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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 166, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581583

RESUMO

The Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup C Receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is a member of the SLC49 Major Facilitator Superfamily of transporters. Initially recognized as the receptor for the retrovirus responsible of pure red cell aplasia in cats, nearly two decades since its discovery, FLVCR1a remains a puzzling transporter, with ongoing discussions regarding what it transports and how its expression is regulated. Nonetheless, despite this, the substantial body of evidence accumulated over the years has provided insights into several critical processes in which this transporter plays a complex role, and the health implications stemming from its malfunction. The present review intends to offer a comprehensive overview and a critical analysis of the existing literature on FLVCR1a, with the goal of emphasising the vital importance of this transporter for the organism and elucidating the interconnections among the various functions attributed to this transporter.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Receptores Virais , Gatos , Animais , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 41(4)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586942

RESUMO

When proteins evolve new activity, a concomitant decrease in stability is often observed because the mutations that confer new activity can destabilize the native fold. In the conventional model of protein evolution, reduced stability is considered a purely deleterious cost of molecular innovation because unstable proteins are prone to aggregation and are sensitive to environmental stressors. However, recent work has revealed that nonnative, often unstable protein conformations play an important role in mediating evolutionary transitions, raising the question of whether instability can itself potentiate the evolution of new activity. We explored this question in a bacteriophage receptor-binding protein during host-range evolution. We studied the properties of the receptor-binding protein of bacteriophage λ before and after host-range evolution and demonstrated that the evolved protein is relatively unstable and may exist in multiple conformations with unique receptor preferences. Through a combination of structural modeling and in vitro oligomeric state analysis, we found that the instability arises from mutations that interfere with trimer formation. This study raises the intriguing possibility that protein instability might play a previously unrecognized role in mediating host-range expansions in viruses.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Receptores Virais , Mutação , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
3.
J Virol ; 98(3): e0183823, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426726

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly lethal, zoonotic Henipavirus (HNV) that causes respiratory and neurological signs and symptoms in humans. Similar to other paramyxoviruses, HNVs mediate entry into host cells through the concerted actions of two surface glycoproteins: a receptor-binding protein (RBP) that mediates attachment and a fusion glycoprotein (F) that triggers fusion in an RBP-dependent manner. NiV uses ephrin-B2 (EFNB2) and ephrin-B3 (EFNB3) as entry receptors. Ghana virus (GhV), a novel HNV identified in a Ghanaian bat, uses EFNB2 but not EFNB3. In this study, we employ a structure-informed approach to identify receptor-interfacing residues and systematically introduce GhV-RBP residues into a NiV-RBP backbone to uncover the molecular determinants of EFNB3 usage. We reveal two regions that severely impair EFNB3 binding by NiV-RBP and EFNB3-mediated entry by NiV pseudotyped viral particles. Further analyses uncovered two-point mutations (NiVN557SGhV and NiVY581TGhV) pivotal for this phenotype. Moreover, we identify NiV interaction with Y120 of EFNB3 as important for the usage of this receptor. Beyond these EFNB3-related findings, we reveal two domains that restrict GhV binding of EFNB2, confirm the HNV-head as an immunodominant target for polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and describe putative epitopes for GhV- and NiV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Cumulatively, the work presented here generates useful reagents and tools that shed insight to residues important for NiV usage of EFNB3, reveal regions critical for GhV binding of EFNB2, and describe putative HNV antibody-binding epitopes. IMPORTANCE: Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are lethal, zoonotic Henipaviruses (HNVs) that cause respiratory and neurological clinical features in humans. Since their initial outbreaks in the 1990s, several novel HNVs have been discovered worldwide, including Ghana virus. Additionally, there is serological evidence of zoonotic transmission, lending way to concerns about future outbreaks. HNV infection of cells is mediated by the receptor-binding protein (RBP) and the Fusion protein (F). The work presented here identifies NiV RBP amino acids important for the usage of ephrin-B3 (EFNB3), a receptor highly expressed in neurons and predicted to be important for neurological clinical features caused by NiV. This study also characterizes epitopes recognized by antibodies against divergent HNV RBPs. Together, this sheds insight to amino acids critical for HNV receptor usage and antibody binding, which is valuable for future studies investigating determinants of viral pathogenesis and developing antibody therapies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus , Henipavirus , Receptores Virais , Humanos , Aminoácidos/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Efrina-B3/genética , Efrina-B3/química , Efrina-B3/metabolismo , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/metabolismo , Gana , Vírus Hendra/metabolismo , Henipavirus/classificação , Henipavirus/genética , Henipavirus/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Vírus Nipah/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Internalização do Vírus , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
4.
J Gen Virol ; 105(3)2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471041

RESUMO

Many viruses downregulate their cognate receptors, facilitating virus replication and pathogenesis via processes that are not yet fully understood. In the case of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), the receptor binding protein glycoprotein D (gD) has been implicated in downregulation of its receptor nectin1, but current understanding of the process is limited. Some studies suggest that gD on the incoming virion is sufficient to achieve nectin1 downregulation, but the virus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 has also been implicated. Here we have used the physiologically relevant nTERT human keratinocyte cell type - which we have previously shown to express readily detectable levels of endogenous nectin1 - to conduct a detailed investigation of nectin1 expression during HSV1 infection. In these cells, nectin1, but not nectin2 or the transferrin receptor, disappeared from the cell surface in a process that required virus protein synthesis rather than incoming virus, but did not involve virus-induced host shutoff. Furthermore, gD was not only required but was sufficient for nectin1 depletion, indicating that no other virus proteins are essential. NK cells were shown to be activated in the presence of keratinocytes, a process that was greatly inhibited in cells infected with wild-type virus. However, degranulation of NK cells was also inhibited in ΔgD-infected cells, indicating that blocking of NK cell activation was independent of gD downregulation of nectin1. By contrast, a superinfection time-course revealed that the ability of HSV1 infection to block subsequent infection of a GFP-expressing HSV1 was dependent on gD and occurred in line with the timing of nectin1 downregulation. Thus, the role of gD-dependent nectin1 impairment during HSV infection is important for virus infection, but not immune evasion, which is achieved by other mechanisms.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Superinfecção , Humanos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Queratinócitos , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2476, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509088

RESUMO

Cellular entry of the hepatitis B and D viruses (HBV/HDV) requires binding of the viral surface polypeptide preS1 to the hepatobiliary transporter Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP). This interaction can be blocked by bulevirtide (BLV, formerly Myrcludex B), a preS1 derivative and approved drug for treating HDV infection. Here, to elucidate the basis of this inhibitory function, we determined a cryo-EM structure of BLV-bound human NTCP. BLV forms two domains, a plug lodged in the bile salt transport tunnel of NTCP and a string that covers the receptor's extracellular surface. The N-terminally attached myristoyl group of BLV interacts with the lipid-exposed surface of NTCP. Our structure reveals how BLV inhibits bile salt transport, rationalizes NTCP mutations that decrease the risk of HBV/HDV infection, and provides a basis for understanding the host specificity of HBV/HDV. Our results provide opportunities for structure-guided development of inhibitors that target HBV/HDV docking to NTCP.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Lipopeptídeos , Simportadores , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/fisiologia , Simportadores/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Hepatócitos/metabolismo
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 131: 111896, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518596

RESUMO

CD155 is an immunoglobulin-like protein overexpressed in almost all the tumor cells, which not only promotes proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration of tumor cells, but also regulates immune responses by interacting with TIGIT, CD226 or CD96 receptors expressed on several immune cells, thereby modulating the functionality of these cellular subsets. As a novel immune checkpoint, the inhibition of CD155/TIGIT, either as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other immune checkpoint inhibitors, has demonstrated efficacy in managing advanced solid malignancies. In this review, we summarize the intricate relationship between on tumor surface CD155 and its receptors, with further discussion on how they regulate the occurrence of tumor immune escape. In addition, novel therapeutic strategies and clinical trials targeting CD155 and its receptors are summarized, providing a strong rationale and way forward for the development of next-generation immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Imunoterapia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474092

RESUMO

Proteases are critical enzymes in cellular processes which regulate intricate events like cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. This review highlights the multifaceted roles of the serine proteases FAM111A and FAM111B, exploring their impact on cellular functions and diseases. FAM111A is implicated in DNA replication and replication fork protection, thereby maintaining genome integrity. Additionally, FAM111A functions as an antiviral factor against DNA and RNA viruses. Apart from being involved in DNA repair, FAM111B, a paralog of FAM111A, participates in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. It influences the apoptotic pathway by upregulating anti-apoptotic proteins and modulating cell cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, FAM111B's association with nucleoporins suggests its involvement in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking and plays a role in maintaining normal telomere length. FAM111A and FAM111B also exhibit some interconnectedness and functional similarity despite their distinct roles in cellular processes and associated diseases resulting from their dysfunction. FAM111A and FAM111B dysregulation are linked to genetic disorders: Kenny-Caffey Syndrome type 2 and Gracile Bone Dysplasia for FAM111A and POIKTMP, respectively, and cancers. Therefore, the dysregulation of these proteases in diseases emphasizes their potential as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Future research is essential to unravel the intricate mechanisms governing FAM111A and FAM111B and explore their therapeutic implications comprehensively.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Nanismo , Humanos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Nanismo/genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(2): 261-275.e4, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307019

RESUMO

Hemagglutinins (HAs) from human influenza viruses descend from avian progenitors that bind α2-3-linked sialosides and must adapt to glycans with α2-6-linked sialic acids on human airway cells to transmit within the human population. Since their introduction during the 1968 pandemic, H3N2 viruses have evolved over the past five decades to preferentially recognize human α2-6-sialoside receptors that are elongated through addition of poly-LacNAc. We show that more recent H3N2 viruses now make increasingly complex interactions with elongated receptors while continuously selecting for strains maintaining this phenotype. This change in receptor engagement is accompanied by an extension of the traditional receptor-binding site to include residues in key antigenic sites on the surface of HA trimers. These results help explain the propensity for selection of antigenic variants, leading to vaccine mismatching, when H3N2 viruses are propagated in chicken eggs or cells that do not contain such receptors.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/química , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza
9.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400072

RESUMO

To identify host factors that affect Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 (BoHV-1) infection we previously applied a genome wide CRISPR knockout screen targeting all bovine protein coding genes. By doing so we compiled a list of both pro-viral and anti-viral proteins involved in BoHV-1 replication. Here we provide further analysis of those that are potentially involved in viral entry into the host cell. We first generated single cell knockout clones deficient in some of the candidate genes for validation. We provide evidence that Polio Virus Receptor-related protein (PVRL2) serves as a receptor for BoHV-1, mediating more efficient entry than the previously identified Polio Virus Receptor (PVR). By knocking out two enzymes that catalyze HSPG chain elongation, HST2ST1 and GLCE, we further demonstrate the significance of HSPG in BoHV-1 entry. Another intriguing cluster of candidate genes, COG1, COG2 and COG4-7 encode six subunits of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. MDBK cells lacking COG6 produced fewer but bigger plaques compared to control cells, suggesting more efficient release of newly produced virions from these COG6 knockout cells, due to impaired HSPG biosynthesis. We further observed that viruses produced by the COG6 knockout cells consist of protein(s) with reduced N-glycosylation, potentially explaining their lower infectivity. To facilitate candidate validation, we also detailed a one-step multiplex CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, an orthogonal method to KO that enables quick and simultaneous deployment of three CRISPRs for efficient gene inactivation. Using CRISPR3i, we verified eight candidates that have been implicated in the synthesis of surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). In summary, our experiments confirmed the two receptors PVR and PVRL2 for BoHV-1 entry into the host cell and other factors that affect this process, likely through the direct or indirect roles they play during HSPG synthesis and glycosylation of viral proteins.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Poliomielite , Humanos , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato , Internalização do Vírus , Receptores Virais/genética , Proteínas de Transporte
10.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 23, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374082

RESUMO

According to previous studies, three representative avian adenoviral strains utilize coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a receptor and seem to exhibit diverse binding affinities and modes. Thus, further revealing the exact molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between different FAdVs and the attachment receptor CAR is necessary. In this study, we successfully solved the crystal structure of the FAdV-4 fiber1 knob at 1.6 Šresolution. The interaction between the fibre knob and different domains of CAR was verified by confocal microscopy, coimmunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The fibre knobs of the three representative fowl adenoviruses specifically recognized CAR domain 1 (D1), but the recognition of CAR domain 2 (D2) by chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) strains was weak. These results provide insights into the differences in adenovirus‒host cell interactions and have important implications for the exploration of viral invasion mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aviadenovirus , Adenovirus A das Aves , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Adenovirus A das Aves/metabolismo
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 146: 109438, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341116

RESUMO

The global aquaculture industry of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has been significantly impacted by the emergence of tilapia lake virus (TiLV). However, effective prevention and control measures are still not available due to a lack of unclear pathogenesis of TiLV. Our previous transcriptome found that coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) was in response to TiLV infection in tilapia. To explore the potential function of OnCAR, the effect of OnCAR on TiLV proliferation was analyzed in this study. The OnCAR open reading frame (ORF) sequence of tilapia was 516 bp in length that encoded 171 amino acids with an Ig-like domain and transmembrane region. The OnCAR gene showed widespread expression in all investigated tissues, with the highest levels in the heart. Moreover, the OnCAR gene in the liver and muscle of tilapia exhibited dynamic expression levels upon TiLV challenge. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that OnCAR protein was mainly localized on the membrane of tilapia brain (TiB) cells. Importantly, the gene transcripts, genome copy number, S8-encoded protein, cytopathic effect, and internalization of TiLV were obviously decreased in the TiB cells overexpressed with OnCAR, indicating that OnCAR could inhibit TiLV replication. Mechanically, OnCAR could interact with viral S8 and S10-encoded protein. To the best of our knowledge, OnCAR is the first potential anti-TiLV cellular surface molecular receptor discovered for inhibiting TiLV infection. This finding is beneficial for better understanding the antiviral mechanism of tilapia and lays a foundation for establishing effective prevention and control strategies against tilapia lake virus disease (TiLVD).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Receptores Virais , Tilápia , Vírus , Animais , Tilápia/genética
12.
J Virol ; 98(3): e0004224, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376198

RESUMO

Influenza D virus (IDV) utilizes bovines as a primary reservoir with periodical spillover to other hosts. We have previously demonstrated that IDV binds both 9-O-acetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) and 9-O-acetylated N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc9Ac). Bovines produce both Neu5,9Ac2 and Neu5Gc9Ac, while humans are genetically unable to synthesize Neu5Gc9Ac. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalyzed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. To characterize the role of Neu5,9Ac2 and Neu5Gc9Ac in IDV infection and determine which form of 9-O-acetylated sialic acids drives IDV entry, we took advantage of a CASD1 knockout (KO) MDCK cell line and carried out feeding experiments using synthetic 9-O-acetyl sialic acids in combination with the single-round and multi-round IDV infection assays. The data from our studies show that (i) CASD1 KO cells are resistant to IDV infection and lack of IDV binding to the cell surface is responsible for the failure of IDV replication; (ii) feeding CASD1 KO cells with Neu5,9Ac2 or Neu5Gc9Ac resulted in a dose-dependent rescue of IDV infectivity; and (iii) diverse IDVs replicated robustly in CASD1 KO cells fed with either Neu5,9Ac2 or Neu5Gc9Ac at a level similar to that in wild-type cells with a functional CASD1. These data demonstrate that IDV can utilize Neu5,9Ac2- or non-human Neu5Gc9Ac-containing glycan receptor for infection. Our findings provide evidence that IDV has acquired the ability to infect and transmit among agricultural animals that are enriched in Neu5Gc9Ac, in addition to posing a zoonotic risk to humans expressing only Neu5,9Ac2.IMPORTANCEInfluenza D virus (IDV) has emerged as a multiple-species-infecting pathogen with bovines as a primary reservoir. Little is known about the functional receptor that drives IDV entry and promotes its cross-species spillover potential among different hosts. Here, we demonstrated that IDV binds exclusively to 9-O-acetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) and non-human 9-O-acetylated N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc9Ac) and utilizes both for entry and infection. This ability in effective engagement of both 9-O-acetylated sialic acids as functional receptors for infection provides an evolutionary advantage to IDV for expanding its host range. This finding also indicates that IDV has the potential to emerge in humans because Neu5,9Ac2 is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, including lung. Thus, results of our study highlight a need for continued surveillance of IDV in humans, as well as for further investigation of its biology and cross-species transmission mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácidos Neuramínicos , Receptores Virais , Animais , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Ácidos Neuramínicos/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo
13.
J Virol ; 98(3): e0157623, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323814

RESUMO

Adenovirus (AdV) infection of the respiratory epithelium is common but poorly understood. Human AdV species C types, such as HAdV-C5, utilize the Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) for attachment and subsequently integrins for entry. CAR and integrins are however located deep within the tight junctions in the mucosa where they would not be easily accessible. Recently, a model for CAR-independent AdV entry was proposed. In this model, human lactoferrin (hLF), an innate immune protein, aids the viral uptake into epithelial cells by mediating interactions between the major capsid protein, hexon, and yet unknown host cellular receptor(s). However, a detailed understanding of the molecular interactions driving this mechanism is lacking. Here, we present a new cryo-EM structure of HAdV-5C hexon at high resolution alongside a hybrid structure of HAdV-5C hexon complexed with human lactoferrin (hLF). These structures reveal the molecular determinants of the interaction between hLF and HAdV-C5 hexon. hLF engages hexon primarily via its N-terminal lactoferricin (Lfcin) region, interacting with hexon's hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1). Mutational analyses pinpoint critical Lfcin contacts and also identify additional regions within hLF that critically contribute to hexon binding. Our study sheds more light on the intricate mechanism by which HAdV-C5 utilizes soluble hLF/Lfcin for cellular entry. These findings hold promise for advancing gene therapy applications and inform vaccine development. IMPORTANCE: Our study delves into the structural aspects of adenovirus (AdV) infections, specifically HAdV-C5 in the respiratory epithelium. It uncovers the molecular details of a novel pathway where human lactoferrin (hLF) interacts with the major capsid protein, hexon, facilitating viral entry, and bypassing traditional receptors such as CAR and integrins. The study's cryo-EM structures reveal how hLF engages hexon, primarily through its N-terminal lactoferricin (Lfcin) region and hexon's hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1). Mutational analyses identify critical Lfcin contacts and other regions within hLF vital for hexon binding. This structural insight sheds light on HAdV-C5's mechanism of utilizing soluble hLF/Lfcin for cellular entry, holding promise for gene therapy and vaccine development advancements in adenovirus research.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Lactoferrina , Receptores Virais , Internalização do Vírus , Humanos , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/metabolismo , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/química , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/metabolismo , Adenovírus Humanos/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Lactoferrina/química , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/ultraestrutura , Solubilidade , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
14.
BMC Neurosci ; 25(1): 9, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pseudotyped modified rabies virus lacking the rabies glycoprotein (G-protein), which is crucial for transsynaptic spread, can be used for monosynaptic retrograde tracing. By coupling the pseudotyped virus with transgene expression of the G-protein and the avian leukosis and sarcoma virus subgroup A receptor (TVA), which is necessary for cell entry of the virus, researchers can investigate specific neuronal populations. Responder mouse lines, like the RΦGT mouse line, carry the genes encoding the G-protein and TVA under Cre-dependent expression. These mouse lines are valuable tools because they reduce the number of viral injections needed compared to when using helper viruses. Since RΦGT mice do not express Cre themselves, introducing the pseudotyped rabies virus into their brain should not result in viral cell entry or spread. RESULTS: We present a straightforward flowchart for adequate controls in tracing experiments, which we employed to demonstrate Cre-independent expression of TVA in RΦGT mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations revealed TVA leakage, indicating that RΦGT mice should be used with caution for transgene expression of TVA. Inaccurate tracing outcomes may occur if TVA is expressed in the absence of Cre since background leakage leads to nonspecific cell entry. Moreover, conducting appropriate control experiments can identify the source of potential caveats in virus-based neuronal tracing experiments.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias , Vírus da Raiva , Camundongos , Animais , Design de Software , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(2): e1012021, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377111

RESUMO

The interaction of viral surface components with cellular receptors and other entry factors determines key features of viral infection such as host range, tropism and virulence. Despite intensive research, our understanding of these interactions remains limited. Here, we report a systematic analysis of published work on mammalian virus receptors and attachment factors. We build a dataset twice the size of those available to date and specify the role of each factor in virus entry. We identify cellular proteins that are preferentially used as virus receptors, which tend to be plasma membrane proteins with a high propensity to interact with other proteins. Using machine learning, we assign cell surface proteins a score that predicts their ability to function as virus receptors. Our results also reveal common patterns of receptor usage among viruses and suggest that enveloped viruses tend to use a broader repertoire of alternative receptors than non-enveloped viruses, a feature that might confer them with higher interspecies transmissibility.


Assuntos
Receptores de Superfície Celular , Vírus , Animais , Receptores Virais , Proteínas de Membrana , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mamíferos
16.
J Vis Exp ; (203)2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284526

RESUMO

Membrane proteins on enveloped viruses play an important role in many biological functions involving virus attachment to target cell receptors, fusion of viral particles to host cells, host-virus interactions, and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral membrane proteins on virus particles and presented on host cell surfaces have proven to be excellent targets for antivirals and vaccines. Here, we describe a protocol to investigate surface proteins on intact severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) particles using the dual-reporter flow cytometric system. The assay exploits multiplex technology to obtain a triple detection of viral particles by three independent affinity reactions. Magnetic beads conjugated to recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) were used to capture viral particles from the supernatant of cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Then, two detection reagents labeled with R-phycoerythrin (PE) or Brilliant Violet 421 (BV421) were applied simultaneously. As a proof-of-concept, antibody fragments targeting different epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 surface protein Spike (S1) were used. The detection of viral particles by three independent affinity reactions provides strong specificity and confirms the capture of intact virus particles. Dose-dependency curves of SARS-CoV-2 infected cell supernatant were generated with replicate coefficient variances (mean/SD) ˂14%. Good assay performance in both channels confirmed that two virus surface target protein epitopes are detectable in parallel. The protocol described here could be applied for (i) high-multiplex, high-throughput profiling of surface proteins expressed on enveloped viruses; ii) detection of active intact viral particles; and (iii) assessment of specificity and affinity of antibodies and antiviral drugs for surface epitopes of viral antigens.The application can be potentially extended to any type of extracellular vesicles and bioparticles, exposing surface antigens in body fluids or other liquid matrices.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Epitopos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores Virais , Vírion
17.
18.
mBio ; 15(2): e0220323, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206008

RESUMO

The ongoing transmission of influenza A viruses (IAV) for the past century continues to be a burden to humans. IAV binds terminal sialic acids (SA) of sugar molecules present within the upper respiratory tract (URT) in order to successfully infect hosts. The two most common SA structures that are important for IAV infection are those with α2,3- and α2,6-linkages. While mice were once considered to be an unsuitable system for studying IAV transmission due to their lack of α2,6-SA in the trachea, we have successfully demonstrated that IAV transmission in infant mice is remarkably efficient. This finding led us to re-evaluate the SA composition of the URT of mice using in situ immunofluorescence and examine its in vivo contribution to transmission for the first time. We demonstrate that mice express both α2,3- and α2,6-SA in the URT and that the difference in expression between infants and adults contributes to the variable transmission efficiencies observed. Furthermore, selectively blocking α2,3-SA or α2,6-SA within the URT of infant mice using lectins was necessary but insufficient at inhibiting transmission, and simultaneous blockade of both receptors was crucial in achieving the desired inhibitory effect. By employing a broadly acting neuraminidase to indiscriminately remove both SA moieties in vivo, we effectively suppressed viral shedding and halted the transmission of different strains of influenza viruses. These results emphasize the utility of the infant mouse model for studying IAV transmission and strongly indicate that broadly targeting host SA is an effective approach that inhibits IAV contagion.IMPORTANCEInfluenza virus transmission studies have historically focused on viral mutations that alter hemagglutinin binding to sialic acid (SA) receptors in vitro. However, SA binding preference does not fully account for the complexities of influenza A virus transmission in humans. Our previous findings reveal that viruses that are known to bind α2,6-SA in vitro have different transmission kinetics in vivo, suggesting that diverse SA interactions may occur during their life cycle. In this study, we examine the role of host SA on viral replication, shedding, and transmission in vivo. We highlight the critical role of SA presence during virus shedding, such that attachment to SA during virion egress is equally important as detachment from SA during virion release. These insights support the potential of broadly acting neuraminidases as therapeutic agents capable of restraining viral transmission in vivo. Our study unveils intricate virus-host interactions during shedding, highlighting the necessity to develop innovative strategies to effectively target transmission.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Orthomyxoviridae , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Traqueia , Neuraminidase/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 162, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167417

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 and filovirus enter cells via the cell surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or the late-endosome Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a receptor. Here, we screened 974 natural compounds and identified Tubeimosides I, II, and III as pan-coronavirus and filovirus entry inhibitors that target NPC1. Using in-silico, biochemical, and genomic approaches, we provide evidence that NPC1 also binds SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is blocked by Tubeimosides. Importantly, NPC1 strongly promotes productive SARS-CoV-2 entry, which we propose is due to its influence on fusion in late endosomes. The Tubeimosides' antiviral activity and NPC1 function are further confirmed by infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Thus, NPC1 is a critical entry co-factor for highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in the late endosomes, and Tubeimosides hold promise as a new countermeasure for these HCoVs and filoviruses.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus , Receptores Virais , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Proteína C1 de Niemann-Pick/metabolismo , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
20.
FASEB J ; 38(2): e23440, 2024 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252072

RESUMO

CD155, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is closely related to cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. CD155 is overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells to promote cell proliferation and is upregulated in damaged tissues as a stress-induced molecule. The process of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is complex and involves injurious stimulation and subsequent satellite cell proliferation. However, the role of CD155 in this process remains unelucidated. This study aimed to explore the role of CD155 in injured skeletal muscle regeneration and to clarify its effect on satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence results indicated that CD155 expression in satellite cells increased after skeletal muscle injury. CD155 knockout in mice impaired the regeneration of skeletal muscle. A bone marrow transplantation mouse model was constructed and revealed that CD155 on skeletal muscle tissues, not immune cells, affected muscle regeneration. In vitro, CD155 knockdown in myoblasts inhibited their proliferation and differentiation. The transcriptomic analysis also indicated that CD155 absence can impair the biological proliferation and differentiation process of myoblasts. Our research demonstrates that CD155 directly promotes injured muscle regeneration by regulating satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, which may be a potential therapeutic molecule for skeletal muscle injury.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Receptores Virais , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Camundongos , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Receptores Virais/genética
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