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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13603, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866944

RESUMO

Notch signaling guides vascular development and function by regulating diverse endothelial cell behaviors, including migration, proliferation, vascular density, endothelial junctions, and polarization in response to flow. Notch proteins form transcriptional activation complexes that regulate endothelial gene expression, but few of the downstream effectors that enable these phenotypic changes have been characterized in endothelial cells, limiting our understanding of vascular Notch activities. Using an unbiased screen of translated mRNA rapidly regulated by Notch signaling, we identified novel in vivo targets of Notch signaling in neonatal mouse brain endothelium, including UNC5B, a member of the netrin family of angiogenic-regulatory receptors. Endothelial Notch signaling rapidly upregulates UNC5B in multiple endothelial cell types. Loss or gain of UNC5B recapitulated specific Notch-regulated phenotypes. UNC5B expression inhibited endothelial migration and proliferation and was required for stabilization of endothelial junctions in response to shear stress. Loss of UNC5B partially or wholly blocked the ability of Notch activation to regulate these endothelial cell behaviors. In the developing mouse retina, endothelial-specific loss of UNC5B led to excessive vascularization, including increased vascular outgrowth, density, and branchpoint count. These data indicate that Notch signaling upregulates UNC5B as an effector protein to control specific endothelial cell behaviors and inhibit angiogenic growth.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Endoteliais , Receptores de Netrina , Receptores Notch , Retina , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Humanos , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0295701, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771761

RESUMO

The Polarity/Protusion model of UNC-6/Netrin function in axon repulsion does not rely on a gradient of UNC-6/Netrin. Instead, the UNC-5 receptor polarizes the VD growth cone such that filopodial protrusions are biased to the dorsal leading edge. UNC-5 then inhibits growth cone protrusion ventrally based upon this polarity, resulting in dorsally-biased protrusion and dorsal migration away from UNC-6/Netrin. While previous studies have shown that UNC-5 inhibits growth cone protrusion by destabilizing actin, preventing microtubule + end entry, and preventing vesicle fusion, the signaling pathways involved are unclear. The SRC-1 tyrosine kinase has been previously shown to physically interact with and phosphorylate UNC-5, and to act with UNC-5 in axon guidance and cell migration. Here, the role of SRC-1 in VD growth cone polarity and protrusion is investigated. A precise deletion of src-1 was generated, and mutants displayed unpolarized growth cones with increased size, similar to unc-5 mutants. Transgenic expression of src-1(+) in VD/DD neurons resulted in smaller growth cones, and rescued growth cone polarity defects of src-1 mutants, indicating cell-autonomous function. Transgenic expression of a putative kinase-dead src-1(D831A) mutant caused a phenotype similar to src-1 loss-of-function, suggesting that this is a dominant negative mutation. The D381A mutation was introduced into the endogenous src-1 gene by genome editing, which also had a dominant-negative effect. Genetic interactions of src-1 and unc-5 suggest they act in the same pathway on growth cone polarity and protrusion, but might have overlapping, parallel functions in other aspects of axon guidance. src-1 function was not required for the effects of activated myr::unc-5, suggesting that SRC-1 might be involved in UNC-5 dimerization and activation by UNC-6, of which myr::unc-5 is independent. In sum, these results show that SRC-1 acts with UNC-5 in growth cone polarity and inhibition of protrusion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Polaridade Celular , Cones de Crescimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Movimento Celular , Cones de Crescimento/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrinas , Receptores de Superfície Celular
3.
BMC Med Genomics ; 17(1): 83, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary CNS tumor, characterized by high mortality and heterogeneity. However, the related lncRNA signatures and their target microRNA (miRNA) for GBM are still mostly unknown. Therefore, it is critical that we discover lncRNA markers in GBM and their biological activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GBM-related RNA-seq data were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The "edger" R package was used for differently expressed lncRNAs (DELs) identification. Then, we forecasted prospective miRNAs that might bind to lncRNAs by Cytoscape software. Survival analysis of those miRNAs was examined by the starBase database, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of the miRNAs' target genes was conducted by the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) database and R software. Moreover, the proliferative ability of unc-5 netrin receptor B antisense RNA 1 (UNC5B-AS1) cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis. Mechanistically, the regulatory interaction between UNC5B-AS1 and miRNA in GBM biological processes was studied using CCK-8 analysis. RESULTS: Our results indicated that overexpression of UNC5B-AS1 has been shown to suppress GBM cell growth. Mechanistically, miR-24-3p in GBM was able to alleviate the anti-oncogenic effects of UNC5B-AS1 on cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: The discovery of the novel UNC5B-AS1-miR-24-3p network suggests possible lncRNA and miRNA roles in the development of GBM, which may have significant ramifications for the analysis of clinical prognosis and the development of GBM medications.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , Glioblastoma/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo
4.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 78, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies are focusing on the mechanism of erastin acts on prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and essential ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) that can be PCa therapeutic targets are rarely known. METHODS: In this study, in vitro assays were performed and RNA-sequencing was used to measure the expression of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in erastin-induced PCa cells. A series of bioinformatic analyses were applied to analyze the pathways and DEGs. RESULTS: Erastin inhibited the expression of SLC7A11 and cell survivability in LNCaP and PC3 cells. After treatment with erastin, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Fe2+ significantly increased, whereas the glutathione (GSH) and the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) significantly decreased in both cells. A total of 295 overlapping DEGs were identified under erastin exposure and significantly enriched in several pathways, including DNA replication and cell cycle. The percentage of LNCaP and PC3 cells in G1 phase was markedly increased in response to erastin treatment. For four hub FRGs, TMEFF2 was higher in PCa tissue and the expression levels of NRXN3, CLU, and UNC5B were lower in PCa tissue. The expression levels of SLC7A11 and cell survivability were inhibited after the knockdown of TMEFF2 in androgen-dependent cell lines (LNCaP and VCaP) but not in androgen-independent cell lines (PC3 and C4-2). The concentration of Fe2+ only significantly increased in TMEFF2 downregulated LNCaP and VCaP cells. CONCLUSION: TMEFF2 might be likely to develop into a potential ferroptosis target in PCa and this study extends our understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in erastin-affected PCa cells.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Piperazinas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Androgênios , Ferroptose/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Receptores de Netrina
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540364

RESUMO

The UNC-5 family of netrin receptor genes, predominantly expressed in brain tissues, plays a pivotal role in various neuronal processes. Mutations in genes involved in axon development contribute to a wide spectrum of human diseases, including developmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. The NTN1/DCC signaling pathway, interacting with UNC5C, plays a crucial role in central nervous system axon guidance and has been associated with psychiatric disorders during adolescence in humans. Whole-exome sequencing analysis unveiled two compound heterozygous causative mutations within the UNC5C gene in a patient diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. In silico analysis demonstrated that neither of the observed variants affected the allosteric linkage between UNC5C and NTN1. In fact, these mutations are located within crucial cytoplasmic domains, specifically ZU5 and the region required for the netrin-mediated axon repulsion of neuronal growth cones. These domains play a critical role in forming the supramodular protein structure and directly interact with microtubules, thereby ensuring the functionality of the axon repulsion process. We emphasize that these mutations disrupt the aforementioned processes, thereby associating the UNC5C gene with psychiatric disorders for the first time and expanding the number of genes related to psychiatric disorders. Further research is required to validate the correlation of the UNC5C gene with psychiatric disorders, but we suggest including it in the genetic analysis of patients with psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Orientação de Axônios , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Orientação de Axônios/genética , Netrina-1/genética , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo
6.
Sci Adv ; 10(9): eadj4698, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427724

RESUMO

Cancers exploit coinhibitory receptors on T cells to escape tumor immunity, and targeting such mechanisms has shown remarkable clinical benefit, but in a limited subset of patients. We hypothesized that cancer cells mimic noncanonical mechanisms of early development such as axon guidance pathways to evade T cell immunity. Using gain-of-function genetic screens, we profiled axon guidance proteins on human T cells and their cognate ligands and identified fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 3 (FLRT3) as a ligand that inhibits T cell activity. We demonstrated that FLRT3 inhibits T cells through UNC5B, an axon guidance receptor that is up-regulated on activated human T cells. FLRT3 expressed in human cancers favored tumor growth and inhibited CAR-T and BiTE + T cell killing and infiltration in humanized cancer models. An FLRT3 monoclonal antibody that blocked FLRT3-UNC5B interactions reversed these effects in an immune-dependent manner. This study supports the concept that axon guidance proteins mimic T cell checkpoints and can be targeted for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Imunoterapia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Receptores de Netrina
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1386, 2024 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228673

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most prevalent bone tumors in adolescents, and the correlation between aging and OS remains unclear. Currently, few accurate and reliable biomarkers have been determined for OS prognosis. To address this issue, we carried out a detailed bioinformatics analysis based on OS with data from the Cancer Genome Atlas data portal and Human Aging Genomic Resources database, as well as in vitro experiments. A total of 88 OS samples with gene expression profiles and corresponding clinical characteristics were obtained. Through univariate Cox regression analysis and survival analysis, 10 aging-associated survival lncRNAs (AASRs) were identified to be associated with the overall survival of OS patients. Based on the expression levels of the 10 AASRs, the OS patients were classified into two clusters (Cluster A and Cluster B). Cluster A had a worse prognosis, while Cluster B had a better prognosis. Then, 5 AASRs were ultimately included in the signature through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-Cox regression analysis. Kaplan‒Meier survival analysis verified that the high-risk group exhibited a worse prognosis than the low-risk group. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses confirmed that the riskScore was an independent prognostic factor for OS patients. Subsequently, we discovered that the risk signature was correlated with the properties of the tumor microenvironment and immune cell infiltration. Specifically, there was a positive association between the risk model and naïve B cells, resting dendritic cells and gamma delta T cells, while it was negatively related to CD8+ T cells. Finally, in vitro experiments, we found that UNC5B-AS1 inhibited OS cells from undergoing cellular senescence and apoptosis, thereby promoting OS cells proliferation. In conclusion, we constructed and verified a 5 AASR-based signature, that exhibited excellent performance in evaluating the overall survival of OS patients. In addition, we found that UNC5B-AS1 might inhibit the senescence process, thus leading to the development and progression of OS. Our findings may provide novel insights into the treatment of OS patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteossarcoma , RNA Longo não Codificante , Adolescente , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Prognóstico , Osteossarcoma/genética , Envelhecimento , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Receptores de Netrina
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561046

RESUMO

Senescent cells that accumulate are regarded as promising therapeutic targets. However, senolytic therapy failed to achieve satisfactory results. We previously discovered that young human plasma improved vascular endothelial cell senescence, and UNC5B might be a novel intervention target. Netrin-1, as a natural ligand of UNC5B, plays roles in multiple age-related vascular disorders, but its involvement in aging is still unclear. Here, we observed a significant decrease in plasma Netrin-1 levels in old healthy subjects compared to the young. In vivo, adeno-associated-virus-mediated delivery of Netrin-1 into aged mice significantly improved functional recovery in a model of hindlimb ischemia, promoted angiogenesis in ischemic tissues, and activated the endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, we revealed that low-dose Netrin-1 recombinant protein significantly reduced senescence-associated-ß-galactosidase-positive cells, inhibited the P53 pathway, promoted cell migration, increased tubule formation, and elevated nitric oxide production in senescent endothelial cells. However, UNC5B inhibition blocked the pro-angiogenesis effect of low-dose Netrin-1 on senescent cells or aortic rings. In summary, this study depicts that modulating Netrin-1 signaling can result in improved vascular health and Netrin-1 may have therapeutic potential for age-related ischemic diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Células Endoteliais , Netrina-1 , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Angiogênese , Senescência Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(12): 4285-4292, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38156865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression by promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Netrin-4 (NTN4) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been reported to control angiogenesis and preserve endothelial homeostasis. Macrovascular invasion of the portal vein, referred to as portal vein invasion (PVI) is associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. In this work, we sought to understand more about the systemic and hepatic level expression of NTN4 and its receptors in HCC patients with and without portal vein invasion. METHODS: A total of 154 patients with HCC, and 90 healthy volunteers were recruited in this case-control study. Patients with HCC were further subdivided into those with portal vein invasion (PVI) (n=68), and those without portal vein invasion (NPVI) (n=86). Clinical characteristics and liver function parameters were recorded among the study subjects PVI and NPVI. The serum levels of NTN4 (pg/ml) were estimated by ELISA. HCC tissues and normal non-tumorous liver tissues (controls) were collected for gene expression analysis of NTN4 and its receptors. RESULTS: ALT, ALP, and GGT levels were significantly elevated in the serum of HCC patients with PVI compared to NPVI and control subjects. Systemic NTN4 was significantly reduced in both PVI and NPVI patients compared to control subjects. At the tissue level, the hepatic NTN4 followed a similar trend with significantly lower mRNA expression in both patients with PVI and NPVI compared to control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic and hepatic NTN4 levels were reduced in both PVI and NPVI subjects. The hepatic expression of NTN4 receptors Neogenin and UNC5B were markedly elevated in patients with HCC with PVI compared to NPVI. Future experimental studies might shed the role of NTN4 and its receptors in the development of PVI in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Receptores de Netrina , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Netrinas , Veia Porta/patologia
10.
Cell Rep ; 42(11): 113369, 2023 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37922311

RESUMO

The biology of metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is distinct from that of the primary tumor due to changes in cell plasticity governed by a distinct transcriptome. Therapeutic strategies that target this distinct biology are needed. We detect an upregulation of the neuronal axon guidance molecule Netrin-1 in PDAC liver metastases that signals through its dependence receptor (DR), uncoordinated-5b (Unc5b), to facilitate metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of Netrin-1 induction involves a feedforward loop whereby Netrin-1 on the surface of PDAC-secreted extracellular vesicles prepares the metastatic niche by inducing hepatic stellate cell activation and retinoic acid secretion that in turn upregulates Netrin-1 in disseminated tumor cells via RAR/RXR and Elf3 signaling. While this mechanism promotes PDAC liver metastasis, it also identifies a therapeutic vulnerability, as it can be targeted using anti-Netrin-1 therapy to inhibit metastasis using the Unc5b DR cell death mechanism.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Netrina-1 , Retinoides , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 125(Pt A): 111075, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864909

RESUMO

AIM: This study sought to identify potential biomarkers and miRNA-mRNA networks within extracellular vesicles (EVs) for detecting severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (SAPALI). METHODS: Blood-derived EVs were isolated, and their miRNA transcriptomic profiles were comprehensively analyzed using miRBase v.21 database along with miRDeep2 tool to predict novel miRNAs. DEGseq R package was deployed for the identification of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were assembled using STRING and Cytoscape. A lung injury model was established using Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BEAS-2B cells, chosen for their respiratory epithelial origin and pertinent association with lung injury. The expression levels of targeted miRNA and associated proteins, TLR4, NF-κB mRNA were quantified via RT-PCR and Western Blot. Levels of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and ROS were measured using designated kits. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the interaction between miRNA and proteins. RESULTS: The comparisons between the SAPALI and the control group revealed 10 DEM, including miR-503-5p and miR-483-5p. The cytoHubba plugin in Cytoscape identified three principal miRNA-mRNA interactions: miR-483-5p with PTK2 and HDAC2; miR-28-5p with MAPK1, TP53BP1, SEMA3A; and miR-503-5p with PPP1CB, SEMA6D, EPHB2, UNC5B. The SAPALI model exhibited elevated miR-503-5p, HDAC2 and inflammatory markers, with a decline UNC5B, miR-483-5p and miR-28-5p. Transfection with miR-503-5p and miR-483-5p inhibitors increased the levels of their supposed binding proteins but not miR-28-5p inhibitor. The Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay identified the interaction of miR-503-5p with UNC5B, and miR-483-5p with HDAC2, but not miR-28-5p with TP53BP1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study maps miRNA-mRNA interactions in SAPALI, identifying miR-503-5p and miR-483-5p as critical regulatory miRNAs.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Pancreatite , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Doença Aguda , Pancreatite/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Luciferases/genética , Receptores de Netrina/genética
12.
Nature ; 620(7973): 402-408, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37532929

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulates tumour initiation, progression, metastasis and resistance to anti-cancer therapy1-7. Although great progress has been made in understanding the role of EMT and its regulatory mechanisms in cancer, no therapeutic strategy to pharmacologically target EMT has been identified. Here we found that netrin-1 is upregulated in a primary mouse model of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) exhibiting spontaneous EMT. Pharmacological inhibition of netrin-1 by administration of NP137, a netrin-1-blocking monoclonal antibody currently used in clinical trials in human cancer (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02977195 ), decreased the proportion of EMT tumour cells in skin SCC, decreased the number of metastases and increased the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemotherapy. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed the presence of different EMT states, including epithelial, early and late hybrid EMT, and full EMT states, in control SCC. By contrast, administration of NP137 prevented the progression of cancer cells towards a late EMT state and sustained tumour epithelial states. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5B in EPCAM+ tumour cells inhibited EMT in vitro in the absence of stromal cells and regulated a common gene signature that promotes tumour epithelial state and restricts EMT. To assess the relevance of these findings to human cancers, we treated mice transplanted with the A549 human cancer cell line-which undergoes EMT following TGFß1 administration8,9-with NP137. Netrin-1 inhibition decreased EMT in these transplanted A549 cells. Together, our results identify a pharmacological strategy for targeting EMT in cancer, opening up novel therapeutic interventions for anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Netrina-1 , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Células A549 , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Netrina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Netrina/deficiência , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Netrina-1/deficiência , Netrina-1/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Análise da Expressão Gênica de Célula Única , RNA-Seq , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
13.
Development ; 150(15)2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37526651

RESUMO

The Netrin receptor Dcc and its Drosophila homolog Frazzled play crucial roles in diverse developmental process, including axon guidance. In Drosophila, Fra regulates midline axon guidance through a Netrin-dependent and a Netrin-independent pathway. However, what molecules regulate these distinct signaling pathways remain unclear. To identify Fra-interacting proteins, we performed affinity purification mass spectrometry to establish a neuronal-specific Fra interactome. In addition to known interactors of Fra and Dcc, including Netrin and Robo1, our screen identified 85 candidate proteins, the majority of which are conserved in humans. Many of these proteins are expressed in the ventral nerve cord, and gene ontology, pathway analysis and biochemical validation identified several previously unreported pathways, including the receptor tyrosine phosphatase Lar, subunits of the COP9 signalosome and Rho-5, a regulator of the metalloprotease Tace. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrates that these genes regulate axon guidance and may define as yet unknown signaling mechanisms for Fra and its vertebrate homolog Dcc. Thus, the Fra interactome represents a resource to guide future functional studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Animais , Humanos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo , Orientação de Axônios , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Netrinas/metabolismo , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo
14.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 14(9): e00622, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37439560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We previously identified 18 CpG methylation biomarkers associated with treatment response to topical corticosteroids (tCS) in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this study, in an independent cohort, we assessed the validity of these CpG sites as treatment response biomarkers. METHODS: DNA was extracted from prospectively biobanked esophageal biopsies from patients with newly diagnosed EoE enrolled in a randomized trial of 2 tCS formulations. Histologic response was defined as <15 eosinophils per high-power field. Pretreatment DNA methylation was assayed on the Illumina Human MethylationEPIC BeadChip. Logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, adjusting for chip, position on the chip, age, sex, and baseline eosinophil count, were computed to test for an association between DNA methylation and treatment response at the 18 previously identified CpG sites. RESULTS: We analyzed 88 patients (58 histologic responders, 30 nonresponders), with a mean age of 38 ± 16 years, 64% male, 97% White race. Of the 18 CpG sites, 13 met quality control criteria, and 3 were associated with responder status ( P < 0.012), including sites within UNC5B (cg26152017), ITGA6 (cg01044293), and LRRC8A (cg13962589). All 3 showed evidence of reduced methylation in treatment responders, consistent with the original discovery associations. The predictive probability for nonresponse with all 3 CpG sites was strong (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.79). DISCUSSION: We validated epigenetic biomarkers (CpG methylation sites) for the prediction of tCS response in patients with EoE in an independent population. While not all previously identified markers replicated, 3 demonstrated a relatively high predictive probability for response to treatment and hold promise for guiding tCS treatment in EoE.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/genética , Glucocorticoides , Biomarcadores/análise , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas de Membrana , Receptores de Netrina
15.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1178638, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37388740

RESUMO

Introduction: The current approaches that are used to treat ischemic stroke suffer from poor targeting, lack of effectiveness, and potential off-target effects, necessitating the development of new therapeutic strategies to enhance neuronal cell survival and regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the role of microglial Netrin-1 in ischemic stroke, a topic that has not been fully understood. Methods: Netrin-1 levels and its primary receptor expressions were investigated in cerebral microglia from acute ischemic stroke patients and age-matched control subjects. A public database (GEO148350), which supplied RNAseq results for rat cerebral microglia in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, was analyzed to assess the expression of Netrin-1, its major receptors, and genes related to macrophage function. A microglia-specific gene targeting approach and a delivery system allowing for crossing the blood-brain barrier were applied in a mouse model for ischemic stroke to investigate the role of microglial Netrin-1. Netrin-1 receptor signaling in microglia was observed and the effects on microglial phenotype, apoptosis, and migration were analyzed. Results: Across human patients, rat and mouse models, activation of Netrin-1 receptor signaling was mainly conducted via its receptor UNC5a in microglia, which resulted in a shift in microglial phenotype towards an anti-inflammatory or M2-like state, leading to a reduction in apoptosis and migration of microglia. Netrin-1-induced phenotypic change in microglia exerted protective effects on neuronal cells in vivo during ischemic stroke. Conclusion: Our study highlights the potential of targeting Netrin-1 and its receptors as a promising therapeutic strategy for promoting post-ischemic survival and functional recovery.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação , AVC Isquêmico/genética , Microglia , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrina-1/genética , Fenótipo
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1162004, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37090697

RESUMO

Upon migrating into the tissues, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-derived monocytes differentiate into macrophages, playing a crucial role in determining innate immune responses towards external pathogens and internal stimuli. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation remain largely unexplored. Here we divulge a previously uncharacterized but essential role for an axon guidance molecule, fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2), in monocyte-to-macrophage maturation. FLRT2 is almost undetectable in human monocytic cell lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and mouse primary monocytes but significantly increases in fully differentiated macrophages. Myeloid-specific deletion of FLRT2 (Flrt2ΔMyel ) contributes to decreased peritoneal monocyte-to-macrophage generation in mice in vivo, accompanied by impaired macrophage functions. Gain- and loss-of-function studies support the promoting effect of FLRT2 on THP-1 cell and human PBMC differentiation into macrophages. Mechanistically, FLRT2 directly interacts with Unc-5 netrin receptor B (UNC5B) via its extracellular domain (ECD) and activates Akt/mTOR signaling. In vivo administration of mTOR agonist MYH1485 reverses the impaired phenotypes observed in Flrt2ΔMyel mice. Together, these results identify FLRT2 as a novel pivotal endogenous regulator of monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Targeting the FLRT2/UNC5B-Akt/mTOR axis may provide potential therapeutic strategies directly relevant to human diseases associated with aberrant monocyte/macrophage differentiation.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Monócitos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
17.
Elife ; 122023 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37039476

RESUMO

Mutations in the ubiquitin (Ub) chaperone Ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) cause X-linked forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that aggregation-prone, ALS-associated mutants of UBQLN2 (UBQLN2ALS) trigger heat stress-dependent neurodegeneration in Drosophila. A genetic modifier screen implicated endolysosomal and axon guidance genes, including the netrin receptor, Unc-5, as key modulators of UBQLN2 toxicity. Reduced gene dosage of Unc-5 or its coreceptor Dcc/frazzled diminished neurodegenerative phenotypes, including motor dysfunction, neuromuscular junction defects, and shortened lifespan, in flies expressing UBQLN2ALS alleles. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) harboring UBQLN2ALS knockin mutations exhibited lysosomal defects while inducible motor neurons (iMNs) expressing UBQLN2ALS alleles exhibited cytosolic UBQLN2 inclusions, reduced neurite complexity, and growth cone defects that were partially reversed by silencing of UNC5B and DCC. The combined findings suggest that altered growth cone dynamics are a conserved pathomechanism in UBQLN2-associated ALS/FTD.


Assuntos
Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica , Demência Frontotemporal , Humanos , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Orientação de Axônios , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/genética
18.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 24(1): 2200705, 2023 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37038247

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that commonly occurs in children. The prognosis of pediatric AML is relatively poor, thus threatening the patient's survival. The aberrant expression of the axon guidance factor, netrin-1, is observed in various types of malignancies, and it participates in the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells. Herein, we aimed to explore the role of netrin-1 in AML cells. Netrin-1 is highly expressed in AML patients. Proliferation and anti-apoptosis were observed in AML cells treated with netrin-1. The interaction between netrin-1 and Unc-5 netrin receptor B (UNC5B) was detected through coimmunoprecipitation, and UNC5B ribonucleic acid interference restrained the influence of netrin-1 on the AML cells. The phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase-protein kinase B (FAK-Akt) was upregulated in AML cells treated with netrin-1. Both FAK and Akt inhibitors abrogated the effects of netrin-1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of AML cells. In conclusion, netrin-1 could promote the growth and reduce the apoptosis of AML cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and that these effects were mediated by activating the FAK-Akt signaling pathway via the UNC5B.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Netrina-1 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Criança , Humanos , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
19.
Development ; 150(7)2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37014062

RESUMO

In the polarity/protrusion model of growth cone repulsion from UNC-6/netrin, UNC-6 first polarizes the growth cone of the VD motor neuron axon via the UNC-5 receptor, and then regulates protrusion asymmetrically across the growth cone based on this polarity. UNC-6 stimulates protrusion dorsally through the UNC-40/DCC receptor, and inhibits protrusion ventrally through UNC-5, resulting in net dorsal growth. Previous studies showed that UNC-5 inhibits growth cone protrusion via the flavin monooxygenases and potential destabilization of F-actin, and via UNC-33/CRMP and restriction of microtubule plus-end entry into the growth cone. We show that UNC-5 inhibits protrusion through a third mechanism involving TOM-1/tomosyn. A short isoform of TOM-1 inhibited protrusion downstream of UNC-5, and a long isoform had a pro-protrusive role. TOM-1/tomosyn inhibits formation of the SNARE complex. We show that UNC-64/syntaxin is required for growth cone protrusion, consistent with a role of TOM-1 in inhibiting vesicle fusion. Our results are consistent with a model whereby UNC-5 utilizes TOM-1 to inhibit vesicle fusion, resulting in inhibited growth cone protrusion, possibly by preventing the growth cone plasma membrane addition required for protrusion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Cones de Crescimento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo , Netrinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo
20.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 261, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36998043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deregulation of lncRNAs has been observed in human osteosarcoma. This study explored the diagnostic and prognostic significance of EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 in osteosarcoma. METHODS: Relative levels of EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 were detected in osteosarcoma tissue samples and cells. The ability to distinguish osteosarcoma from health was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve construction. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) and Cox proportional-hazards analyses were performed for prognosis factors. The bioinformatics approach was used to identify targeting miRNA for EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Whitney Mann U tests were conducted for validating the statistical significance. In cell culture experiments, the influence of EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 on proliferation, migration, and invasion of the osteosarcoma cell line was examined by CCK-8 and Transwell assays. RESULTS: Levels of EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 were upregulated in osteosarcoma patients and cells compared with the healthy participants and normal cell lines. EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 have a potent ability to distinguish the patients with osteosarcoma from the health. EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 levels correlated with SSS stage. Patients with high levels of EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 had significantly shorter survival times. EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 were independent prognostic indexes for overall survival. miR-1306-5p was a common target for EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1. A propulsive impact on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 was observed, but can be rescued by miR-1306-5p. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that upregulations of EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 expression were diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for human osteosarcoma. EPB41L4A-AS1 and UNC5B-AS1 contribute to the biological behavior of osteosarcoma via miR-1306-5p.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , MicroRNAs , Osteossarcoma , Humanos , Prognóstico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo
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