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1.
Ecology ; 105(4): e4257, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426609

RESUMO

Climate refugia are areas where species can persist through climate change with little to no movement. Among the factors associated with climate refugia are high spatial heterogeneity, such that there is only a short distance between current and future optimal climates, as well as biotic or abiotic environmental factors that buffer against variability in time. However, these types of climate refugia may be declining due to anthropogenic homogenization of environments and degradation of environmental buffers. To quantify the potential for restoration of refugia-like environmental conditions to increase population persistence under climate change, we simulated a population's capacity to track their temperature over space and time given different levels of spatial and temporal variability in temperature. To determine how species traits affected the efficacy of restoring heterogeneity, we explored an array of values for species' dispersal ability, thermal tolerance, and fecundity. We found that species were more likely to persist in environments with higher spatial heterogeneity and lower environmental stochasticity. When simulating a management action that increased the spatial heterogeneity of a previously homogenized environment, species were more likely to persist through climate change, and population sizes were generally higher, but there was little effect with mild temperature change. The benefits of heterogeneity restoration were greatest for species with limited dispersal ability. In contrast, species with longer dispersal but lower fecundity were more likely to benefit from a reduction in environmental stochasticity than an increase in spatial heterogeneity. Our results suggest that restoring environments to refugia-like conditions could promote species' persistence under the influence of climate change in addition to conservation strategies such as assisted migration, corridors, and increased protection.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura , Ecossistema
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6246, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485718

RESUMO

The bamboo-coral Isidella elongata is a key habitat-forming species in the deep Mediterranean Sea. This alcyonacean is listed as an indicator of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) and as Critically Endangered due to bottom trawling impacts. In this work, a modeling approach was used to predict and map the habitat suitability of I. elongata in the Mediterranean Sea under current environmental conditions. Occurrence data were modeled as a function of environmental parameters. Using climate change scenarios and fishing effort data, the risk of climate change and fisheries impacts on habitat suitability were estimated, and climate refugia were identified. A drastic loss of habitat is predicted, and climate change scenarios suggest a loss of 60% of suitable habitats by 2100. In the central Mediterranean, climate refugia overlapped with active fishing grounds. This study represents the first attempt to identify hot spots for the protection of soft bottom Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems for the entire Mediterranean Sea, and highlights areas most at risk from trawling. This work is relevant to the objectives of the EU Marine Strategy Framework and Maritime Spatial Planning Directives, the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 regarding priority areas for conservation.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Ecossistema , Animais , Mudança Climática , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e16852, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317840

RESUMO

Populations of the non-native Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, now dominate the rocky intertidal of southern New England, USA. High abundances suggest the recent invader may have experienced enhanced success as a result of enemy release. While larvae and juveniles may serve as a food source for ecologically important species, little is known about predation of mature H. sanguineus or the influence of habitat on predation pressure. To assess natural predation rates of adult H. sanguineus, crabs were tethered in the intertidal at Clarks Cove in New Bedford, MA. Crabs were left in situ for half of a tidal cycle then observed for signs of predation. Results of separate high and low tide trials showed that adult crabs were preyed upon at both high and low tide, though at a significantly higher rate during high tide during both daytime and nighttime, suggesting predation by aquatic species is greater than that by terrestrial species. To investigate the role of habitat as refuge from predation, a laboratory experiment manipulated the complexity of habitat provided to crabs in the presence of a native fish predator. Results indicate better refuge is provided by more complex shelter. Together, findings suggest that fish, crabs, and/or diving birds are important predators for H. sanguineus in the invaded range and that habitat refuge acts to reduce predation pressure.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Comportamento Predatório , Ecossistema , Peixes
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 327: 110120, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266372

RESUMO

Parasites are known for their ability to rapidly adapt to changing conditions. For parasitic helminths, changes in climate, along with farming and management practices associated with the intensification of livestock farming, provide novel challenges which can impact on their epidemiology and control. The sustainability of livestock production partially relies on effective control of helminth infection. Therefore, understanding changes in parasite behaviour, and what drives these, is of great importance. Nematodirus battus is an economically important helminth in the UK and temperate regions. Its infective larvae typically overwinter in eggs on pasture and hatch synchronously in spring, causing acute disease in lambs. Attempts to control disease typically rely on whole-flock benzimidazole (BZ) treatments. In recent years, the emergence of BZ-resistance, alongside the hatching of eggs without the classical over-winter 'chill stimulus', have made N. battus more difficult to control. In three previous studies, after collecting a large number of N. battus populations alongside farm management data from commercial farms, we explored the prevalence of genetic mutations associated with BZ-resistance (n = 253 farms), the ability of eggs to hatch with and without a chill stimulus (n = 90 farms) and how farm management practices varied throughout the UK (n = 187 farms). In the present study, we identify factors which may be acting as drivers, or barriers, to either the development of resistance or the variable hatching behaviour of N. battus eggs. Generalised linear mixed effect models were applied to regress experimental hatching and genotyping data on farm management and additional environmental data. Both variable hatching and resistance development appeared associated with the maintenance of parasite refugia as well as grazing management, particularly reseeding of pasture routinely grazed by young lambs each spring and the practice of set-stocked grazing. Effective quarantine measures were identified as the main protective factor for the development of BZ-resistance whereas set stocked grazing and population bottlenecks, resulting from reseeding heavily contaminated pastures, were risk factors. Spring maximum temperature and other climatic factors were associated with 'typical' hatching of eggs following a chill stimulus whilst several management factors were linked with hatching without prior chilling. For example, practices which reduce parasite numbers on pasture (e.g. re-seeding) or restrict availability of hosts (e.g. resting fields), were found to increase the odds of non-chill hatching. Retention of the timing of lambing and infection level of the host within the fitted model indicated that requirement for a chill stimulus prior to hatching may be plastic, perhaps subject to change throughout the grazing season, in response to immune development or parasite density-dependence within the host. Further investigation of the influence of the factors retained within the fitted models, particularly the theme of parasite refugia which was highlighted in relation to both the presence of BZ-resistance alleles and alternative hatching, is required to establish robust, sustainable parasite control and farm management strategies.


Assuntos
Nematodirus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Ovinos , Nematodirus/genética , Fazendas , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Óvulo , Carneiro Doméstico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2015): 20231587, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228177

RESUMO

Flexibility in activity timing may enable organisms to quickly adapt to environmental changes. Under global warming, diurnally adapted endotherms may achieve a better energy balance by shifting their activity towards cooler nocturnal hours. However, this shift may expose animals to new or increased environmental challenges (e.g. increased predation risk, reduced foraging efficiency). We analysed a large dataset of activity data from 47 ibex (Capra ibex) in two protected areas, characterized by varying levels of predation risk (presence versus absence of the wolf-Canis lupus). We found that ibex increased nocturnal activity following warmer days and during brighter nights. Despite the considerable sexual dimorphism typical of this species and the consequent different predation-risk perception, males and females demonstrated consistent responses to heat in both predator-present and predator-absent areas. This supports the hypothesis that shifting activity towards nighttime may be a common strategy adopted by diurnal endotherms in response to global warming. As nowadays different pressures are pushing mammals towards nocturnality, our findings emphasize the urgent need to integrate knowledge of temporal behavioural modifications into management and conservation planning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1390, 2024 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228659

RESUMO

The Balkans are considered a major glacial refugium where flora and fauna survived glacial periods and repopulated the rest of Europe during interglacials. While it is also thought to have harboured Pleistocene human populations, evidence linking human activity, paleoenvironmental indicators and a secure temporal placement to glacial periods is scant. Here, we present the first intra-tooth multi-isotope analysis for the European straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon antiquus, on an adult male individual excavated in association with lithic artefacts at the MIS 12 site Marathousa 1 (Megalopolis basin, Greece). The studied find also exhibits anthropogenic modifications, providing direct evidence of hominin presence. We employed strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope analysis on enamel bioapatite to investigate its foraging and mobility behaviour, using a sequential sampling strategy along the tooth growth axis of the third upper molar, to assess ecological changes during the last decade of life. We found a geographically restricted range, in a C3-dominated open woodland environment, and relatively stable conditions over the examined timeframe. Our results show that, despite the severity of the MIS 12 glacial, the Megalopolis basin sustained a mesic habitat, sufficient plant cover and limited seasonal fluctuations in resource availability, pointing to its role as a glacial refugium for both fauna and hominins.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Animais , Humanos , Grécia , Ecossistema , Península Balcânica
7.
Conserv Biol ; 38(1): e14108, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37144480

RESUMO

Identifying locations of refugia from the thermal stresses of climate change for coral reefs and better managing them is one of the key recommendations for climate change adaptation. We review and summarize approximately 30 years of applied research focused on identifying climate refugia to prioritize the conservation actions for coral reefs under rapid climate change. We found that currently proposed climate refugia and the locations predicted to avoid future coral losses are highly reliant on  excess heat metrics, such as degree heating weeks. However, many existing alternative environmental, ecological, and life-history variables could be used to identify other types of refugia that lead to the desired diversified portfolio for coral reef conservation. To improve conservation priorities for coral reefs, there is a need to evaluate and validate the predictions of climate refugia with long-term field data on coral abundance, diversity, and functioning. There is also the need to identify and safeguard locations displaying resistance toprolonged exposure to heat waves and the ability to recover quickly after thermal exposure. We recommend using more metrics to identify a portfolio of potential refugia sites for coral reefs that can avoid, resist, and recover from exposure to high ocean temperatures and the consequences of climate change, thereby shifting past efforts focused on avoidance to a diversified risk-spreading portfolio that can be used to improve strategic coral reef conservation in a rapidly warming climate.


Diversificación de los tipos de refugio necesarios para asegurar el futuro de los arrecifes de coral sujetos al cambio climático Resumen Una de las principales recomendaciones para la adaptación al cambio climático es identificar los refugios de los arrecifes de coral frente al estrés térmico del cambio climático y mejorar su gestión. Revisamos y resumimos ∼30 años de investigación aplicada centrada en la identificación de refugios climáticos para priorizar las acciones de conservación de los arrecifes de coral bajo un rápido cambio climático. Descubrimos que los refugios climáticos propuestos actualmente y las ubicaciones que pueden evitarlos dependen en gran medida de métricas de exceso de calor, como las semanas de calentamiento en grados (SCG). Sin embargo, existen muchas variables alternativas de historia vital, ambientales y ecológicas que podrían utilizarse para identificar otros tipos de refugios que resulten en el acervo diversificado que se desea para la conservación de los arrecifes de coral. Para mejorar las prioridades de conservación de los arrecifes de coral, es necesario evaluar y validar las predicciones sobre refugios climáticos con datos de campo a largo plazo sobre abundancia, diversidad y funcionamiento de los corales. También es necesario identificar y salvaguardar lugares que muestren resistencia a la exposición climática prolongada a olas de calor y la capacidad de recuperarse rápidamente tras la exposición térmica. Recomendamos utilizar más métricas para identificar un acervo de posibles lugares de refugio para los arrecifes de coral que puedan evitar, resistir y recuperarse de la exposición a las altas temperaturas oceánicas y las consecuencias del cambio climático, para así desplazar los esfuerzos pasados centrados en la evitación hacia un acervo diversificado de riesgos que pueda utilizarse para mejorar la conservación estratégica de los arrecifes de coral en un clima que se calienta rápidamente.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(1): e16997, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937346

RESUMO

Mediterranean spring ecosystems are unique habitats at the interface between surface water and groundwater. These ecosystems support a remarkable array of biodiversity and provide important ecological functions and ecosystem services. Spring ecosystems are influenced by abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic factors such as the lithology of their draining aquifers, their climate, and the land use of their recharge area, all of which affect the water chemistry of the aquifer and the spring discharges. One of the most relevant characteristics of spring ecosystems is the temporal stability of environmental conditions, including physicochemical features of the spring water, across seasons and years. This stability allows a wide range of species to benefit from these ecosystems (particularly during dry periods), fostering an unusually high number of endemic species. However, global change poses important threats to these freshwater ecosystems. Changes in temperature, evapotranspiration, and precipitation patterns can alter the water balance and chemistry of spring water. Eutrophication due to agricultural practices and emergent pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides, is also a growing concern for the preservation of spring biodiversity. Here, we provide a synthesis of the main characteristics and functioning of Mediterranean spring ecosystems. We then describe their ecological value and biodiversity patterns and highlight the main risks these ecosystems face. Moreover, we identify existing knowledge gaps to guide future research in order to fully uncover the hidden biodiversity within these habitats and understand the main drivers that govern them. Finally, we provide a brief summary of recommended actions that should be taken to effectively manage and preserve Mediterranean spring ecosystems for future generations. Even though studies on Mediterranean spring ecosystems are still scarce, our review shows there are sufficient data to conclude that their future viability as functional ecosystems is under severe threat.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nascentes Naturais , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Biodiversidade , Água
9.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 246, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of water is a major constraint for microbial life in hyperarid deserts. Consequently, the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in common habitats such as soil are strongly reduced, and colonization occurs primarily by specifically adapted microorganisms that thrive in particular refugia to escape the harsh conditions that prevail in these deserts. We suggest that plants provide another refugium for microbial life in hyperarid deserts. We studied the bacterial colonization of Tillandsia landbeckii (Bromeliaceae) plants, which occur in the hyperarid regions of the Atacama Desert in Chile, one of the driest and oldest deserts on Earth. RESULTS: We detected clear differences between the bacterial communities being plant associated to those of the bare soil surface (PERMANOVA, R2 = 0.187, p = 0.001), indicating that Tillandsia plants host a specific bacterial community, not only dust-deposited cells. Moreover, the bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were distinct from those in the laimosphere, i.e., on buried shoots (R2 = 0.108, p = 0.001), indicating further habitat differentiation within plant individuals. The bacterial taxa detected in the phyllosphere are partly well-known phyllosphere colonizers, but in addition, some rather unusual taxa (subgroup2 Acidobacteriae, Acidiphilum) and insect endosymbionts (Wolbachia, "Candidatus Uzinura") were found. The laimosphere hosted phyllosphere-associated as well as soil-derived taxa. The phyllosphere bacterial communities showed biogeographic patterns across the desert (R2 = 0.331, p = 0.001). These patterns were different and even more pronounced in the laimosphere (R2 = 0.467, p = 0.001), indicating that different factors determine community assembly in the two plant compartments. Furthermore, the phyllosphere microbiota underwent temporal changes (R2 = 0.064, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that T. landbeckii plants host specific bacterial communities in the phyllosphere as well as in the laimosphere. Therewith, these plants provide compartment-specific refugia for microbial life in hyperarid desert environments. The bacterial communities show biogeographic patterns and temporal variation, as known from other plant microbiomes, demonstrating environmental responsiveness and suggesting that bacteria inhabit these plants as viable microorganisms. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Tillandsia , Humanos , Microbiologia do Solo , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Bactérias/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Clima Desértico
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 905: 167214, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730049

RESUMO

Carpinus betulus L., the hornbeam, is a component of lowland and highland forests in Europe. By examining the postglacial migratory history of thermophilic tree species, the study aimed to unravel their putative glacial microrefugia in the Carpathian region. The present study points to the two distinct genetic AFLP groups of C. betulus in the Carpathian region that represent different genetic lineages based on Bayesian analysis. They differed in Nei's gene diversity index h, and the analysis of molecular variance AMOVA showed a percentage variation of the populations between the groups of 13.74 %. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of 368 AFLP tree samples confirmed the presence of two genetic groups. Ninety-five populations underwent principal component analysis (PCA) to show the main correlations between genetic diversity indices and bioclimatic/climate variables (WorldClim and Carpatclim). The generalized logistic model (GLM) showed the significance of Nei's genetic index h in delimiting genetic groups. The results of population-genetic and multivariate analyses determined that the two genetic groups nowadays are spatially diffused and do not show a clear geographic pattern, pointing to a genetic melting pot. We found ecological links between genetic diversity and bioclimatic characteristics, especially the precipitation in the coldest quarter - Bio19. The refugial Maxent model indicates a significant contribution of the Bio7 variable (both linked with a continental type of climate) to the occurrence of the species during the LGM in Europe. We suggest the relict character of hornbeam populations in a specific climatic-terrain niche in the northern part of the Carpathian Basin.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Teorema de Bayes , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Filogeografia , Betulaceae , Filogenia
11.
Oecologia ; 202(4): 831-844, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642742

RESUMO

More frequent and extreme heat waves threaten climate-sensitive species. Structurally complex, older forests can buffer these effects by creating cool microclimates, although the mechanisms by which forest refugia mitigate physiological responses to heat exposure and subsequent population-level consequences remain relatively unexplored. We leveraged fine-scale movement data, doubly labeled water, and two decades of demographic data for the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) to (1) assess the role of older forest characteristics as potential energetic buffers for individuals and (2) examine the subsequent value of older forests as refugia for a core population in the Sierra Nevada and a periphery population in the San Bernardino Mountains. Individuals spent less energy moving during warmer sampling periods and the presence of tall canopies facilitated energetic conservation during daytime roosting activities. In the core population, where tall-canopied forest was prevalent, temperature anomalies did not affect territory occupancy dynamics as warmer sites were both less likely to go extinct and less likely to become colonized, suggesting a trade-off between foraging opportunities and temperature exposure. In the peripheral population, sites were more likely to become unoccupied following warm summers, presumably because of less prevalent older forest conditions. While individuals avoided elevated energetic expenditure associated with temperature exposure, behavioral strategies to conserve energy may have diverted time and energy from reproduction or territory defense. Conserving older forests, which are threatened due to fire and drought, may benefit individuals from energetic consequences of exposure to stressful thermal conditions.


Assuntos
Clima , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Temperatura , Florestas , Demografia
12.
Chaos ; 33(6)2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37276576

RESUMO

Seasonal effects powerfully shape the population dynamics with periodic climate changes because species naturally adjust their dynamics with seasonal variations. In response to these effects, sometimes population dynamics exhibit synchrony or generate chaos. However, synchronized dynamics enhance species' persistence in naturally unstable environments; thus, it is imperative to identify parameters that alter the dynamics of an ecosystem and bring it into synchrony. This study examines how ecological parameters enable species to adapt their dynamics to seasonal changes and achieve phase synchrony within ecosystems. For this, we incorporate seasonal effects as a periodic sinusoidal function into a tri-trophic food chain system where two crucial bio-controlling parameters, Allee and refugia effects, are already present. First, it is shown that the seasonal effects disrupt the limit cycle and bring chaos to the system. Further, we perform rigorous mathematical analysis to perform the dynamical and analytical properties of the nonautonomous version of the system. These properties include sensitive dependence on initial condition (SDIC), sensitivity analysis, bifurcation results, the positivity and boundedness of the solution, permanence, ultimate boundedness, and extinction scenarios of species. The SDIC characterizes the presence of chaotic oscillations in the system. Sensitivity analysis determines the parameters that significantly affect the outcome of numerical simulations. The bifurcation study concerning seasonal parameters shows a higher dependency of species on the frequency of seasonal changes than the severity of the season. The bifurcation study also examines the bio-controlling parameters and reveals various dynamic states within the system, such as fold, transcritical branch points, and Hopf points. Moreover, the mathematical analysis of our seasonally perturbed system reveals the periodic coexistence of all species and a globally attractive solution under certain parametric constraints. Finally, we examine the role of essential parameters that contribute to phase synchrony. For this, we numerically investigate the defining role of the coupling dimension coefficient, bio-controlling parameters, and other parameters associated with seasonality. This study infers that species can tune their dynamics to seasonal effects with low seasonal frequency, whereas the species' tolerance for the severity of seasonal effects is relatively high. The research also sheds light on the correlation between the degree of phase synchrony, prey biomass levels, and the severity of seasonal forcing. This study offers valuable insights into the dynamics of ecosystems affected by seasonal perturbations, with implications for conservation and management strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Estações do Ano , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Dinâmica Populacional , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Predatório
13.
J Therm Biol ; 114: 103495, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37276747

RESUMO

Ocean warming is expected to occur due to anthropogenic climate change bringing a spatial shift of marine communities. Experimental data that characterize the aerobic power budget via an aerobic scope, thermal metabolic scope, or thermal preferences have been proposed as tools that can describe species distribution since they characterize species fitness or performance under different temperatures. This study tested the potential relationship between observed occurrences and different physiological studies in the Americas for 11 commercially important species in Mexico. Projections were also developed for Mexico's exclusive economic zone under different climate warming scenarios. The physiological data were fitted from optimum up to pejus temperatures and projected to sea surface temperatures for present (2003-2014) and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5) for the period 2040-2050 and 2090-2100. For species with wide distributions in the Americas, the number of occurrences reported decreases at higher latitudes related to the decrease in species performance calculated from laboratory experiments. In addition, higher species occurrences are usually reported around optimum temperatures. Overall, the results suggest that pejus temperatures likely restrict latitudinal distribution, at least for widely distributed taxons. Regarding Mexican projections, the results varied widely by species. For example, in the Atlantic Ocean, Octopus maya and Panulirus argus are vulnerable to warming scenarios, while Centropomus undecimalis is not. Interestingly, northern Campeche Bank, the Gulf of California, and Western Baja California may act as thermal refugia for marine species indicating they could be assigned as protected areas to support fisheries throughout the Mexican exclusive economic zone. This research adds to the increasing evidence of the relationship between thermal niche and wild population distribution.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente , México , Temperatura , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Ecossistema
14.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 131(2): 130-144, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37316726

RESUMO

Knowledge on the genetic composition of Quercus petraea in south-eastern Europe is limited despite the species' significant role in the re-colonisation of Europe during the Holocene, and the diverse climate and physical geography of the region. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct research on adaptation in sessile oak to better understand its ecological significance in the region. While large sets of SNPs have been developed for the species, there is a continued need for smaller sets of SNPs that are highly informative about the possible adaptation to this varied landscape. By using double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing data from our previous study, we mapped RAD-seq loci to the Quercus robur reference genome and identified a set of SNPs putatively related to drought stress-response. A total of 179 individuals from eighteen natural populations at sites covering heterogeneous climatic conditions in the southeastern natural distribution range of Q. petraea were genotyped. The detected highly polymorphic variant sites revealed three genetic clusters with a generally low level of genetic differentiation and balanced diversity among them but showed a north-southeast gradient. Selection tests showed nine outlier SNPs positioned in different functional regions. Genotype-environment association analysis of these markers yielded a total of 53 significant associations, explaining 2.4-16.6% of the total genetic variation. Our work exemplifies that adaptation to drought may be under natural selection in the examined Q. petraea populations.


Assuntos
Quercus , Humanos , Quercus/genética , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Península Balcânica , Genótipo
15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(14): 4140-4151, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37148129

RESUMO

Climate change is driving rapid and widespread erosion of the environmental conditions that formerly supported species persistence. Existing projections of climate change typically focus on forecasts of acute environmental anomalies and global extinction risks. The current projections also frequently consider all species within a broad taxonomic group together without differentiating species-specific patterns. Consequently, we still know little about the explicit dimensions of climate risk (i.e., species-specific vulnerability, exposure and hazard) that are vital for predicting future biodiversity responses (e.g., adaptation, migration) and developing management and conservation strategies. Here, we use reef corals as model organisms (n = 741 species) to project the extent of regional and global climate risks of marine organisms into the future. We characterise species-specific vulnerability based on the global geographic range and historical environmental conditions (1900-1994) of each coral species within their ranges, and quantify the projected exposure to climate hazard beyond the historical conditions as climate risk. We show that many coral species will experience a complete loss of pre-modern climate analogs at the regional scale and across their entire distributional ranges, and such exposure to hazardous conditions are predicted to pose substantial regional and global climate risks to reef corals. Although high-latitude regions may provide climate refugia for some tropical corals until the mid-21st century, they will not become a universal haven for all corals. Notably, high-latitude specialists and species with small geographic ranges remain particularly vulnerable as they tend to possess limited capacities to avoid climate risks (e.g., via adaptive and migratory responses). Predicted climate risks are amplified substantially under the SSP5-8.5 compared with the SSP1-2.6 scenario, highlighting the need for stringent emission controls. Our projections of both regional and global climate risks offer unique opportunities to facilitate climate action at spatial scales relevant to conservation and management.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Organismos Aquáticos , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema
16.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(6): 841-851, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37142743

RESUMO

Alpine river biodiversity around the world is under threat from glacier retreat driven by rapid warming, yet our ability to predict the future distributions of specialist cold-water species is currently limited. Here we link future glacier projections, hydrological routing methods and species distribution models to quantify the changing influence of glaciers on population distributions of 15 alpine river invertebrate species across the entire European Alps, from 2020 to 2100. Glacial influence on rivers is projected to decrease steadily, with river networks expanding into higher elevations at a rate of 1% per decade. Species are projected to undergo upstream distribution shifts where glaciers persist but become functionally extinct where glaciers disappear completely. Several alpine catchments are predicted to offer climate refugia for cold-water specialists. However, present-day protected area networks provide relatively poor coverage of these future refugia, suggesting that alpine conservation strategies must change to accommodate the future effects of global warming.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Rios , Animais , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 188: 106006, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37182324

RESUMO

Global change is imposing significant losses in the functional traits of marine organisms. Although areas of climatic refugia ameliorate local conditions and help them to persist, the extent to which mesoscale effects contribute for intraregional variability on population traits and conservation is uncertain. Here we assess patterns of conservation status of Fucus guiryi, the main intertidal habitat-forming seaweed in the Strait of Gibraltar (southern Spain and northern Morocco). We investigated the demography, reproductive phenology, and morphology at northern and southern side populations. Population traits were compared seasonally within populations from each side, and at spatial scale in early summer 2019. In the last decade three populations became extinct; two marginal populations had dispersed individuals with a narrower fertility season and miniaturized individuals below 3 cm; and five populations showed variable density and cover with more than 20% of reproductive individuals over the seasons. Highest density, cover, morphology, and reproductive potential was detected at one population from each side, suggesting local-scale climatic refugia in upwelling areas located inside marine protected areas. Southern recruits were more warm-tolerant but grew less at colder conditions than northern ones, revealing a mesoscale heterogeneity in thermal affinities. This study evidenced functional losses and distinct reproductive strategies experienced by F. guiryi at peripheral locations and urges to prioritize its conservation and restoration at contemporary climatic refugia.


Assuntos
Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Alga Marinha , Humanos , Espanha , Ecossistema , Gibraltar , Mudança Climática
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 319: 109955, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37201354

RESUMO

Refugia-based strategies associated with a combination of anthelmintic drugs belonging to different drug classes are becoming more common management practices to mitigate anthelmintic resistance (AR) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants. Though refugia-based strategies have been largely demonstrated in small ruminants, cattle veterinarians and producers are considering such management strategies in grazing cattle production systems. Implementing refugia-based strategies lowers the amount of anthelmintics used in the herd and therefore slows the progression of AR by allowing a proportion of worms to escape drug selection pressure. The objective of this study was to observe the effect of a refugia-based strategy on body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and fecal egg counts (FEC) of trichostongyle-type nematodes in naturally infected beef calves over a 131-day grazing season when compared with a whole herd treatment strategy, using the same combination of drugs. Stocker calves (n = 160) were ranked by body weight within sex then allocated to 16 paddocks, which were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. All calves in Group 1 (n = 80) were administered treatment, while in Group 2 (n = 80) the steer with the highest FEC in eggs per gram (EPG) within the paddock was left untreated. Treated calves received an extended release injectable 5 % eprinomectin (LongRange®, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc.; 1 mL/50 kg of BW) and a 22.5 % oxfendazole oral suspension (Synanthic®, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc.; 1 mL/50 kg of BW). Fecal egg counts and BW were recorded on days (D) -35, 0, 21, 131, and 148 to calculate the average fecal egg count reduction (FECR) and ADG for both groups. Linear mixed models, with paddock as the experimental unit, were used for analyses. The EPG differed on D21 (p < 0.01) and D131 (p = 0.057) with Group 2 having a higher average FEC (15.2 EPG D21; 57 EPG D131) compared with Group 1 (0.4 EPG D21; 37.25 EPG D131). However, there was no significant difference in average BW or ADG between treatment groups throughout the study. Results suggest refugia-based strategies could be implemented without significant negative impacts on average BW and ADG across other calves in the herd.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Bovinos , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Óvulo , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Aumento de Peso , Peso Corporal , Fezes , Ruminantes , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle
19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(13): 3692-3706, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029763

RESUMO

Recent studies highlight the potential of climate change refugia (CCR) to support the persistence of biodiversity in regions that may otherwise become unsuitable with climate change. However, a key challenge in using CCR for climate resilient management lies in how CCR may intersect with existing forest management strategies, and subsequently influence how landscapes buffer species from negative impacts of warming climate. We address this challenge in temperate coastal forests of the Pacific Northwestern United States, where declines in the extent of late-successional forests have prompted efforts to restore old-growth forest structure. One common approach for doing so involves selectively thinning forest stands to enhance structural complexity. However, dense canopy is a key forest feature moderating understory microclimate and potentially buffering organisms from climate change impacts, raising the possibility that approaches for managing forests for old-growth structure may reduce the extent and number of CCR. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices to identify CCR in an experimental forest with control and thinned (restoration) treatments, and explored the influence of biophysical variables on buffering capacity. We found that remotely sensed vegetation indices commonly used to identify CCR were associated with understory temperature and plant community composition, and thus captured aspects of landscape buffering that might instill climate resilience and be of interest to management. We then examined the interaction between current restoration strategies and CCR, and found that selective thinning for promoting old-growth structure had only very minor, if any, effects on climatic buffering. In all, our study demonstrates that forest management approaches aimed at restoring old-growth structure through targeted thinning do not greatly decrease buffering capacity, despite a known link between dense canopy and CCR. More broadly, this study illustrates the value of using remote sensing approaches to identify CCR, facilitating the integration of climate change adaptation with other forest management approaches.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Árvores
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 884: 163688, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37105476

RESUMO

The worldwide decline of coral reefs has renewed interest in coral communities at the edge of environmental limits because they have the potential to serve as resilience hotspots and climate change refugia, and can provide insights into how coral reefs might function in future ocean conditions. These coral communities are often referred to as marginal or extreme but few definitions exist and usage of these terms has therefore been inconsistent. This creates significant challenges for categorising these often poorly studied communities and synthesising data across locations. Furthermore, this impedes our understanding of how coral communities can persist at the edge of their environmental limits and the lessons they provide for future coral reef survival. Here, we propose that marginal and extreme coral communities are related but distinct and provide a novel conceptual framework to redefine them. Specifically, we define coral reef extremeness solely based on environmental conditions (i.e., large deviations from optimal conditions in terms of mean and/or variance) and marginality solely based on ecological criteria (i.e., altered community composition and/or ecosystem functioning). This joint but independent assessment of environmental and ecological criteria is critical to avoid common pitfalls where coral communities existing outside the presumed optimal conditions for coral reef development are automatically considered inferior to coral reefs in more traditional settings. We further evaluate the differential potential of marginal and extreme coral communities to serve as natural laboratories, resilience hotspots and climate change refugia, and discuss strategies for their conservation and management as well as priorities for future research. Our new classification framework provides an important tool to improve our understanding of how corals can persist at the edge of their environmental limits and how we can leverage this knowledge to optimise strategies for coral reef conservation, restoration and management in a rapidly changing ocean.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Ecossistema , Recifes de Corais , Mudança Climática , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem
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