 Hz for pulsed electrons and 10-20 kHz for quasi-continuous scanning proton pencil beams. An ion beam monitor served as the initial development platform for this work and was tested in low energy heavy-ion beams (86Kr+26 and protons). A prototype FBSM was fabricated and then tested in various radiation beams that included FLASH level dose per pulse electron beams, and a hospital RT clinic with electron beams. RESULTS: Results presented in this report include image quality, response linearity, radiation hardness, spatial resolution, and real-time data processing. The HM scintillator was found to be highly radiation damage resistant. It exhibited a small 0.025%/kGy signal decrease from a 216 kGy cumulative dose resulting from continuous exposure for 15 min at a FLASH compatible dose rate of 237 Gy/s. Measurements of the signal amplitude versus beam fluence demonstrate linear response of the FBSM at FLASH compatible dose rates of >40 Gy/s. Comparison with commercial Gafchromic film indicates that the FBSM produces a high resolution 2D beam image and can reproduce a nearly identical beam profile, including primary beam tails. The spatial resolution was measured at 35-40 µm. Tests of the firmware beta version show successful operation at 20 000 Hz frame rate or 50 µs/frame, where the real-time analysis of the beam parameters is achieved in less than 1 µs. CONCLUSIONS: The FBSM is designed to provide real-time beam profile monitoring over a large active area without significantly degrading the beam quality. A prototype device has been staged in particle beams at currents of single particles up to FLASH level dose rates, using both continuous ion beams and pulsed electron beams. Using a novel scintillator, beam profiling has been demonstrated for currents extending from single particles to 10 nA currents. Radiation damage is minimal and even under FLASH conditions would require ≥50 kGy of accumulated exposure in a single spot to result in a 1% decrease in signal output. Beam imaging is comparable to radiochromic films, and provides immediate images without hours of processing. Real-time data processing, taking less than 50 µs (combined data transfer and analysis times), has been implemented in firmware for 20 kHz frame rates for continuous proton beams.


Assuntos
Prótons , Radiometria , Cintilografia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
14.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(8)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452383

RESUMO

Objective. The aim of this work is to investigate the response of the Roos chamber (type 34001) irradiated by clinical proton beams in magnetic fields.Approach. At first, a Fano test was implemented in Monte Carlo software package GATE version 9.2 (based on Geant4 version 11.0.2) using a cylindrical slab geometry in a magnetic field up to 1 T. In accordance to an experimental setup (Fuchset al2021), the magnetic field correction factorskQB⃗of the Roos chamber were determined at different energies up to 252 MeV and magnetic field strengths up to 1 T, by separately simulating the ratios of chamber signalsMQ/MQB⃗,without and with magnetic field, and the dose-conversion factorsDw,QB⃗/Dw,Qin a small cylinder of water, with and without magnetic field. Additionally, detailed simulations were carried out to understand the observed magnetic field dependence.Main results. The Fano test was passed with deviations smaller than 0.25% between 0 and 1 T. The ratios of the chamber signals show both energy and magnetic field dependence. The maximum deviation of the dose-conversion factors from unity of 0.22% was observed at the lowest investigated proton energy of 97.4 MeV andB⃗= 1 T. The resultingkQB⃗factors increase initially with the applied magnetic field and decrease again after reaching a maximum at around 0.5 T; except for the lowest 97.4 MeV beam that show no observable magnetic field dependence. The deviation from unity of the factors is also larger for higher proton energies, where the maximum lies at 1.0035(5), 1.0054(7) and 1.0069(7) for initial energies ofE0= 152, 223.4 and 252 MeV, respectively.Significance. Detailed Monte Carlo studies showed that the observed effect can be mainly attributed to the differences in the transport of electrons produced both outside and inside of the air cavity in the presence of a magnetic field.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Prótons , Radiometria/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Campos Magnéticos , Método de Monte Carlo
15.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(8)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478998

RESUMO

Objective. Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range of 50-250 MeV are of interest for treating deep-seated tumours with FLASH radiotherapy (RT). This approach offers favourable dose distributions and the ability to deliver ultra-high dose rates (UHDR) efficiently. To make VHEE-based FLASH treatment clinically viable, a novel beam monitoring technology is explored as an alternative to transmission ionisation monitor chambers, which have non-linear responses at UHDR. This study introduces the fibre optic flash monitor (FOFM), which consists of an array of silica optical fibre-based Cherenkov sensors with a photodetector for signal readout.Approach. Experiments were conducted at the CLEAR facility at CERN using 200 MeV and 160 MeV electrons to assess the FOFM's response linearity to UHDR (characterised with radiochromic films) required for FLASH radiotherapy. Beam profile measurements made on the FOFM were compared to those using radiochromic film and scintillating yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) screens.Main results. A range of photodetectors were evaluated, with a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera being the most suitable choice for this monitor. The FOFM demonstrated excellent response linearity from 0.9 Gy/pulse to 57.4 Gy/pulse (R2= 0.999). Furthermore, it did not exhibit any significant dependence on the energy between 160 MeV and 200 MeV nor the instantaneous dose rate. Gaussian fits applied to vertical beam profile measurements indicated that the FOFM could accurately provide pulse-by-pulse beam size measurements, agreeing within the error range of radiochromic film and YAG screen measurements, respectively.Significance. The FOFM proves to be a promising solution for real-time beam profile and dose monitoring for UHDR VHEE beams, with a linear response in the UHDR regime. Additionally it can perform pulse-by-pulse beam size measurements, a feature currently lacking in transmission ionisation monitor chambers, which may become crucial for implementing FLASH radiotherapy and its associated quality assurance requirements.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Radioterapia de Alta Energia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Radiometria/métodos
17.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 10(3)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518360

RESUMO

The Accurate dosage prediction in Radiation Therapy is challenging, prompting a need for precision beyond conventional clinical Treatment Planning Systems (TPS). Monte Carlo-based methods are sought for their superior accuracy. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions between the ACUROS algorithm and the GATE platform in various tissue densities and field sizes, focusing on smaller fields. This study was initiated with a homogeneous validation of the TrueBeam STX system, using measurements obtained from the Centre Hospitalier Interregional Edith Cavell (CHIREC) in Brussels. The validation compared dosimetric functions (Percentage Depth Dose (PDD), Dose profile (DP) and Collimator scatter fraction (CSF)) employing the GAMMA index with a 2% / 2 mm criterion tolerance. Following this, heterogeneous studies examined dose distributions between the ACUROS algorithm and the GATE platform in various tissue densities and field sizes, with a specific focus on smaller fields. Simulations were conducted using both platforms on chest phantoms with heterogeneous slabs representing bone, lung, and heart, each housing a central tumor. The impact of electronic equilibrium on tumors for different small field sizes was evaluated. Results showed a remarkable 99% agreement between measurements and GATE calculations in the homogeneous validation of the TrueBeam STX system. However, in heterogeneous studies, ACUROS consistently overestimated lung doses by up to 8% compared to GATE simulation, especially evident with a flattening filter and smaller beam sizes at density interfaces. This highlights significant dose estimation discrepancies between ACUROS and GATE, emphasizing the need for precise calculations. The findings support exploring Monte Carlo-based methods for enhanced accuracy in Radiation Therapy treatment planning.


Assuntos
Radiometria , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Algoritmos , Pulmão
18.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 25(4): e14213, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a Total Body Irradiation (TBI) technique using IMRT at extended SSD that can be performed in any size Linac room. METHODS: Patients studied were placed on a platform close to the floor, directly under the gantry with cranial-caudal axis parallel to the gantry rotation plane and at SSD ∼200 cm. Two abutting fields with the same external isocenter at gantry angles of ±21˚, collimator angle of 90˚, and field size of 25 × 40 cm2 are employed for both supine and prone positions. An iterative optimization algorithm was developed to generate a uniform dose at the patient mid-plane with adequate shielding to critical organs such as lungs and kidneys. The technique was validated in both phantom and patient CT images for treatment planning, and dose measurement and QA were performed in phantom. RESULTS: A uniform dose distribution in the mid-plane within ±5% of the prescription dose was reached after a few iterations. This was confirmed with ion-chamber measurements in phantom. The mean dose to lungs and kidneys can be adjusted according to clinical requirements and can be as low as ∼25% of the prescription dose. For a typical prescription dose of 200 cGy/fraction, the total MU was ∼2400/1200 for the superior/inferior field. The overall treatment time for both supine/prone positions was ∼54 min to meet the maximum absorbed dose rate criteria of 15 cGy/min. IMRT QA with portal dosimetry shows excellent agreement. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a promising TBI technique using abutting IMRT fields at extended SSD. The patient is in a comfortable recumbent position with good reproducibility and less motion during treatment. An additional benefit of this technique is that full 3D dose distribution is available from the TPS with a DVH summary for organs of interest. The technique allows precise sparing of lungs and kidneys and can be executed in any linac room.


Assuntos
Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Irradiação Corporal Total , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Radiometria/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335097, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299079

RESUMO

Even today when nearly 80 years have passed after the atomic bomb (A-bomb) was dropped, there are still debates about the exact doses received by the A-bomb survivors. While initial airborne kerma radiation (or energy spectrum of emitted radiation) can be measured with sufficient accuracy to assess the radiation dose to A-bomb survivors, it is not easy to accurately assess the neutron dose including appropriate weighting of neutron absorbed dose. Particularly, possible post-explosion exposure due to the radioactive particles generated through neutron activation have been almost neglected so far, mainly because of a large uncertainty associated to the behavior of those particles. However, it has been supposed that contribution of such non-initial radiation exposure from the neutron-induced radioactive particles could be significant, according to the findings that the stable chromosomal aberration rates which indicate average whole-body radiation doses were found to be more than 30% higher for those exposed indoors than for those outdoors even at the same initial dose estimated for the Life Span Study. In this Mini Review article, the authors explain that such apparently controversial observations can be reasonably explained by assuming a higher production rate of neutron-induced radioactive particles in the indoor environment near the hypocenter.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Bombas Atômicas , Radiometria , Humanos , Explosões , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Nêutrons
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4510, 2024 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402259

RESUMO

Grid therapy recently has been picking momentum due to favorable outcomes in bulky tumors. This is being termed as Spatially Fractionated Radiation Therapy (SFRT) and lattice therapy. SFRT can be performed with specially designed blocks made with brass or cerrobend with repeated holes or using multi-leaf collimators where dosimetry is uncertain. The dosimetric challenge in grid therapy is the mystery behind the lower percentage depth dose (PDD) in grid fields. The knowledge about the beam quality, indexed by TPR20/10 (Tissue Phantom Ratio), is also necessary for absolute dosimetry of grid fields. Since the grid may change the quality of the primary photons, a new [Formula: see text] should be evaluated for absolute dosimetry of grid fields. A Monte Carlo (MC) approach is provided to resolving the dosimetric issues. Using 6 MV beam from a linear accelerator, MC simulation was performed using MCNPX code. Additionally, a commercial grid therapy device was used to simulate the grid fields. Beam parameters were validated with MC model for output factor, depth of maximum dose, PDDs, dose profiles, and TPR20/10. The electron and photon spectra were also compared between open and grid fields. The dmax is the same for open and grid fields. The PDD with grid is lower (~ 10%) than the open field. The difference in TPR20/10 of open and grid fields is observable (~ 5%). Accordingly, TPR20/10 is still a good index for the beam quality in grid fields and consequently choose the correct [Formula: see text] in measurements. The output factors for grid fields are 0.2 lower compared to open fields. The lower depth dose with grid therapy is due to lower depth fluence with scatter radiation but it does not impact the dosimetry as the calibration parameters are insensitive to the effective beam energies. Thus, standard dosimetry in open beam based on international protocol could be used.


Assuntos
Fótons , Radiometria , Radiometria/métodos , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Elétrons , Imagens de Fantasmas , Método de Monte Carlo , Aceleradores de Partículas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
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