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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 269: 116325, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527378

RESUMO

By virtue of the drug repurposing strategy, the anti-osteoporosis drug raloxifene was identified as a novel PPARγ ligand through structure-based virtual high throughput screening (SB-VHTS) of FDA-approved drugs and TR-FRET competitive binding assay. Subsequent structural refinement of raloxifene led to the synthesis of a benzothiophene derivative, YGL-12. This compound exhibited potent PPARγ modulation with partial agonism, uniquely promoting adiponectin expression and inhibiting PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation by CDK5 without inducing the expression of adipongenesis associated genes, including PPARγ, aP2, CD36, FASN and C/EBPα. This specific activity profile resulted in effective hypoglycemic properties, avoiding major TZD-related adverse effects like weight gain and hepatomegaly, which were demonstrated in db/db mice. Molecular docking studies showed that YGL-12 established additional hydrogen bonds with Ile281 and enhanced hydrogen-bond interaction with Ser289 as well as PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation-related residues Ser342 and Glu343. These findings suggested YGL-12 as a promising T2DM therapeutic candidate, thereby providing a molecular framework for the development of novel PPARγ modulators with an enhanced therapeutic index.


Assuntos
PPAR gama , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Tiofenos , Camundongos , Animais , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos
2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 118: 236-251, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431238

RESUMO

Dopamine dysregulation contributes to psychosis and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia that can be modelled in rodents by inducing maternal immune activation (MIA). The selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, raloxifene, can improve psychosis and cognition in men and women with schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined how raloxifene may exert its therapeutic effects in mammalian brain in both sexes during young adulthood (age relevant to most prevalent age at diagnosis). Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene alters dopamine-related behaviours and brain transcripts in young adult rats, both control and MIA-exposed females and males. We found that raloxifene increased amphetamine (AMPH)-induced locomotor activity in female controls, and in contrast, raloxifene reduced AMPH-induced locomotor activity in male MIA offspring. We did not detect overt prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in female or male MIA offspring, yet raloxifene enhanced PPI in male MIA offspring. Whereas, raloxifene ameliorated increased startle responsivity in female MIA offspring. In the substantia nigra (SN), we found reduced Drd2s mRNA in raloxifene-treated female offspring with or without MIA, and increased Comt mRNA in placebo-treated male MIA offspring relative to placebo-treated controls. These data demonstrate an underlying dopamine dysregulation in MIA animals that can become more apparent with raloxifene treatment, and may involve selective alterations in dopamine receptor levels and dopamine breakdown processes in the SN. Our findings support sex-specific, differential behavioural responses to ER modulation in MIA compared to control offspring, with beneficial effects of raloxifene treatment on dopamine-related behaviours relevant to schizophrenia found in male MIA offspring only.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Ratos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Adulto , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , Anfetamina/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mamíferos/metabolismo
3.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 101: 117645, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401456

RESUMO

All three possible sulfamate derivatives of the selective estrogen receptor modulator Raloxifene (bis-sulfamate 7 and two mono-sulfamates 8-9) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the clinical drug target steroid sulfatase (STS), both in cell-free and in cell-based assays, and also as estrogen receptor (ER) modulators. Bis-sulfamate 7 was the most potent STS inhibitor with an IC50 of 12.2 nM in a whole JEG3 cell-based assay, with the two mono-sulfamates significantly weaker. The estrogen receptor-modulating activities of 7-9 showed generally lower affinities compared to Raloxifene HCl, diethylstilbestrol and other known ligands, with mono-sulfamate 8 being the best ligand (Ki of 1.5 nM) for ERα binding, although 7 had a Ki of 13 nM and both showed desirable antagonist activity. The antiproliferative activities of the sulfamate derivatives against the T-47D breast cancer cell line showed 7 as most potent (GI50 = 7.12 µM), comparable to that of Raloxifene. Compound 7 also showed good antiproliferative potency in the NCI-60 cell line panel with a GI50 of 1.34 µM against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Stability testing of 7-9 showed that bis-sulfamate 7 hydrolyzed by desulfamoylation at a surprisingly rapid rate, initially leading selectively to 8 and finally to Raloxifene 3 without formation of 9. The mechanisms of these hydrolysis reactions could be extensively rationalized. Conversion of Raloxifene (3) into its bis-sulfamate (7) thus produced a promising drug lead with nanomolar dual activity as an STS inhibitor and ERα antagonist, as a potential candidate for treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Humanos , Feminino , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Esteril-Sulfatase , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico
4.
Pharm Res ; 41(3): 557-566, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Green tea is a widely consumed beverage. A recent clinical study reported green tea decreased systemic exposure of raloxifene and its glucuronide metabolites by 34-43%. However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. This study investigated a change in raloxifene's solubility as the responsible mechanism. METHODS: The effects of green tea extract, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) on raloxifene's solubility were assessed in fasted state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF) and fed state simulated intestinal fluids (FeSSIF). EGCG and EGC represent green tea's main bioactive constituents, flavan-3-gallate and flavan-3-ol catechins respectively, and the tested concentrations (mM) match the µg/mg of each compound in the extract. Our mouse study (n = 5/time point) evaluated the effect of green tea extract and EGCG on the systemic exposure of raloxifene. RESULTS: EGCG (1 mM) and EGC (1.27 mM) decreased raloxifene's solubility in FaSSIF by 78% and 13%, respectively. Micelle size in FaSSIF increased with increasing EGCG concentrations (> 1000% at 1 mM), whereas EGC (1.27 mM) did not change micelle size. We observed 3.4-fold higher raloxifene solubility in FeSSIF compared to FaSSIF, and neither green tea extract nor EGCG significantly affected raloxifene solubility or micelle size in FeSSIF. The mice study showed that green tea extract significantly decreased raloxifene Cmax by 44%, whereas EGCG had no effect. Green tea extract and EGCG did not affect the AUC0-24 h of raloxifene or the metabolite-to-parent AUC ratio. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated flavan-3-gallate catechins may decrease solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs such as raloxifene, particularly in the fasted state.


Assuntos
Catequina , Chá , Camundongos , Animais , Catequina/análise , Catequina/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Micelas , Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(2): e2309664121, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170746

RESUMO

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is primarily synthesized by Polyphosphate Kinase-1 (PPK-1) and regulates numerous cellular processes, including energy metabolism, stress adaptation, drug tolerance, and microbial pathogenesis. Here, we report that polyP interacts with acyl CoA carboxylases, enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We show that deletion of ppk-1 in M. tuberculosis results in transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. In comparison to the parental strain, the Δppk-1 mutant strain had reduced levels of virulence-associated lipids such as PDIMs and TDM. We also observed that polyP deficiency in M. tuberculosis is associated with enhanced phagosome-lysosome fusion in infected macrophages and attenuated growth in mice. Host RNA-seq analysis revealed decreased levels of transcripts encoding for proteins involved in either type I interferon signaling or formation of foamy macrophages in the lungs of Δppk-1 mutant-infected mice relative to parental strain-infected animals. Using target-based screening and molecular docking, we have identified raloxifene hydrochloride as a broad-spectrum PPK-1 inhibitor. We show that raloxifene hydrochloride significantly enhanced the activity of isoniazid, bedaquiline, and pretomanid against M. tuberculosis in macrophages. Additionally, raloxifene inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis in mice. This is an in-depth study that provides mechanistic insights into the regulation of mycobacterial pathogenesis by polyP deficiency.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Animais , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/metabolismo , Polifosfatos/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
6.
Bioanalysis ; 16(3): 141-153, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38197392

RESUMO

Aim: A newer LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of raloxifene (RL) and cladrin (CL). Methodology: Both drugs were resolved in RP-18 (4.6 × 50 mm, 5 µ) Xbridge Shield column using acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid (FA) (70:30% v/v) as mobile phase by using biological matrices in female Sprague-Dawley rats using-MS/MS. Results: The developed method was found to be linear over the concentration ranges of 1-600 ng/ml, and lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/ml for RL and CL, respectively. Pharmacokinetic results of RL+CL showed Cmax = 4.23 ± 0.61, 26.97 ± 1.14 ng/ml, at Tmax(h) 5.5 ± 1.00 and 3.5 ± 1.00, respectively. Conclusion: Pharmacokinetic study results will be useful in the future for the combined delivery of RL and CL for osteoporosis treatment.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
7.
Bone ; 179: 116970, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977416

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary bone disease in which gene mutations affect collagen formation, leading to a weak, brittle bone phenotype that can cause severe skeletal deformity and increased fracture risk. OI interventions typically repurpose osteoporosis medications to increase bone mass, but this approach does not address compromised tissue-level material properties. Raloxifene (RAL) is a mild anti-resorptive used to treat osteoporosis that has also been shown to increase bone strength by a-cellularly increasing bone bound water content, but RAL cannot be administered to children due to its hormonal activity. The goal of this study was to test a RAL analog with no estrogen receptor (ER) signaling but maintained ability to reduce fracture risk. The best performing analog from a previous analog characterization project, named RAL-ADM, was tested in an in vivo study. Female wildtype (WT) and Col1a2G610C/+ (G610C) mice were randomly assigned to treated or untreated groups, for a total of 4 groups (n = 15). Starting at 10 weeks of age, all mice underwent compressive tibial loading 3×/week to induce an anabolic bone formation response in conjunction with RAL-ADM treatment (0.5 mg/kg; 5×/week) for 6 weeks. Tibiae were scanned via microcomputed tomography then tested to failure in four-point bending. RAL-ADM had reduced ER affinity, and increased post-yield properties, but did not improve bone strength in OI animals, suggesting some properties can be improved by RAL analogs but further development is needed to create an analog with decidedly positive impacts to OI bone.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Osteoporose , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Osteogênese , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/uso terapêutico , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 47(3): 709-720, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37672168

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Selective androgen (ostarine, OST) and estrogen (raloxifene, RAL) receptor modulators with improved tissue selectivity have been developed as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. We investigated the combined effects of OST and RAL on muscle tissue in an estrogen-deficient rat model of postmenopausal conditions. METHODS: Three-month-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into groups: (1) untreated non-ovariectomized rats (Non-OVX), (2) untreated ovariectomized rats (OVX), (3) OVX rats treated with OST, (4) OVX rats treated with RAL, (5) OVX rats treated with OST and RAL. Both compounds were administered in the diet. The average dose received was 0.6 ± 0.1 mg for OST and 11.1 ± 1.2 mg for RAL per kg body weight/day. After thirteen weeks, rat activity, muscle weight, structure, gene expression, and serum markers were analyzed. RESULTS: OST increased muscle weight, capillary ratio, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf-1) expression, serum phosphorus, uterine weight. RAL decreased muscle weight, capillary ratio, food intake, serum calcium and increased Igf-1 and Myostatin expression, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). OST + RAL increased muscle nucleus ratio, uterine weight, serum phosphorus, FSH and luteinizing hormone and decreased body and muscle weight, serum calcium. Neither treatment changed muscle fiber size. OVX increased body and muscle weight, decreased uterine weight, serum calcium and magnesium. CONCLUSION: OST had beneficial effects on muscle in OVX rats. Side effects of OST on the uterus and serum electrolytes should be considered before using it for therapeutic purposes. RAL and RAL + OST had less effect on muscle and showed endocrinological side effects on pituitary-gonadal axis.


Assuntos
Anilidas , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Cálcio , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Fósforo
9.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 14(3): 730-756, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768530

RESUMO

Raloxifene (RLX) is popularly indicated in treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of breast cancer. Owing to its poor aqueous solubility, high pre-systemic metabolism, intestinal glucuronidation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, however, it demonstrates low (< 2%) and inconsistent oral bioavailability. The current work, Quality by Design (QbD)-driven development of phospholipid-embedded nanostructured lipidic carriers (NLCs) of RLX, accordingly, was undertaken to potentiate its lymphatic uptake, augment oral bioavailability, and possibly reduce drug dosage. Factor screening and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) studies were performed to delineate high-risk factors using solid lipid (glyceryl monostearate), liquid lipid (vitamin E), and surfactant (Tween 80). Response surface optimization studies were performed employing the Box-Behnken design. Mathematical and graphical methods were adopted to embark upon the selection of optimized NLCs with various critical quality attributes (CQAs) of mean particle size as 186 nm, zeta potential of - 23.6 mV, entrapment efficiency of 80.09%, and cumulative drug release at 12 h of 83.87%. The DSC and FTIR studies, conducted on optimized NLCs, indicated successful entrapment of drug into the lipid matrix. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated Fickian diffusion mechanism. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats construed significant improvement in AUC0-72 h (4.48-folds) and in Cmax (5.11-folds), unequivocally indicating markedly superior (p < 0.001) oral bioavailability of RLX-NLCs vis-à-vis marketed tablet formulation. Subsequently, level "A" in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was also successfully attempted between the percentages of in vitro drug dissolved and of in vivo drug absorbed at the matching time points. In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies also corroborated higher efficacy and successful localization of coumarin-6-loaded NLCs into MG-63 cells through microfluidic channels.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Fosfolipídeos , Ratos , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Administração Oral , Tamanho da Partícula , Disponibilidade Biológica
10.
Osteoporos Int ; 35(2): 255-263, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37798320

RESUMO

Denosumab discontinuation results in accelerated bone remodeling, decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures. Bisphosphonates are at least partially effective at inhibiting these consequences but there have been no randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of alternative antiresorptives. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy of alendronate and the SERM, raloxifene, in preventing the post-denosumab high-turnover bone loss. METHODS: We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial in which 51 postmenopausal women at increased risk of fracture were randomized with equal probability to receive 12-months of denosumab 60-mg 6-monthly followed by 12-months of either alendronate 70-mg weekly or raloxifene 60-mg daily. Serum bone remodeling markers were measured at 0,6,12,15,18, and 24 and areal BMD of the distal radius, spine, and hip were measured at 0,12,18 and 24 months. RESULTS: After denosumab discontinuation, serum markers of bone remodeling remained suppressed when followed by alendronate, but gradually increased to baseline when followed by raloxifene. In the denosumab-to-alendronate group, denosumab-induced BMD gains were maintained at all sites whereas in the denosumab-to-raloxifene group, BMD decreased at the spine by 2.0% (95% CI -3.2 to -0.8, P = 0.003) and at the total hip by 1.2% (-2.1 to -0.4%, P = 0.008), but remained stable at the femoral neck and distal radius and above the original baseline at all sites. The decreases in spine and total hip BMD in the denosumab-to-raloxifene group (but not the femoral neck or distal radius) were significant when compared to the denosumab-to-alendronate group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that after one year of denosumab, one year of alendronate is better able to maintain the inhibition of bone remodeling and BMD gains than raloxifene.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Feminino , Humanos , Alendronato/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/efeitos adversos , Denosumab/farmacologia , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea , Biomarcadores
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 239: 115922, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134706

RESUMO

The amorphous Cu-containing phosphomolybdate (Cu-PTs) composite with high peroxidase (POD)-like activity at neutral conditions was explored as biosensors for raloxifene (RAF) detection. The strong attraction between negatively charged Cu-PTs and positively charged substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), as well as the acceleration of the conversion of active Cu+/Cu2+ by the Cu/W bimetallic redox couples were demonstrated to play significant roles in POD-like activity in physiological environment. When RAF is presence, it can bind to the surface of Cu-PTs and changes the chemical signal on the material surface, leading to the decreased POD-like activity. Based on this, a colorimetric method was established for the sensitive assay of RAF with a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 0.025 mg/L and good recovery from 90.13% to 108.9%. This work paves a new way to design a POD-like colorimetric protocol for tracing RAF in pharmaceutical products and environmental samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Colorimetria/métodos , Peroxidase , Peroxidases , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
12.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100312, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The CA1 region of the hippocampus has an important role in learning and memory. It has been shown that estrogen deficiency may reduce the synaptic density in the region and that hormone replacement therapy may attenuate the reduction. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of estrogen and raloxifene on the synaptic density profile in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Sixty ovariectomized three-month-old virgin rats were randomized into six groups (n = 10). Treatments started either three days (early treatment) or sixty days (late treatment) after ovariectomy. The groups received propylene glycol vehicle (0.5 mL/animal/day), equine conjugated estrogens (50 µg/animal/day), or raloxifene (3 mg/kg/day) either early or late after ovariectomy. The drugs were administered orally by gavage for 30 days. At the end of the treatments, the animals were anesthetized and transcardially perfused with ether and saline solution. The brains were removed and prepared for analysis under transmission electron microscopy and later fixed. RESULTS: Results showed a significant increase in the synaptic density profile of the hippocampal CA1 region in both the early estrogen (0.534 ± 0.026 µ/m2) and the early raloxifene (0.437 ± 0.012 µ/m2) treatment groups compared to the early or late vehicle-treated control groups (0.338 ± 0.038 µ/m2 and 0.277 ± 0.015 µ/m2 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that the raloxifene effect may be lower than that of estrogen, even early or late treatment, on synaptic density in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/farmacologia , Hipocampo , Ovariectomia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia
13.
J Med Life ; 16(8): 1274-1281, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024816

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is caused by a temporary reduction in oxygen-carrying blood flow to the kidney, followed by reperfusion. During ischemia, kidney tissue damage induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which produces oxidative stress. The blood flow restoration during the reperfusion period causes further production of reactive oxygen species that ends with apoptosis and cell death. This study aimed to investigate the potential renoprotective effects of Raloxifene on bilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by looking into kidney function biomarkers, urea and creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). Additionally, antioxidant markers such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the pro-apoptotic marker caspase-3 were assessed. Histopathological scores were also employed for evaluation. Our experimental design involved 20 rats divided into four groups: the sham group underwent median laparotomy without ischemia induction, the control group experienced bilateral renal ischemia for 30 minutes followed by 2 hours of reperfusion, the vehicle group received pretreatment with a mixture of corn oil and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) before ischemia induction, and the Raloxifene-treated group was administered Raloxifene at a dose of 10 mg/kg before ischemia induction, followed by ischemia-reperfusion. Urea and creatinine, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and caspase-3 in the Raloxifene group were significantly lower compared to the control and vehicle groups. On the other hand, TAC levels in the Raloxifene group were significantly higher than in the control and vehicle groups. This study concluded that Raloxifene had a renoprotective impact via multiple actions as an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant agent.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 3/farmacologia , Caspase 3/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Creatinina , Rim , Estresse Oxidativo , Nefropatias/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacologia , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Isquemia
14.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 25(11): 723-733, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864676

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite clear evidence that sex differences largely impact the efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic medication, current treatment guidelines for schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) do not differentiate between men and women. This review summarizes the available evidence on strategies that may improve pharmacotherapy for women and provides evidence-based recommendations to optimize treatment for women with schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for peer-reviewed studies on three topics: (1) sex differences in dose-adjusted antipsychotic serum concentrations, (2) hormonal augmentation therapy with estrogen and estrogen-like compounds to improve symptom severity, and (3) strategies to reduce antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Based on three database studies and one RCT, we found higher dose-adjusted concentrations in women compared to men for most antipsychotics. For quetiapine, higher concentrations were specifically found in older women. Based on two recent meta-analyses, both estrogen and raloxifene improved overall symptomatology. Most consistent findings were found for raloxifene augmentation in postmenopausal women. No studies evaluated the effects of estrogenic contraceptives on symptoms. Based on two meta-analyses and one RCT, adjunctive aripiprazole was the best-studied and safest strategy for lowering antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Evidence-based recommendations for female-specific pharmacotherapy for SSD consist of (1) female-specific dosing for antipsychotics (guided by therapeutic drug monitoring), (2) hormonal replacement with raloxifene in postmenopausal women, and (3) aripiprazole addition as best evidenced option in case of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Combining these strategies could reduce side effects and improve outcome of women with SSD, which should be confirmed in future longitudinal RCTs.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Hiperprolactinemia , Esquizofrenia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Aripiprazol/efeitos adversos , Hiperprolactinemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperprolactinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico
15.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 35(12): e14689, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estrogen-based therapies may increase the risk of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) and its complications. We aimed to determine the effect of raloxifene on the development of GERD, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal stricture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: This was a population-based, propensity-matched cohort study using the TriNetX platform. Patients 50 years and older with a diagnosis of "menopause" and "osteoporosis" were included in this study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for new GERD, esophageal stricture and Barrett's esophagus after raloxifene exposure. The control cohort consisted of patients who did not start any hormonal replacement therapy. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis to evaluate the effect of confounding variables and also addressed common confounding medications with 1:1 propensity score-matching. Internal validity was confirmed by comparing to negative controls (lisinopril, atorvastatin) and positive controls (metformin, ibuprofen, aspirin). RESULTS: Five thousand four hundred and seventy two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were on raloxifene of which 1908 (34.86%) developed GERD, compared to 296,067 postmenopausal who were not on raloxifene of which 90,643 (30.62%) developed GERD (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.10-1.31, p < 0.0001). This persisted after adjusting for common medications known to affect GERD. Raloxifene was identified as a risk factor for GERD in a multivariate analysis, controlling for factors including age, obesity, smoking, and alcohol use (OR 1.51, 95% Wald CI 1.47-1.53). Raloxifene was associated with esophageal stricture (OR 1.60; 95% Wald CI 1.51-1.69) and Barrett's esophagus (OR 1.50; 95% Wald CI 1.37-1.63) in multivariate analysis. These associations persisted using sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Raloxifene increases the risk of GERD, esophageal stricture and Barrett's esophagus in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett , Estenose Esofágica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Osteoporose , Humanos , Feminino , Esôfago de Barrett/epidemiologia , Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Osteoporose/complicações
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(9)2023 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37763640

RESUMO

The study aimed to assess the efficacy of using Raloxifene with ultrasonic processing to enhance Bio-Oss®, a bone graft substitute, for maxillary sinus bone height reconstruction. A total of 24 rabbit maxillary sinuses were distributed into three groups, each receiving different treatments: Bio-Oss® only, sonicated Bio-Oss, and sonicated Bio-Oss® with Raloxifene. Surgical procedures and subsequent histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses were conducted to evaluate the bone formation, connective tissue, and remaining biomaterial, as well as the osteoblastic differentiation and maturation of collagen fibers. Results indicated that the sonicated Bio-Oss® and Bio-Oss® groups showed similar histological behavior and bone formation, but the Raloxifene group displayed inflammatory infiltrate, low bone formation, and disorganized connective tissue. The statistical analysis confirmed significant differences between the groups in terms of bone formation, connective tissue, and remaining biomaterial. In conclusion, the study found that while sonicated Bio-Oss® performed comparably to Bio-Oss® alone, the addition of Raloxifene led to an unexpected delay in bone repair. The findings stress the importance of histological evaluation for accurate bone repair assessment and the necessity for further investigation into the local application of Raloxifene. Future research may focus on optimizing bone substitutes with growth factors to improve bone repair.


Assuntos
Substitutos Ósseos , Seio Maxilar , Animais , Coelhos , Seio Maxilar/cirurgia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/uso terapêutico , Regeneração Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos/farmacologia , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biocompatíveis
17.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 12(12): 1204-1210, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37622634

RESUMO

Raloxifene hydrochloride shows poor bioavailability (only 2%) when orally administered because of its poor aqueous solubility and its extensive first-pass metabolism. A new micronized formulation of raloxifene was developed to improve bioavailability via enhanced gastrointestinal absorption. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a new micronized raloxifene formulation (AD-101) in comparison with the conventional raloxifene formulation. This study was designed as an open-label, randomized, 2-treatment-period, crossover study with a 2-week washout period. Two treatments consisted of micronized raloxifene 45 mg daily; and conventional raloxifene 60 mg daily administered in fasting conditions. Plasma raloxifene concentrations were determined by a validated method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental model. In total, 49 subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratio (micronized/conventional) of the maximum concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last concentration values were 1.08 (90% CI, 0.95-1.24) and 0.97 (90% CI, 0.89-1.05), respectively. The adverse event profile did not differ between the 2 formulations. The results demonstrate that micronized formulation of raloxifene 45 mg is equivalent to conventional formulation of raloxifene 60 mg when administered at the single dose in the fasted state. After single oral dosing of AD-101, there were no serious or unexpected adverse events.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Humanos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Voluntários Saudáveis , Disponibilidade Biológica
18.
Clin Transl Sci ; 16(10): 1779-1790, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37639334

RESUMO

Green tea is a popular beverage worldwide. The abundant green tea catechin (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a potent in vitro inhibitor of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity (Ki ~2 µM). Co-consuming green tea with intestinal UGT drug substrates, including raloxifene, could increase systemic drug exposure. The effects of a well-characterized green tea on the pharmacokinetics of raloxifene, raloxifene 4'-glucuronide, and raloxifene 6-glucuronide were evaluated in 16 healthy adults via a three-arm crossover, fixed-sequence study. Raloxifene (60 mg) was administered orally with water (baseline), with green tea for 1 day (acute), and on the fifth day after daily green tea administration for 4 days (chronic). Unexpectedly, green tea decreased the geometric mean green tea/baseline raloxifene AUC0-96h ratio to ~0.60 after both acute and chronic administration, which is below the predefined no-effect range (0.75-1.33). Lack of change in terminal half-life and glucuronide-to-raloxifene ratios indicated the predominant mechanism was not inhibition of intestinal UGT. One potential mechanism includes inhibition of intestinal transport. Using established transfected cell systems, a green tea extract normalized to EGCG inhibited 10 of 16 transporters tested (IC50 , 0.37-12 µM). Another potential mechanism, interruption by green tea of gut microbe-mediated raloxifene reabsorption, prompted a follow-up exploratory clinical study to evaluate the potential for a green tea-gut microbiota-drug interaction. No clear mechanisms were identified. Overall, results highlight that improvements in current models and methods used to predict UGT-mediated drug interactions are needed. Informing patients about the risk of co-consuming green tea with raloxifene may be considered.


Assuntos
Catequina , Chá , Adulto , Humanos , Catequina/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Glucuronídeos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Chá/química , Estudos Cross-Over
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 93: 129415, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37532107

RESUMO

The intramolecular electrophilic cyclization of alkynes with disulfides to form thieno[2,3-b]quinoxaline structures and to introduce thioether substituents afforded quinoxaline derivatives (7a-7d, 8a-8d). Among obtained eight derivatives, the raloxifene analogues (7c, 8b) showed specifically high cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3), and raloxifene analogues (8a) showed the highest cytotoxicity against human leukemia cells (HL-60). None of the raloxifene analogues (7a-7d, 8a-8d) showed cytotoxicity against human lung fibroblasts (WI-38), which are normal cells.


Assuntos
Quinoxalinas , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Humanos , Ciclização , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Dissulfetos
20.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 256: 111582, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562558

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba are known to cause a vision threatening eye infection typically due to contact lens wear, and an infection of the central nervous system. The ability of these amoebae to switch phenotypes, from an active trophozoite to a resistant cyst form is not well understood; the cyst stage is often resistant to chemotherapy, which is of concern given the rise of contact lens use and the ineffective disinfectants available, versus the cyst stage. Herein, for the first time, a range of raloxifene sulfonate/sulfamate derivatives which target nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase enzymes, were assessed using amoebicidal and excystation tests versus the trophozoite and cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. Moreover, the potential for cytopathogenicity inhibition in amoebae was assessed. Each of the derivatives showed considerable anti-amoebic activity as well as the ability to suppress phenotypic switching (except for compound 1a). Selected raloxifene derivatives reduced Acanthamoeba-mediated host cell damage using lactate dehydrogenase assay. These findings suggest that pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase enzymes may be valuable targets against Acanthamoeba infections.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Animais , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Trofozoítos , Alcanossulfonatos/farmacologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/farmacologia
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