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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3260, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627377

RESUMO

Notable-HCC (NCT05185531) is a phase 1b trial, aiming to evaluate the safety and preliminary effectiveness of neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in early-stage resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty patients with HCC of BCLC stage 0-A received 3 × Gy SBRT and two cycles of tislelizumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody before the curative HCC resection. Primary endpoints were the surgery delay, radiographic and pathological tumor response after the neoadjuvant therapy, safety and tolerability. During the neoadjuvant therapy, treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of grade 1-2 occurred in all 20 patients (100%), eight patients (40%) had grade 3 TRAEs, no grade 4 to 5 TRAE occurred, and all resolved without corticosteroids treatment. Per mRECIST, the objective response rate was 63.2% (12/19), with 3 complete response; the disease control rate was 100%. Two (10.5%) patients achieved complete pathological response. No surgery delay occurred. The neoadjuvant therapy did not increase the surgical difficulty or the incidence of complications. Secondary endpoints of disease-free survival and overall survival were not mature at the time of the analysis. Our pilot trial shows that neoadjuvant therapy with anti-PD-1 + SBRT is safe and promotes tumor responses in early-stage resectable HCC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adjuvantes Imunológicos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8250, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589494

RESUMO

Personalized, ultra-fractionated stereotactic adaptive radiotherapy (PULSAR) is designed to administer tumoricidal doses in a pulsed mode with extended intervals, spanning weeks or months. This approach leverages longer intervals to adapt the treatment plan based on tumor changes and enhance immune-modulated effects. In this investigation, we seek to elucidate the potential synergy between combined PULSAR and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy using experimental data from a Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) syngeneic murine cancer model. Employing a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) model, we simulated the treatment response by treating irradiation and anti-PD-L1 as external stimuli occurring in a temporal sequence. Our findings demonstrate that: (1) The model can simulate tumor growth by integrating various parameters such as timing and dose, and (2) The model provides mechanistic interpretations of a "causal relationship" in combined treatment, offering a completely novel perspective. The model can be utilized for in-silico modeling, facilitating exploration of innovative treatment combinations to optimize therapeutic outcomes. Advanced modeling techniques, coupled with additional efforts in biomarker identification, may deepen our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the combined treatment.


Assuntos
DEAE-Dextrano , Radiocirurgia , Animais , Camundongos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Terapia Combinada , Antígeno B7-H1
3.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 431, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dose-escalated radiotherapy is known to improve progression free survival in patients with localized prostate cancer, and recent advances have led to the standardization of ultrahypofractionated stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) delivered in just 5-fractions. Based on the known effectiveness of the accepted though invasive 2-fraction treatment method of high-dose-rate brachytherapy and given the ubiquity of prostate cancer, a further reduction in the number of treatments of external-beam SABR is possible. This study aims to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and non-inferiority of generalizable 2-fraction SABR compared to the current 5-fraction regimen. METHODS: 502 patients will be enrolled on this phase II/III randomized control trial. Eligible patients will have previously untreated low- or favorable intermediate-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Patients will be randomized between standard SABR of 40 Gy in 5 fractions given every-other-day and 27 Gy in 2 fractions at least two days apart but completing within seven days. MRI-based planning, radiopaque hydrogel spacer insertion, and fiducial marker placement are required, and SABR will be delivered on either a standard CT-guided linear accelerator or MR-LINAC. The primary endpoint will be freedom from disease progression, with additional secondary clinical, toxicity, and quality of life endpoints. DISCUSSION: This study will be the largest prospective randomized trial, adequately powered to demonstrate non-inferiority, comparing 2-fraction SABR to standard 5-fraction SABR for localized prostate cancer. As the protocol does not obligate use of an MRI-LINAC or other adaptive technologies, results will be broadly generalizable to the wider community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT06027892.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radiocirurgia , Masculino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Progressão da Doença , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/métodos
4.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 66(2): 166-180, Mar.- Abr. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231516

RESUMO

La resonancia magnética es la piedra angular en la evaluación de las metástasis cerebrales. Los retos clínicos residen en discriminar las metástasis de imitadores como infecciones o tumores primarios y en evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento. Este, en ocasiones, condiciona un crecimiento, que debe encuadrarse como una pseudoprogresión o una radionecrosis, ambos fenómenos inflamatorios atribuibles al mismo, o bien considerarse como una recurrencia. Para responder a estas necesidades, las técnicas de imagen son objeto de constantes investigaciones. No obstante, un crecimiento exponencial tras la radioterapia debe interpretarse con cautela, incluso ante resultados sospechosos de progresión por técnicas avanzadas, ya que puede tratarse de una radionecrosis. El objetivo de este trabajo es familiarizar al lector con los fenómenos inflamatorios de las metástasis cerebrales tratadas con radioterapia y describir dos signos radiológicos relacionados: la «nube inflamatoria» y el «realce en anillo incompleto», con el fin de adoptar un manejo conservador en estos casos.(AU)


MRI is the cornerstone in the evaluation of brain metastases. The clinical challenges lie in discriminating metastases from mimickers such as infections or primary tumors and in evaluating the response to treatment. The latter sometimes leads to growth, which must be framed as pseudo-progression or radionecrosis, both inflammatory phenomena attributable to treatment, or be considered as recurrence. To meet these needs, imaging techniques are the subject of constant research. However, an exponential growth after radiotherapy must be interpreted with caution, even in the presence of results suspicious of tumor progression by advanced techniques, because it may be due to inflammatory changes. The aim of this paper is to familiarize the reader with inflammatory phenomena of brain metastases treated with radiotherapy and to describe two related radiological signs: «the inflammatory cloud» and «incomplete ring enhancement», in order to adopt a conservative management with close follow-up.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Radiocirurgia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Radiação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/uso terapêutico
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(4): 230, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report clinical outcomes for patients with metastatic disease to the head and neck (HN) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated with SBRT to HN sites from 2012 to 2020 was conducted. Treatment indications included the following: oligometastases, oligoprogression, and control a dominant area of progression (DAP). Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate local control (LC), regional control (RC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Univariable (UVA) and multivariable analyses (MVA) were performed. Grade 3-4 acute and late toxicities were reported by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (58 lesions) were analysed with a median follow-up of 16 months. Primary sites included lung (25.0%), kidney (19.6%), breast (19.6%) and other (35.8%). SBRT indications were as follows: oligometastases (42.9%), oligoprogression (19.6%) and local control of a dominant area of progression (37.5%). Most patients received SBRT to a single neck node (n = 47, 81.0%). Median SBRT dose was 40 Gy (range 25-50 Gy) in five fractions, with a median biologically effective dose (BED10) of 72 Gy (range 37.5-100 Gy). One- and 2-year LC and RC rates were 97.6% and 72.7% as well as 100% and 86.7%, respectively. Median OS was 19.2 months (95% [CI] 14.8-69.4), and median PFS was 7.4 months (95% [CI] 5.2-11.9). The 1-year OS and PFS rates for oligometastases, oligoprogression and DAP were 95.8%, 63.6% and 38.1% (p = 0.0039) as well as 56.5%, 27.3% and 19.1% (p = 0.0004), respectively. On MVA, treatment indication and histology were predictive for OS, while indication and prior systemic therapy were predictive for PFS. Cumulative late grade 3 + toxicity rate was 11.3%, without grade 5 events. CONCLUSION: The use of SBRT for metastatic disease to the HN provided excellent LC rates with low rates of regional failure and an acceptable toxicity profile, highlighting its utility in these patients. Patients with oligometastatic disease had better OS and PFS than others.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pulmão/patologia , Pescoço , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 332, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Almost one third of cancer patients in the United States will develop brain metastases on an annual basis. Surgical resection is indicated in the setting of brain metastases for reasons, such as maximizing local control in select patients, decompression of mass effect, and/or tissue diagnosis. The current standard of care following resection of a brain metastasis has shifted from whole brain radiation therapy to post-operative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, there is a significant rate of local recurrence within one year of postoperative SRS. Emerging retrospective and prospective data suggest pre-operative SRS is a safe and potentially effective treatment paradigm for surgical brain metastases. This trial intends to determine, for patients with an indication for resection of a brain metastasis, whether there is an increase in the time to a composite endpoint of adverse outcomes; including the first occurrence of either: local recurrence, leptomeningeal disease, or symptomatic radiation brain necrosis - in patients who receive pre-operative SRS as compared to patients who receive post-operative SRS. METHODS: This randomized phase III clinical trial compares pre-operative with post-operative SRS for brain metastases. A dynamic random allocation procedure will allocate an equal number of patients to each arm: pre-operative SRS followed by surgery or surgery followed by post-operative SRS. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: If pre-operative SRS improves outcomes relative to post-operative SRS, this will establish pre-operative SRS as superior. If post-operative SRS proves superior to pre-operative SRS, it will remain a standard of care and halt the increasing utilization of pre-operative SRS. If there is no difference in pre- versus post-operative SRS, then pre-operative SRS may still be preferred, given patient convenience and the potential for a condensed timeline. DISCUSSION: Emerging retrospective and prospective data have demonstrated some benefits of pre-op SRS vs. post-op SRS. This study will show whether there is an increase in the time to the composite endpoint. Additionally, the study will compare overall survival; patient-reported outcomes; morbidity; completion of planned therapies; time to systemic therapy; time to regional progression; time to CNS progression; time to subsequent treatment; rate of radiation necrosis; rate of local recurrence; and rate of leptomeningeal disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03750227 (Registration date: 21/11/2018).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Necrose/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto
7.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 122, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502283

RESUMO

This letter to the editor critiques a recent study evaluating the role of biologically effective dose (BED) in stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy for essential tremor (ET). The study, conducted retrospectively on 78 ET patients, demonstrates a significant correlation between BED and tremor improvement post-SRS. Moreover, the study suggests adjusting the prescribed dose rather than changing cobalt-60 sources to maintain treatment efficacy while minimizing toxicity. This suggestion aligns with previous research indicating an annual decrease in BED due to cobalt-60 decay. The letter emphasizes the importance of considering BED and cobalt-60 decay in optimizing treatment outcomes for ET patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery. Further research is recommended to explore innovative techniques for dose modulation in response to cobalt-60 decay and validate findings in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Cobalto , Tremor Essencial , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Tremor/cirurgia , Tremor Essencial/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Neuro Oncol ; 26(12 Suppl 2): S56-S65, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437665

RESUMO

Radiation therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiation therapy is a mainstay of treatment for patients with brain metastases. The use of SRS in the management of brain metastases is becoming increasingly common and provides excellent local control. Cerebral radiation necrosis (RN) is a late complication of radiation treatment that can be seen months to years following treatment and is often indistinguishable from tumor progression on conventional imaging. In this review article, we explore risk factors associated with the development of radiation necrosis, advanced imaging modalities used to aid in diagnosis, and potential treatment strategies to manage side effects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Lesões por Radiação , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/terapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Necrose
9.
Neuro Oncol ; 26(12 Suppl 2): S76-S87, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437670

RESUMO

Advancements in systemic therapies for patients with metastatic cancer have improved overall survival and, hence, the number of patients living with spinal metastases. As a result, the need for more versatile and personalized treatments for spinal metastases to optimize long-term pain and local control has become increasingly important. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been developed to meet this need by providing precise and conformal delivery of ablative high-dose-per-fraction radiation in few fractions while minimizing risk of toxicity. Additionally, advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques have also greatly improved care for patients with epidural disease and/or unstable spines, which may then be combined with SBRT for durable local control. In this review, we highlight the indications and controversies of SBRT along with new surgical techniques for the treatment of spinal metastases.


Assuntos
Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/radioterapia , Padrão de Cuidado , Dor
10.
Cancer Control ; 31: 10732748241237331, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has shown only limited success in the management of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. Overall response rates (ORR) with single agent pembrolizumab were 18% and median PFS was 18 weeks on the clinical trial SARC028. One strategy to improve the responses to immunotherapy is with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which can enhance the antitumor CD8 T cell response through the release of tumor-specific antigens, potentially priming a more diverse class of T cell receptors. METHODS: This is a phase 0, pilot prospective study taking place at a single center with 2 arms. In Arm A, patients are treated with pembrolizumab 400 mg IV infusion on day 1 of a 42-day cycle. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is delivered in 1-5 fractions starting on C1D15-28 and given every other day. In Arm B, patients who have started an immune checkpoint inhibitor within 60 days are treated with SBRT in addition to the current therapy. RESULTS: In this study we outline testing the feasibility of adding SBRT to pembrolizumab. CONCLUSION: The ultimate goal of combination therapy is improved overall response, including tumors not treated with SBRT. This trial can be found registered online: NCT05488366.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Radiocirurgia , Sarcoma , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/radioterapia
11.
Magy Onkol ; 68(1): 60-65, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484376

RESUMO

In patients with poor performance status (KPS<50), ineligibility for effective systemic treatment and multiple brain metastases (BM) best supportive care is the preferred treatment over whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). WBRT should be considered for the treatment of non-limited number (>4) brain metastases, depending on the patient's life expectancy, neurological symptoms, size, number and location of brain metastases, indication, type and availability of systemic therapy. In these patients if life expectancy is >4 months without small cell histology and without hippocampal lesions, hippocampal sparing WBRT with or without memantine is recommended. Simultaneous integrated boost for the BM is a logical and supportable concept. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is still recommended in small cell lung cancer patients with complete remission. Hippocampal sparing WBRT needs further validation in this indication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
12.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 127, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514580

RESUMO

Parafalcine and parasagittal (PFPS) are common locations for meningiomas. Surgical resection for these tumors, the first-line treatment, poses challenges due to their proximity to critical structures. This systematic review investigates the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a treatment for PFPS meningiomas, aiming to elucidate its safety and efficacy. The review adhered to PRISMA guidelines. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane. Inclusion criteria involved studies on SRS for PFPS meningiomas, reporting procedure outcomes and complications. Tumors were presumed or confirmed to be WHO grade 1. Data was systematically extracted. Meta-analysis was performed where applicable. The review included data from eight studies, 821 patients with 878 lesions. Tumor control was achieved in greater than 80% of cases. Adverse radiation effects were reported in 7.3% of them. Recurrence and further surgical approach were observed in 17.1% and 9.2% of cases, respectively. Symptom improvement was noted in 33.2% of patients. Edema occurred in approximately 25.1% of patients. A subgroup of 283 patients had upfront SRS, achieving tumor control in approximately 97% of such cases. SRS is a safe and effective treatment for PFPS meningiomas, both as an adjuvant therapy and as an upfront treatment for often smaller tumors. Post-SRS edema can typically be managed medically and usually does not require further surgical intervention. Further studies should provide more specific data on PFPS meningiomas. The use of single and hypofractionated SRS for larger volume PFPS meningiomas should be more explored to better define the risks and benefits.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Meningioma/radioterapia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Edema/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos
13.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 26(4): 400-408, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539021

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing life expectancy among patients with advanced cancer has placed a greater emphasis on optimizing pain control and quality of life. Concurrently, significant advancements in radiotherapy for bone metastases have permitted for dose escalation strategies such as stereotactic radiotherapy. This review aims to provide updated information on the management of bone metastases in light of these developments. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed recent studies regarding the role and details of external beam radiotherapy for bone metastases, with emphasis on differences by treatment site as well as intention (palliative versus ablative for oligometastases). Conventional palliative radiotherapy remains a mainstay of management. While stereotactic radiotherapy may augment durability of pain relief and even survival time, there are significant questions remaining regarding optimal dosing and patient selection. Radiotherapy for bone metastases continues to evolve, particularly with increasing use of stereotactic radiotherapy. Future studies are needed to clarify optimal dose, fractionation, modality, and patient selection criteria among different radiotherapy approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Dor
14.
Mol Cancer ; 23(1): 61, 2024 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immuno-radiotherapy may improve outcomes for patients with advanced solid tumors, although optimized combination modalities remain unclear. Here, we report the colorectal (CRC) cohort analysis from the SABR-PDL1 trial that evaluated the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab in combination with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in advanced cancer patients. METHODS: Eligible patients received atezolizumab 1200 mg every 3 weeks until progression or unmanageable toxicity, together with ablative SBRT delivered concurrently with the 2nd cycle (recommended dose of 45 Gy in 3 fractions, adapted upon normal tissue tolerance constraint). SBRT was delivered to at least one tumor site, with at least one additional measurable lesion being kept from the radiation field. The primary efficacy endpoint was one-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate from the start of atezolizumab. Sequential tumor biopsies were collected for deep multi-feature immune profiling. RESULTS: Sixty pretreated (median of 2 prior lines) advanced CRC patients (38 men [63%]; median age, 59 years [range, 20-81 years]; 77% with liver metastases) were enrolled in five centers (France: n = 4, Spain: n = 1) from 11/2016 to 04/2019. All but one (98%) received atezolizumab and 54/60 (90%) received SBRT. The most frequently irradiated site was lung (n = 30/54; 56.3%). Treatment-related G3 (no G4-5) toxicity was observed in 3 (5%) patients. Median OS and PFS were respectively 8.4 [95%CI:5.9-11.6] and 1.4 months [95%CI:1.2-2.6], including five (9%) patients with PFS > 1 year (median time to progression: 19.2 months, including 2/5 MMR-proficient). Best overall responses consisted of stable disease (n = 38; 64%), partial (n = 3; 5%) and complete response (n = 1; 2%). Immune-centric multiplex IHC and RNAseq showed that SBRT redirected immune cells towards tumor lesions, even in the case of radio-induced lymphopenia. Baseline tumor PD-L1 and IRF1 nuclear expression (both in CD3 + T cells and in CD68 + cells) were higher in responding patients. Upregulation of genes that encode for proteins known to increase T and B cell trafficking to tumors (CCL19, CXCL9), migration (MACF1) and tumor cell killing (GZMB) correlated with responses. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new data on the feasibility, efficacy, and immune context of tumors that may help identifying advanced CRC patients most likely to respond to immuno-radiotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT N°: 2015-005464-42; Clinicaltrial.gov number: NCT02992912.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino
15.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 102(2): 109-119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumour. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a frequently employed non-invasive method of treatment, with good remission rates and low morbidity in literature. However, the role of GKRS in the management of "large" meningiomas is unclear, with reported outcomes that vary by centre. We aimed to assess the factors that influence long-term outcomes following GKRS in meningiomas >10 cc in volume. METHODS: A retrospectively analysed all patients with meningiomas exceeding 10 cc in volume who underwent GKRS between January 2006 and December 2021 at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and follow-up data were acquired, and factors associated with progression following GKRS were assessed. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 76 patients 29 males (38.2%) and 47 females (61.8%) with a mean age of 46.3 ± 11.02 years. Thirty-nine patients had been previously operated (51.3%). Meningiomas were most frequently located in the parasagittal region (26 tumours, 34.2%) and sphenopetroclival region (23 tumours, 30.3%), with mean lesion volume of 12.55 ± 5.22 cc, ranging 10.3 cc-25 cc. The mean dose administered to the tumour margin was 12.5 Gy ± 1.2 Gy (range 6-15 Gy). The median duration of clinical follow-up was 48 months, over which period radiological progression occurred in 14 cases (20%), with unchanged tumour volume in 20 cases (28.6%) and reduction in size of the tumour in 36 cases (51.4%). Progression-free survival after GKRS was 72% at 5 years, was significantly poorer among meningiomas with tumour volume >14 cc (log-rank test p = 0.045), tumours presenting with limb motor deficits (log-rank test p = 0.012), and tumours that underwent prior Simpson grade 3 or 4 excision (log-rank test p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Meningiomas >10 cc in volume appear to display a high rate of progression and subsequent need for surgery following GKRS. Primary surgical resection, when not contraindicated, may be considered with GKRS serving an adjuvant role, especially in tumours exceeding 14 cc in volume, and presenting with limb motor deficits. Long-term clinical and radiological follow-up is essential following GKRS as the response of large meningiomas may be unpredictable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Radiocirurgia , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meningioma/radioterapia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos
16.
Indian J Med Res ; 159(2): 232-240, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: There is limited evidence studying the relationship of liver segmental dose and segmental volume changes. The segmental dose thresholds could potentially allow for segmental regeneration after liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Given improved survival in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and liver metastases and more salvage therapy options, this has become an important clinical question to explore. This study assesses the impact of liver segmental dose on segmental volume changes (gain or loss) after SBRT. METHODS: Liver segmental contours were delineated on baseline and serial follow up triphasic computed tomography scans. The volumes of total liver and doses to total liver, uninvolved liver and individual segments were noted. A correlation was evaluated between liver/segmental volume and dose using Pearson's correlation. Furthermore, receiver operator's curve (ROC) analysis was performed to find the segmental dose, i.e . predictive for liver volume loss. RESULTS: A total of 140 non-tumour liver segments were available for analysis in 21 participants. Overall, 13 participants showed loss of overall liver volume and eight showed gain of overall liver volume. The median dose in segments reporting an increase in volume was 9.1 Gy (7-36 Gy). The median dose in segments losing volume was 15.5 Gy (1-49 Gy). On ROC analysis, segmental dose >11 Gy was associated with volume loss. On univariate analysis, only liver segmental dose contributed to a significant segmental volume loss. INTERPRETATION CONCLUSIONS: We propose from the findings of this study that in SBRT for large hepatocellular cancer or liver metastases, liver segments should be individually delineated. Furthermore, 3-5 liver segments may be preferentially subjected to <9 Gy to facilitate hepatocyte regeneration. Preferential sparing of uninvolved liver segments may improve outcomes in liver stereotaxyas lower segmental doses were associated with liver regeneration. This may have implications on future liver SBRT planning where segmental doses may be as important as the mean dose.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Hepatócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Med Radiat Sci ; 71 Suppl 2: 90-98, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504608

RESUMO

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is increasingly used to treat cancers, especially in the paediatric and adolescent and young adult (AYA) population. As PBT becomes more accessible, determining when PBT should be used instead of photon irradiation can be difficult. There is a need to balance patient, tumour and treatment factors when making this decision. Comparing the dosimetry between these two modalities plays an important role in this process. PBT can reduce low to intermediate doses to organs at risk (OAR), but photon irradiation has its dosimetric advantages. We present two cases with brain tumours, one paediatric and one AYA, in which treatment plan comparison between photons and protons showed dosimetric advantages of photon irradiation. The first case was an 18-month-old child diagnosed with posterior fossa ependymoma requiring adjuvant radiotherapy. Photon irradiation using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) had lower doses to the hippocampi but higher doses to the pituitary gland. The second case was a 21-year-old with an optic pathway glioma. There was better sparing of the critical optic structures and pituitary gland using fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy over PBT. The dosimetric advantages of photon irradiation over PBT have been demonstrated in these cases. This highlights the role of proton-to-photon comparative treatment planning to better understand which patients might benefit from photon irradiation versus PBT.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Radiocirurgia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
18.
Med Phys ; 51(4): 2354-2366, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac radioablation is a noninvasive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) technique to treat patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) by delivering a single high-dose fraction to the VT isthmus. Cardiorespiratory motion induces position uncertainties resulting in decreased dose conformality. Electocardiograms (ECG) are typically used during cardiac MRI (CMR) to acquire images in a predefined cardiac phase, thus mitigating cardiac motion during image acquisition. PURPOSE: We demonstrate real-time cardiac physiology-based radiotherapy beam gating within a preset cardiac phase on an MR-linac. METHODS: MR images were acquired in healthy volunteers (n = 5, mean age = 29.6 years, mean heart-rate (HR) = 56.2 bpm) on the 1.5 T Unity MR-linac (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) after obtaining written informed consent. The images were acquired using a single-slice balance steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence in the coronal or sagittal plane (TR/TE = 3/1.48 ms, flip angle = 48 ∘ $^{\circ }$ , SENSE = 1.5, field-of-view = 400 × 207 $\text{field-of-view} = {400}\times {207}$ mm 2 ${\text{mm}}^{2}$ , voxel size = 3 × 3 × 15 $3\times 3\times 15$ mm 3 ${\rm mm}^{3}$ , partial Fourier factor = 0.65, frame rate = 13.3 Hz). In parallel, a 4-lead ECG-signal was acquired using MR-compatible equipment. The feasibility of ECG-based beam gating was demonstrated with a prototype gating workflow using a Quasar MRI4D motion phantom (IBA Quasar, London, ON, Canada), which was deployed in the bore of the MR-linac. Two volunteer-derived combined ECG-motion traces (n = 2, mean age = 26 years, mean HR = 57.4 bpm, peak-to-peak amplitude = 14.7 mm) were programmed into the phantom to mimic dose delivery on a cardiac target in breath-hold. Clinical ECG-equipment was connected to the phantom for ECG-voltage-streaming in real-time using research software. Treatment beam gating was performed in the quiescent phase (end-diastole). System latencies were compensated by delay time correction. A previously developed MRI-based gating workflow was used as a benchmark in this study. A 15-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan ( 1 × 6.25 ${1}\times {6.25}$ Gy) was delivered for different motion scenarios onto radiochromic films. Next, cardiac motion was then estimated at the basal anterolateral myocardial wall via normalized cross-correlation-based template matching. The estimated motion signal was temporally aligned with the ECG-signal, which were then used for position- and ECG-based gating simulations in the cranial-caudal (CC), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) directions. The effect of gating was investigated by analyzing the differences in residual motion at 30, 50, and 70% treatment beam duty cycles. RESULTS: ECG-based (MRI-based) beam gating was performed with effective duty cycles of 60.5% (68.8%) and 47.7% (50.4%) with residual motion reductions of 62.5% (44.7%) and 43.9% (59.3%). Local gamma analyses (1%/1 mm) returned pass rates of 97.6% (94.1%) and 90.5% (98.3%) for gated scenarios, which exceed the pass rates of 70.3% and 82.0% for nongated scenarios, respectively. In average, the gating simulations returned maximum residual motion reductions of 88%, 74%, and 81% at 30%, 50%, and 70% duty cycles, respectively, in favor of MRI-based gating. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time ECG-based beam gating is a feasible alternative to MRI-based gating, resulting in improved dose delivery in terms of high γ -pass $\gamma {\text{-pass}}$ rates, decreased dose deposition outside the PTV and residual motion reduction, while by-passing cardiac MRI challenges.


Assuntos
Radiocirurgia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Adulto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Suspensão da Respiração , Movimento (Física) , Software , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
19.
Otol Neurotol ; 45(4): 430-433, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience and results from coordinated and closely scheduled radiosurgery and cochlear implantation (CI) in a vestibular schwannoma (VS) cohort. PATIENTS: Patients with VS who underwent radiosurgery followed by CI on the same or next day. INTERVENTIONS: Interventions included sequential radiosurgery and CI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor control defined by tumor growth on posttreatment surveillance and audiometric outcomes including consonant-nucleus-consonant words and AzBio sentences in quiet. RESULTS: In total, six patients were identified that met the inclusion criteria, with an age range of 38 to 69 years and tumor sizes ranging from 2.0 to 16.3 mm. All patients successfully underwent radiosurgery and CI on the same or immediately successive day. Postoperatively, all patients obtained open-set speech recognition. Consonant-nucleus-consonant word scores ranged from 40 to 88% correct, and AzBio scores ranged from 44 to 94% correct. During posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging surveillance, which ranged from 12 to 68 months, all tumors were noted to be adequately visualized, and no tumor progression was noted. CONCLUSION: Coordinated radiosurgery and CI can be safely performed in patients with VS on the same or next day, serving to decrease burden on patients and increase access to this vital rehabilitative strategy.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Neuroma Acústico , Radiocirurgia , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Implante Coclear/métodos , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Audiometria , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Neurosurg Focus ; 56(3): E6, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been established as a safe and alternative treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). While embolization alone is the most commonly used modality for the treatment of dAVFs, the adjunctive use of embolization with SRS, with the growing use of SRS, has gained increasing interest in the past few years. However, the relative efficacy and safety of SRS combined with embolization versus SRS alone for dAVFs remains uncertain. Hence, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SRS with adjunctive embolization for intracranial dAVFs. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, up to August 2023. All studies evaluating the utilization of adjunctive embolization and SRS for dAVFs were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A meta-analysis was conducted on the suitable outcomes. RESULTS: Eighteen studies involving 715 patients were included. The mean age of the participants in the study was 64.30 years in the adjunctive embolization group and 60.51 years in the SRS-alone group. In the adjunctive embolization group 41.3% of patients were female, compared with 47.1% in the SRS-only group. The dAVF obliteration rates were 64.7% and 65.7% in the adjunctive embolization and SRS-alone groups, respectively. These obliteration rates were comparable between the two groups (p = 0.96), as were the symptom improvement rates (p = 0.35). Adverse events were rare, and were more commonly associated with the adjunctive embolization procedure, although further causal analysis was not possible. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that adjunctive embolization plus SRS provides similar obliteration and symptom improvement rates compared with SRS alone, with both having very limited SRS-related adverse events. Considering the added burden and adverse events of additional endovascular treatment, the authors recommend embolization be reserved for more complex dAVFs or when embolization can potentially be curative alone or provide more rapid symptomatic relief or protection during the radiosurgical latency period.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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