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1.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 42, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833197

RESUMO

Cognitive bias is defined as the influence of emotions on cognitive processes. The concept of the cognitive judgement bias has its origins in human psychology but has been applied to animals over the past 2 decades. In this study we were interested in determining if laterality and personality traits, which are known to influence learning style, might also be correlated with a cognitive bias in the three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used the judgement bias test with the go/no-go procedure where fish were first trained to discriminate between a black and white card and, after reaching a minimum learning criterion, tested their response to an ambiguous card (grey). Optimistic subjects were expected to have a high expectation of reward associated with an ambiguous stimulus, whereas pessimistic subjects a high expectation of non-reward. We used an emergence and a mirror test to quantify boldness and laterality, respectively. We hypothesised that male, bolder and more strongly lateralized fish would be more optimistic than female, shy and less strongly lateralised fish. We found that males and more strongly lateralized fish were more optimistic than females and less strongly lateralized fish. In addition, bold males were more optimistic than shy males as we predicted, but females showed the opposite pattern. Finally, fish trained on the black colour card learned the training task faster than those trained on a white card. Our results indicate that both laterality and personality traits are linked to animals' internal states (pessimistic or optimistic outlooks) which likely has broad implications for understanding animal behaviour particularly in a welfare context.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Personalidade , Pessimismo , Julgamento , Otimismo , Recompensa , Cognição
2.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20230561, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863346

RESUMO

The ability to make a decision by excluding alternatives (i.e. inferential reasoning) is a type of logical reasoning that allows organisms to solve problems with incomplete information. Several species of vertebrates have been shown to find hidden food using inferential reasoning abilities. Yet little is known about invertebrates' logical reasoning capabilities. In three experiments, I examined wild-caught bumblebees' abilities to locate a 'rewarded' stimulus using direct information or incomplete information-the latter requiring bees to use inferential reasoning. To do so, I adapted three paradigms previously used with primates-the two-cup, three-cup and double two-cup tasks. Bumblebees saw either two paper strips (experiment 1), three paper strips (experiment 2) or two pairs of paper strips (experiment 3) and experienced one of them being rewarded or unrewarded. At the test, they could choose between two (experiment 1), three (experiment 2) or four paper strips (experiment 3). Bumblebees succeeded in the three tasks and their performance was consistent with inferential reasoning. These findings highlight the importance of comparative studies with invertebrates to comprehensively track the evolution of reasoning abilities, in particular, and cognition, in general.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Recompensa
3.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20240051, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863345

RESUMO

When chimpanzees search for hidden food, do they realize that their guesses may not be correct? We applied a post-decision wagering paradigm to a simple two-cup search task, varying whether we gave participants visual access to the baiting and then asking after they had chosen one of the cups whether they would prefer a smaller but certain reward instead of their original choice (experiment 1). Results showed that chimpanzees were more likely to accept the smaller reward in occluded than visible conditions. Experiment 2 found the same effect when we blocked visual access but manipulated the number of hiding locations for the food piece, showing that the effect is not owing to representation type. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that when given information about the contents of the unchosen cup, chimpanzees were able to flexibly update their choice behaviour accordingly. These results suggest that language is not a pre-requisite to solving the disjunctive syllogism and provides a valuable contribution to the debate on logical reasoning in non-human animals.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Recompensa
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20240182, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864335

RESUMO

In contemporary society, the effective utilization of public resources remains a subject of significant concern. A common issue arises from defectors seeking to obtain an excessive share of these resources for personal gain, potentially leading to resource depletion. To mitigate this tragedy and ensure sustainable development of resources, implementing mechanisms to either reward those who adhere to distribution rules or penalize those who do not, appears advantageous. We introduce two models: a tax-reward model and a tax-punishment model, to address this issue. Our analysis reveals that in the tax-reward model, the evolutionary trajectory of the system is influenced not only by the tax revenue collected but also by the natural growth rate of the resources. Conversely, the tax-punishment model exhibits distinct characteristics when compared with the tax-reward model, notably the potential for bistability. In such scenarios, the selection of initial conditions is critical, as it can determine the system's path. Furthermore, our study identifies instances where the system lacks stable points, exemplified by a limit cycle phenomenon, underscoring the complexity and dynamism inherent in managing public resources using these models.


Assuntos
Recompensa , Impostos , Punição , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
5.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302023, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857237

RESUMO

In the context of digital marketing, consumers often express aversion to perk advertisements yet find it challenging to resist the temptation and forward it, resulting in inconsistent attitudes and behaviors. This study, based on the Associative Propositional Evaluation model and the Confirmation Bias theory, utilizes event-related potential experiments to identify the interactive impacts of immediate rewards and information diagnosticity in advertisements on consumer attitude change in specific contexts. The research findings indicate that when rewards were present, information diagnosticity positively influences attitude change and the willingness to forward. However, when rewards were absent, the impact of information diagnosticity on attitude change and the willingness to forward is not significant, and neuroscientific evidence supports these findings. Theoretically, this study extends the research perspective on attitude change in online advertising contexts and broadens the application of the Associative Propositional Evaluation model in the field of consumer attitude change towards advertisements. In practice, this research holds significant guiding value for constraining platform manipulation of consumer cognitive behaviors, guiding the healthy development of platform economics, and promoting digital technology ethics.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Recompensa , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13112, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849348

RESUMO

Music provides a reward that can enhance learning and motivation in humans. While music is often combined with exercise to improve performance and upregulate mood, the relationship between music-induced reward and motor output is poorly understood. Here, we study music reward and motor output at the same time by capitalizing on music playing. Specifically, we investigate the effects of music improvisation and live accompaniment on motor, autonomic, and affective responses. Thirty adults performed a drumming task while (i) improvising or maintaining the beat and (ii) with live or recorded accompaniment. Motor response was characterized by acceleration of hand movements (accelerometry), wrist flexor and extensor muscle activation (electromyography), and the drum strike count (i.e., the number of drum strikes played). Autonomic arousal was measured by tonic response of electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR). Affective responses were measured by a 12-item Likert scale. The combination of improvisation and live accompaniment, as compared to all other conditions, significantly increased acceleration of hand movements and muscle activation, as well as participant reports of reward during music playing. Improvisation, regardless of type of accompaniment, increased the drum strike count and autonomic arousal (including tonic EDA responses and several measures of HR), as well as participant reports of challenge. Importantly, increased motor response was associated with increased reward ratings during music improvisation, but not while participants were maintaining the beat. The increased motor responses achieved with improvisation and live accompaniment have important implications for enhancing dose of movement during exercise and physical rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Música , Recompensa , Humanos , Música/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13141, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849441

RESUMO

Obesity and food addiction are associated with distinct brain signatures related to reward processing, and early life adversity (ELA) also increases alterations in these same reward regions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of early life adversity on food addiction are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the interactions between ELA, food addiction, and brain morphometry in individuals with obesity. 114 participants with high body mass index (BMI) underwent structural MRIs, and completed several questionnaires (e.g., Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Early Traumatic Inventory (ETI)). Freesurfer 6 was applied to generate the morphometry of brain regions. A multivariate pattern analysis was used to derive brain morphometry patterns associated with food addiction. General linear modeling and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the effects of ELA and resilience on food addiction in individuals with obesity. Statistical significance was determined at a level of p < 0.05. High levels of ELA showed a strong association between reward control brain signatures and food addiction (p = 0.03). Resilience positively mediated the effect of ELA on food addiction (B = 0.02, p = 0.038). Our findings suggest that food addiction is associated with brain signatures in motivation and reward processing regions indicative of dopaminergic dysregulation and inhibition of cognitive control regions. These mechanistic variabilities along with early life adversity suggest increased vulnerability to develop food addiction and obesity in adulthood, which can buffer by the neuroprotective effects of resilience, highlighting the value of incorporating cognitive appraisal into obesity therapeutic regimens.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo , Dependência de Alimentos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/patologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resiliência Psicológica
8.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 22(9): 1551-1565, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thalamus is a phylogenetically well-preserved structure. Known to densely contact cortical regions, its role in the transmission of sensory information to the striatal complex has been widely reconsidered in recent years. METHODS: The parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus (Pf) has been implicated in the orientation of attention toward salient sensory stimuli. In a stimulus-driven reward-seeking task, we sought to characterize the electrophysiological activity of Pf neurons in rats. RESULTS: We observed a predominance of excitatory over inhibitory responses for all events in the task. Neurons responded more strongly to the stimulus compared to lever-pressing and reward collecting, confirming the strong involvement of the Pf in sensory information processing. The use of long sessions allowed us to compare neuronal responses to stimuli between trials when animals were engaged in action and those when they were not. We distinguished two populations of neurons with opposite responses: MOTIV+ neurons responded more intensely to stimuli followed by a behavioral response than those that were not. Conversely, MOTIV- neurons responded more strongly when the animal did not respond to the stimulus. In addition, the latency of excitation of MOTIV- neurons was shorter than that of MOTIV+ neurons. CONCLUSION: Through this encoding, the Pf could perform an early selection of environmental stimuli transmitted to the striatum according to motivational level.


Assuntos
Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo , Neurônios , Recompensa , Animais , Neurônios/fisiologia , Masculino , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4802, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839745

RESUMO

Staying engaged is necessary to maintain goal-directed behaviors. Despite this, engagement exhibits continuous, intrinsic fluctuations. Even in experimental settings, animals, unlike most humans, repeatedly and spontaneously move between periods of complete task engagement and disengagement. We, therefore, looked at behavior in male macaques (macaca mulatta) in four tasks while recording fMRI signals. We identified consistent autocorrelation in task disengagement. This made it possible to build models capturing task-independent engagement. We identified task general patterns of neural activity linked to impending sudden task disengagement in mid-cingulate gyrus. By contrast, activity centered in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) was associated with maintenance of performance across tasks. Importantly, we carefully controlled for task-specific factors such as the reward history and other motivational effects, such as response vigor, in our analyses. Moreover, we showed pgACC activity had a causal link to task engagement: transcranial ultrasound stimulation of pgACC changed task engagement patterns.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo , Macaca mulatta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Animais , Masculino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Motivação/fisiologia
10.
Physiol Behav ; 282: 114599, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823754

RESUMO

Cocaine addiction is the third largest cause of overdose-related deaths in the United States. Research investigating therapeutic targets for cocaine reward processes is key to combating this issue. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to reduce cocaine reward processes, though specific mechanisms are not understood. This study examines the effect of intra-dorsal hippocampal (DH) OXT on the expression of cocaine context associations using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In this paradigm, one of two visually distinct chambers is paired with a drug. With repeated pairings, control animals display preference for the drug-associated context by spending more time in that context at test. In the present study, four conditioning days took place where male and female rats were injected with either cocaine or saline and placed into the corresponding chamber. On test day, rats received infusions of OXT or saline (VEH) into the DH and were allowed access to both chambers. The results show that while VEH-infused rats displayed cocaine CPP, OXT-infused rats did not prefer the cocaine-paired chamber. These findings implicate the DH as necessary in the mechanism by which OXT acts to block the expression of cocaine-context associations, providing insight into how OXT may exert its therapeutic effect in cocaine reward processes.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Hipocampo , Ocitocina , Animais , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Cocaína/farmacologia , Masculino , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ratos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
11.
Science ; 384(6700): eadn0886, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843332

RESUMO

In addition to their intrinsic rewarding properties, opioids can also evoke aversive reactions that protect against misuse. Cellular mechanisms that govern the interplay between opioid reward and aversion are poorly understood. We used whole-brain activity mapping in mice to show that neurons in the dorsal peduncular nucleus (DPn) are highly responsive to the opioid oxycodone. Connectomic profiling revealed that DPn neurons innervate the parabrachial nucleus (PBn). Spatial and single-nuclei transcriptomics resolved a population of PBn-projecting pyramidal neurons in the DPn that express µ-opioid receptors (µORs). Disrupting µOR signaling in the DPn switched oxycodone from rewarding to aversive and exacerbated the severity of opioid withdrawal. These findings identify the DPn as a key substrate for the abuse liability of opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Oxicodona , Núcleos Parabraquiais , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Receptores Opioides mu , Recompensa , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Conectoma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/metabolismo , Oxicodona/farmacologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Adv Neurobiol ; 35: 315-327, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874730

RESUMO

This chapter (part one of a trilogy) summarizes the neurobiological foundations of endogenous opioids in the regulation of energy balance and eating behavior, dysregulation of which translates to maladaptive dietary responses in individuals with obesity and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Knowledge of these neurobiological foundations is vital to researchers' and clinicians' understanding of pathophysiology as well as the science-based development of multidisciplinary diagnoses and treatments for obesity and eating disorders. We highlight mechanisms of endogenous opioids in both homeostatic and hedonic feeding behavior, review research on the dysregulation of food reward that plays a role in a wide array of obesity and disordered eating, and the clinical implications of neurobiological responses to food for current science-based treatments for obesity and eating disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Homeostase , Fome , Obesidade , Peptídeos Opioides , Humanos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Peptídeos Opioides/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/metabolismo , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Animais
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13455, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862592

RESUMO

The Islamist group ISIS has been particularly successful at recruiting Westerners as terrorists. A hypothesized explanation is their simultaneous use of two types of propaganda: Heroic narratives, emphasizing individual glory, alongside Social narratives, which emphasize oppression against Islamic communities. In the current study, functional MRI was used to measure brain responses to short ISIS propaganda videos distributed online. Participants were shown 4 Heroic and 4 Social videos categorized as such by another independent group of subjects. Persuasiveness was measured using post-scan predictions of recruitment effectiveness. Inter-subject correlation (ISC) was used to measure commonality of brain activity time courses across individuals. ISCs in ventral striatum predicted rated persuasiveness for Heroic videos, while ISCs in mentalizing and default networks, especially in dmPFC, predicted rated persuasiveness for Social videos. This work builds on past findings that engagement of the reward circuit and of mentalizing brain regions predicts preferences and persuasion. The observed dissociation as a function of stimulus type is novel, as is the finding that intersubject synchrony in ventral striatum predicts rated persuasiveness. These exploratory results identify possible neural mechanisms by which political extremists successfully recruit prospective members and specifically support the hypothesized distinction between Heroic and Social narratives for ISIS propaganda.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Persuasiva , Islamismo , Mentalização/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estriado Ventral/fisiologia , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravação em Vídeo , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 242, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844463

RESUMO

It has been well established that a consolidated memory can be updated during the plastic state induced by reactivation. This updating process opens the possibility to modify maladaptive memory. In the present study, we evaluated whether fear memory could be updated to less-aversive level by incorporating hedonic information during reactivation. Thus, male rats were fear conditioned and, during retrieval, a female was presented as a social rewarding stimulus. We found that memory reactivation with a female (but not a male) reduces fear expression within-session and in the test, without presenting reinstatement or spontaneous recovery. Interestingly, this intervention impaired extinction. Finally, we demonstrated that this emotional remodeling to eliminate fear expression requires the activation of dopamine and oxytocin receptors during retrieval. Hence, these results shed new lights on the memory updating process and suggests that the exposure to natural rewarding information such as a female during retrieval reduces a previously consolidated fear memory.


Assuntos
Medo , Receptores de Ocitocina , Interação Social , Animais , Medo/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Feminino , Memória/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Recompensa , Ratos Wistar , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia
15.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862177

RESUMO

Associative learning enables the adaptive adjustment of behavioral decisions based on acquired, predicted outcomes. The valence of what is learned is influenced not only by the learned stimuli and their temporal relations, but also by prior experiences and internal states. In this study, we used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to demonstrate that neuronal circuits involved in associative olfactory learning undergo restructuring during extended periods of low-caloric food intake. Specifically, we observed a decrease in the connections between specific dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and Kenyon cells at distinct compartments of the mushroom body. This structural synaptic plasticity was contingent upon the presence of allatostatin A receptors in specific DANs and could be mimicked optogenetically by expressing a light-activated adenylate cyclase in exactly these DANs. Importantly, we found that this rearrangement in synaptic connections influenced aversive, punishment-induced olfactory learning but did not impact appetitive, reward-based learning. Whether induced by prolonged low-caloric conditions or optogenetic manipulation of cAMP levels, this synaptic rearrangement resulted in a reduction of aversive associative learning. Consequently, the balance between positive and negative reinforcing signals shifted, diminishing the ability to learn to avoid odor cues signaling negative outcomes. These results exemplify how a neuronal circuit required for learning and memory undergoes structural plasticity dependent on prior experiences of the nutritional value of food.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Corpos Pedunculados , Plasticidade Neuronal , Animais , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Optogenética , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais Geneticamente Modificados
16.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 35: 100223, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879195

RESUMO

AIM: We examined age-related differences in valuation and cognitive control circuits during value-based decision-making. METHODS: 13-year-olds (N = 25) and 17-year-olds (N = 22) made a metacognitive choice to be tested or not on an upcoming learning task, based on reward and difficulty associated with word-pairs. To investigate whether these determinants of subjective value are differently processed at different ages, we performed region-of-interest(ROI)-based analyses of task-related and functional connectivity data. RESULTS: We observed age-related differences in responsiveness of valuation structures (amygdala, ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and caudate nucleus, with activity modulated by reward in 13-year-olds, while in 17-year-olds activity being responsive to difficulty. These accompanied age-related differences in functional connectivity between medial prefrontal and striatal/amygdala seeds. DISCUSSION: These results are in line with current views that sensitivity changes for reward and difficulty during adolescence are the result of a maturational switch in effort-related signalling in the cognitive control circuit, which increasingly regulates value-signalling structures.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico
17.
Brain Cogn ; 179: 106186, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843763

RESUMO

Most of the literature on the neural bases of human reward and punishment processing has used monetary gains and losses, but less is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the anticipation and consumption of other types of rewarding stimuli. In the present study, EEG was recorded from 19 participants who completed a modified version of the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. During the task, cues providing information about potential future outcomes were presented to the participants. Then, they had to respond rapidly to a target stimulus to win money or listening to pleasant music, or to avoid losing money or listening to unpleasant music. Results revealed similar responses for monetary and music cues, with increased activity for cues indicating potential gains compared to losses. However, differences emerged in the outcome phase between money and music. Monetary outcomes showed an interaction between the type of the cue and the outcome in the Feedback Related Negativity and Fb-P3 ERPs and increased theta activity increased for negative feedbacks. In contrast, music outcomes showed significant interactions in the Fb-P3 and theta activities. These findings suggest similar neurophysiological mechanisms in processing cues for potential positive or negative outcomes in these two types of stimuli.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Eletroencefalografia , Música , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13775, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877100

RESUMO

Exposure to alcohol during adolescence impacts cortical and limbic brain regions undergoing maturation. In rodent models, long-term effects on behavior and neurophysiology have been described after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), especially in males. We hypothesized that AIE in female rats increases conditional approach to a reward-predictive cue and corresponding neuronal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We evaluated behavior and neuronal firing after AIE (5 g/kg intragastric) or water (CON) in adult female rats. Both AIE and CON groups expressed a ST phenotype, and AIE marginally increased sign-tracking (ST) and decreased goal-tracking (GT) metrics. NAc neurons exhibited phasic firing patterns to the conditional stimulus (CS), with no differences between groups. In contrast, neuronal firing in the OFC of AIE animals was greater at CS onset and offset than in CON animals. During reward omission, OFC responses to CS offset normalized to CON levels, but enhanced OFC firing to CS onset persisted in AIE. We suggest that the enhanced OFC neural activity observed in AIE rats to the CS could contribute to behavioral inflexibility. Ultimately, AIE persistently impacts the neurocircuitry of reward-motivated behavior in female rats.


Assuntos
Etanol , Núcleo Accumbens , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Recompensa , Animais , Feminino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Etanol/farmacologia , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304461, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Insomnia symptoms are negatively related to opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment outcomes, possibly reflecting the influence of sleep on neurofunctional domains implicated in addiction. Moreover, the intersection between OUD recovery and sleep represents an area well-suited for the development of novel, personalized treatment strategies. This study assessed the prevalence of clinically significant insomnia symptoms and characterized its neurofunctional correlates among a clinical sample of adults with OUD receiving buprenorphine. METHODS: Adults (N = 129) receiving buprenorphine for OUD from an outpatient clinic participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed an abbreviated version of NIDA's Phenotyping Assessment Battery, which assessed 6 neurofunctional domains: sleep, negative emotionality, metacognition, interoception, cognition, and reward. Bivariate descriptive statistics compared those with evidence of clinically significant insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] score of ≥11) to those with minimal evidence of clinically significant insomnia symptoms (ISI score of ≤10) across each of the neurofunctional domains. RESULTS: Roughly 60% of participants reported clinically significant insomnia symptoms (ISI score of ≥11). Experiencing clinically significant insomnia symptoms was associated with reporting greater levels of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, stress intolerance, unhelpful metacognition, and interoceptive awareness (ps<0.05). Participants with evidence of clinically significant insomnia were more likely to report that poor sleep was interfering with their OUD treatment and that improved sleep would assist with their treatment (ps<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia was prevalent among adults receiving buprenorphine for OUD. Insomnia was associated with neurofunctional performance, which may impact OUD treatment trajectories. Our findings indicate potential targets in the development of personalized treatment plans for patients with co-morbid insomnia and OUD. To inform the development of novel treatment strategies, more research is needed to understand the potential mechanistic links between sleep disturbances and substance use.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/fisiopatologia , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Interocepção , Recompensa
20.
Brain Behav ; 14(6): e3545, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low self-esteem is a frequent symptom in major depressive disorder (MDD). This functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether MDD patients with low self-esteem show a distinct neural pathophysiology. Previous studies linked low self-esteem to reduced task-induced deactivation of the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) as a part of the default mode network, and to reduced connectivity between pgACC and reward system. Goya-Maldonado et al. identified an MDD subtype with pgACC and ventral striatal overactivations during reward processing. We hypothesized that this subtype might be characterized by low self-esteem. METHODS: Eighty-three MDD patients performed the desire-reason dilemma task and completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Brain activity during bottom-up reward processing was regressed upon the RSES scores, controlling for depression severity measured by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. To corroborate the findings, we compared self-esteem scores between patient subgroups with impaired task-induced deactivation (n = 31) and with preserved task-induced deactivation (n = 31) of the pgACC. RESULTS: Consistent with our a priori hypothesis, activity in a bilateral fronto-striatal network including pgACC and ventral striatum correlated negatively with RSES scores, also when controlling for depression severity. In the additional analysis, patients with impaired task-induced pgACC deactivation showed lower self-esteem (t (52.82) = -2.27; p = .027, d = 0.58) compared to those with preserved task-induced pgACC deactivation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that low self-esteem in MDD patients is linked to a task-induced deactivation dysfunction of the pgACC. Our findings suggest that a previously described possible subtype of MDD with pgACC and ventral striatal overactivations during reward processing is clinically characterized by low self-esteem.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Giro do Cíngulo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Autoimagem , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estriado Ventral/fisiopatologia , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem
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