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1.
Brain Inj ; 36(8): 1000-1009, 2022 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine return to school outcomes 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation discharge. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study using Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS-NDB) data at 1-year post-TBI. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation centers using follow-up telephone calls. INDIVIDUALS: Individuals (n = 237) enrolled in the TBIMS-NDB since 2001 between the ages of 18 and 59 years who were engaged in postsecondary education (full or part-time) before recorded TBI. MAIN MEASURES: Return to school, categorized as in a postsecondary setting at first follow-up (reported hours in school greater than zero at one-year follow-up). RESULTS: Using an alpha level of 0.05 binary logistic regression analysis identified four predictive variables. Significant predictors of return to school include being of lower age, possessing a higher level of functioning at discharge, reporting lower ratings of disability at discharge, and being able to use a vehicle independently for transportation. CONCLUSION: Pursuit of higher education is a viable means of community reintegration after TBI. Some individuals with TBI face a myriad of barriers and challenges when returning to school. Study findings may facilitate understanding of how TBI affects return to school and community reintegration outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Retorno à Escola , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
2.
Brain Inj ; 36(4): 544-552, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A common goal for those recovering from moderate to severe brain injury is to reengage in education or employment. There is significant overlap between the skills relevant for successful job and academic performance in high school and college, and many deficits reported after brain injury are consistent across young adults and adults. This study utilized a return to work (RTW) model framework to develop a model of return to school (RTS). METHOD: Days of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), length of stay (LOS), rehabilitation discharge Disability Rating Scale (DRS) scores, presence of pre-injury learning limitation, and educational level were used to predict RTS one-year post-injury in a student sample (N = 158, 58.8% white, 69.6% male) within the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database. RESULTS: The overall RTS rate for this sample was 62%. Logistic regression indicated that lower DRS discharge scores and being in high school pre-injury resulted in the best outcome. CONCLUSION: Results showed partial support for the translation of RTW factors to a student sample; however, results may also favor the conceptual distinction in RTS versus RTW, which are elaborated. More outreach for college students may improve awareness of disability services, thereby heightening the future return rate.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Retorno à Escola , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
3.
Can Fam Physician ; 68(3): e92-e99, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To cocreate an evidence-based resource to enable educators to support students returning to school after concussion; evaluate the usability of and users' satisfaction with the resource; understand the role of the resource in supporting students' return to school; and describe changes in concussion knowledge following a concussion education and training workshop. DESIGN: Survey during a concussion education and training workshop. SETTING: Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital in Toronto, Ont, and York Region District School Board in Richmond Hill, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six educators, of whom 64% were teachers, 11% were school administrators, 23% fulfilled other roles (eg, child and youth worker), and 2% fulfilled unspecified roles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The survey collected demographic information, usability data via the System Usability Scale, and satisfaction data. Thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. RESULTS: Participants reported the resource to be easy to use (69.6%), not complex (62.5%), and most felt confident using this resource (83.9%). Participants indicated they were satisfied with the resource (73.2%) and would use it in the future (87.5%). Some found the resource overwhelming and recommended it be summarized in a reference guide. Participants found the links, videos, and classroom accommodations or academic supports to be helpful. CONCLUSION: SCHOOLFirst is an evidence-based, user-driven resource that was created for educators to support students returning to school following concussion. Educators, health care providers, youth, and families collaborated on developing SCHOOLFirst to improve students' successful return to school following concussion. Educators were satisfied with the resource and saw opportunities to use it to support their students.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/reabilitação , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Retorno à Escola , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146805, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113163

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led many higher education institutions to close campuses during the 2020-2021 academic year. As campuses prepared for a return to in-person education, many institutions were mandating vaccines for students and considering the same for faculty and staff. Objective: To determine the association between vaccination coverage and the levels and spread of SARS-CoV-2, even in the presence of highly-transmissible variants and congregate living, at a midsized university in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series was conducted at a midsized Midwestern university during the spring 2021 semester. The university developed a saliva-based surveillance program capable of high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing and genomic sequencing with the capacity to deliver results in less than 24 hours. On April 7, 2021, the university announced a vaccine requirement for all students for the fall 2021 semester and announced the same requirement for faculty and staff on May 20, 2021. The university hosted an onsite mass vaccination clinic using the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine during April 8 to 15 and April 29 to May 6, 2021. Data were analyzed for 14 894 individuals from the university population who were tested for COVID-19 on campus from January 6 to May 20, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of saliva specimens, and variant identity was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing of viral genomes. Results: Between January 6 and May 20, 2021, the university conducted 196 185 COVID-19 tests for 14 894 individuals and identified 1603 positive cases. Within those positive cases, 950 individuals (59.3%) were male, 644 (40.2%) were female, 1426 (89.0%) were students, and 1265 (78.9%) were aged 17 to 22 years. Among the 1603 positive cases, 687 were identified via polymerase chain reaction of saliva specimens. The Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant constituted 218 of the 446 total positives sequenced (48.9%). By May 20, 2021, 10 068 of 11 091 students (90.8%), 814 of 883 faculty (92.2%), and 2081 of 2890 staff (72.0%) were vaccinated. The 7-day rolling average of positive cases peaked at 37 cases on February 17 but declined to zero by May 14, 2021. The 7-day moving average of positive cases was inversely associated with cumulative vaccination coverage, with a statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.57 (95% CI, -0.68 to -0.44). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series study elucidated the association of a robust vaccination program with a statistically significant decrease in positive COVID-19 cases among the study population even in the presence of highly transmissible variants and congregate living.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Retorno à Escola , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades , Adolescente , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Docentes , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência , Estudantes , Cobertura Vacinal , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(2): 43-54, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734268

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to generate challenges for pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and their families. As rates of COVID-19 fluctuate, new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge, and adherence to and implementation of mitigation strategies vary from community to community, questions remain about the best and safest practices to prevent COVID-19 in vulnerable patients. Notably, decisions about returning to school remain difficult. We assembled a team of specialists in pediatric infectious diseases, transplant infectious diseases, public health, transplant psychology, and infection prevention and control to re-address concerns about school re-entry, as well as COVID-19 vaccines, for pediatric SOT recipients in the United States in 2021. Based on available literature and guidance from national organizations, we generated expert statements specific to pediatric SOT recipients focused on school attendance in 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Órgãos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Pandemias , Retorno à Escola , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
6.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 37(2): 90-95, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889154

RESUMO

School-age children are not immune to COVID-19 or the pronounced and persistent symptoms associated with a long-COVID diagnosis. Students may present with a variety of symptoms affecting their physical, cognitive, and mental health. The school community should be educated on the school-based interventions and recommendations for creating an individualized safe and successful return to school plan. As we await approval for vaccinations in school-age children younger than 12 years and continue to reposition ourselves to the waves of this pandemic and new variants of the virus, understanding the medical and educational long-term effects on our students may be a long-term need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Retorno à Escola , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar , COVID-19/complicações , Criança , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes
7.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 28(1): 54.e1-54.e4, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543770

RESUMO

Although organizations such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Pediatrics have published guidelines favoring the resumption of in-person schooling during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is no specific guidance on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients' safe return to school. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pediatric HCT physician members of the Pediatric Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Consortium practicing in the United States to describe current return-to-school practices during the COVID-19 pandemic for HCT recipients. A total of 122 respondents (response rate, 30.6%) from 60 transplant centers in 32 US states completed the survey. Most of the respondents (76%) recommended that HCT recipients consider a remote or hybrid school option at this time if possible. If not possible, the respondents recommended a return to in-person school if the patient is at least 12 months post-transplantation or off immune suppression, while taking school safety measures and local COVID-19 cases into account. These results provide valuable guidance for the HCT community, patients, and caregivers on important topics to consider while making return-to-school decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Pediatria , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Retorno à Escola , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
8.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737170

RESUMO

School-aged children experienced substantial challenges to health and well-being as a result of school-building closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In hopes of supporting equitable and safe school reopening for every student across North Carolina (NC) and improving child health, researchers from Duke University and the University at North Carolina at Chapel Hill established the ABC Science Collaborative (ABCs) in July 2020. The ABCs collected data related to in-school severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission and adherence to mitigation strategies. These data were presented to NC government officials, including the NC Department of Health and Human Services, the NC Department of Public Instruction, and Democratic and Republican representatives from the NC General Assembly. These data-sharing practices led to the implementation of in-person school legislation in early 2021 in which in-person school access for every student was required, the full-time in-person reopening of NC public schools was supported, and weekly reporting to the ABCs of coronavirus disease 2019 infections from >1 000 000 children and adults was required.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Pandemias , Retorno à Escola , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Humanos , North Carolina , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737178

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to drastic public health measures, including school closures to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Reopening educational settings by using diagnostic testing approaches in schools can help accelerate the safe return of students and staff to on-site learning by quickly and accurately identifying cases, limiting the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and ultimately preventing unnecessary school and work absenteeism. Although the National Institutes of Health has identified community partnerships as the foundation for reducing health disparities, we found limited application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in school engagement. Guided by the CBPR conceptual model, we provide case studies of 2 established and long-standing school-academic partnerships built on CBPR processes and practices that have served as a research infrastructure to reach underserved children and families during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The process described in this article can serve as an initial platform to continue to build capacity toward increasing health equity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Pandemias , Retorno à Escola , Populações Vulneráveis , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Índios Norte-Americanos ou Nativos do Alasca , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737180

RESUMO

Safely returning underserved youth to school during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic through diagnostic testing and health education is imperative to mitigate the ongoing negative impact of COVID-19 and reduce health inequalities in underserved communities. The Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics-Underserved Populations program is a consortium of research projects across the United States funded by the National Institutes of Health to understand the factors associated with the disproportionate burden of the pandemic among underserved populations and to leverage mitigation strategies, including diagnostic testing, with a focus on reducing health disparities. In this article, we provide an overview and introduce the articles from 8 Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics-Underserved Populations projects featured in the supplement "Navigating a Pandemic in the K-12 Setting: Keeping Our School Communities Safe" published in Pediatrics. These projects funded in the program's first phase focus on COVID-19 diagnostic testing approaches for youth and employees at schools in underserved communities to support safe in-person learning. In the articles comprising the supplement, researchers present barriers and facilitators of the community engagement process necessary to establish school-academic partnerships. These efforts showcase school-based implementation testing strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic but are translatable to tackling other challenges related to reducing health disparities.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Retorno à Escola , Instituições Acadêmicas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 55 p.
Tese em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISACERVO, SESSP-ESPECIALIZACAOSESPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1362342

RESUMO

Introdução: Frente à declaração de situação de pandemia pelo novo coronavírus pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) em 2020, fez-se necessário a investigação acerca dos impactos na saúde infantil dado as peculiaridades significativas acerca de casos de COVID-19 em crianças, que exigem cautela. Apesar de estudos iniciais indicarem que crianças são menos acometidas pela doença em relação a adultos e que, em geral, apresentam quadros assintomáticos ou leves, a complexidade do fenômeno e as lacunas de conhecimento ainda configuram um cenário de incertezas. Com o retorno às atividades presenciais nas escolas no Brasil em 2021, é importante investigar o impacto desse fenômeno na saúde infantil, assim como identificar o perfil de crianças mais vulneráveis a fim de se construírem políticas de saúde adequadas. Objetivo: O presente trabalho busca avaliar os casos de COVID-19 em crianças de 0-9 anos no município de Franco da Rocha, São Paulo, antes e após o retorno presencial às atividades escolares. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico descritivo a partir das informações do sistema de monitoramento de casos de COVID-19 da Secretaria Municipal de Educação e da Vigilância Epidemiológica de Franco da Rocha; análise dos casos de Síndrome Gripal (Sg) e Síndrome Gripal por COVID-19 a partir do sistema de informação e-sus VE; análise dos casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (Srag) e Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave por COVID-19 a partir do sistema de informação SIVEP Gripe; análise dos casos segundo as variáveis idade, sexo e critério raça/cor; análise da qualidade dos dados segundo sua porcentagem de preenchimento nos sistemas de informação; e análise da síntese de um Diálogo Deliberativo acerca do tema com atores chave interessados. Resultados: Nas EMEBs de Franco da Rocha, 102 casos de COVID-19 foram confirmados no período analisado, sendo 5 casos em crianças, o que corresponde a 4,9% do total. No município, foram 1010 casos notificados de Sg e 117 de Sg por COVID-19, com maior número de notificações no mês de maio e junho de 2021. Os casos leves de COVID-19 foram mais frequentes em crianças brancas, do sexo feminino e menores de 1 ano de idade. A distribuição dos casos por faixa de idade indica que não houve aumento de casos com a reabertura escolar. No mesmo período, foram notificados 31 casos de Srag e 2 casos de Srag por COVID-19. Os casos graves de COVID-19 foram do sexo masculino, brancos, entre 5 a 9 anos. Não houve necessidade de internação em UTI ou óbitos infantis no período analisado. Entretanto, o preenchimento não adequado das informações dos critérios de raça/cor e classificação final da doença comprometem as análises. No Diálogo Deliberativo, frente aos resultados do estudo, foi apontada a dificuldade de tomada de decisão diante de um cenário sem precedentes na saúde, alívio frente ao não aumento expressivo dos casos de COVID-19 após a reabertura escolar e a necessidade de implementação e adaptação de medidas de mitigação da transmissão do vírus. Conclusão: A partir da análise da tendência temporal da doença em relação à reabertura das escolas no município, não foi possível identificar aumento do número de casos notificados em crianças na faixa etária que frequenta a comunidade escolar. Ressalta-se a importância do preenchimento adequado dos dados nos sistemas de informação de saúde, das estratégias de mitigação da transmissão do SARS-CoV-2 a fim de tornar o ambiente escolar seguro e a investigação do impacto da pandemia em outros aspectos psicológicos e socioeconômicos compõe uma concepção mais ampla e necessária de saúde da criança.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Retorno à Escola , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Política de Saúde
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 73 p.
Tese em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ISACERVO, SESSP-ESPECIALIZACAOSESPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1362445

RESUMO

Introdução: A COVID-19 foi inicialmente notificada em Wuhan, uma província chinesa em 2019 e espalhou-se pelo mundo até que, em 11 de março de 2020, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) a declarou como uma pandemia. A partir disso, dezenas de medidas sanitárias foram tomadas a fim de mitigar a disseminação do vírus, inclusive o fechamento das escolas para evitar a transmissão da COVID-19 na comunidade escolar. Contudo, essa medida teve consequências na saúde e desenvolvimento infantil, assim, alguns países começaram a reabertura dos estabelecimentos implementando medidas sanitárias para prevenção da COVID-19. Objetivo: Identificar estratégias para a mitigação do SARS-COV-2 na comunidade escolar no contexto do retorno das atividades presenciais. Metodologia: Foi elaborado um perfil rápido de evidências, por meio da busca nas bases de dados PubMed, BVS, Cochrane, Mcmaster, GIN, Google Scholar, Health Systems Evidence e Global research of Coronavirus Disease, utilizando-se os termos COVID19, Sars-Cov-2, Escola, Retorno à escola, Professores escolares/Docentes, Estudantes/Alunos. Para a coleta de dados os estudos encontrados foram inicialmente triados e verificados quanto a elegibilidade, de forma independente por dois avaliadores, e as divergências resolvidas por um terceiro avaliador. A seguir os trabalhos selecionados foram lidos na íntegra, os dados foram extraídos por um avaliador e checados por um segundo avaliador e divergências foram resolvidas por consenso. Os dados foram extraídos através do Planilhas Google, e analisados tendo como base as categorias presentes no modelo teórico da revisão de escopo de KRISHNARATNE et al (2020). Resultados: Foram incluídos 16 documentos (3 revisões sistemáticas, 3 perfis rápidos de evidências, 1 perfil de evidências vivo, 1 revisão de escopo e 8 Guias). Os dados coletados foram classificados em três categorias. As Medidas Organizacionais informam sobre procedimentos que devem ser implementados nos espaços e na execução de tarefas para evitar ou manter o contato seguro e as Medidas de Vigilância sobre os procedimentos a serem seguidos quando há casos suspeitos ou confirmados, com o propósito de reduzir a disseminação do vírus, dentro e fora da comunidade. Estas duas categorias estiveram presentes em 93,75% dos estudos. As Medidas Ambientais e Estruturais, presentes em 85,7%, são estratégias que indicam necessidades de mudanças físicas nos ambientes para mitigação da transmissão do vírus. Conclusão: O presente trabalho, apesar de suas limitações impostas pelo desenho de um perfil de evidências, demostrou ser relevante ao identificar as medidas sanitárias de segurança a serem implementadas nas escolas e suas principais barreiras e facilitadores a fim de garantir um retorno seguro às aulas presenciais.


Assuntos
Gestão de Desastres , Retorno à Escola , COVID-19 , Estudantes , Professores Escolares
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969678

RESUMO

We consider epidemiological modeling for the design of COVID-19 interventions in university populations, which have seen significant outbreaks during the pandemic. A central challenge is sensitivity of predictions to input parameters coupled with uncertainty about these parameters. Nearly 2 y into the pandemic, parameter uncertainty remains because of changes in vaccination efficacy, viral variants, and mask mandates, and because universities' unique characteristics hinder translation from the general population: a high fraction of young people, who have higher rates of asymptomatic infection and social contact, as well as an enhanced ability to implement behavioral and testing interventions. We describe an epidemiological model that formed the basis for Cornell University's decision to reopen for in-person instruction in fall 2020 and supported the design of an asymptomatic screening program instituted concurrently to prevent viral spread. We demonstrate how the structure of these decisions allowed risk to be minimized despite parameter uncertainty leading to an inability to make accurate point estimates and how this generalizes to other university settings. We find that once-per-week asymptomatic screening of vaccinated undergraduate students provides substantial value against the Delta variant, even if all students are vaccinated, and that more targeted testing of the most social vaccinated students provides further value.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Retorno à Escola/métodos , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Incerteza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Vacinação
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642247

RESUMO

This paper empirically examines how the opening of K-12 schools is associated with the spread of COVID-19 using county-level panel data in the United States. As preliminary evidence, our event-study analysis indicates that cases and deaths in counties with in-person or hybrid opening relative to those with remote opening substantially increased after the school opening date, especially for counties without any mask mandate for staff. Our main analysis uses a dynamic panel data model for case and death growth rates, where we control for dynamically evolving mitigation policies, past infection levels, and additive county-level and state-week "fixed" effects. This analysis shows that an increase in visits to both K-12 schools and colleges is associated with a subsequent increase in case and death growth rates. The estimates indicate that fully opening K-12 schools with in-person learning is associated with a 5 (SE = 2) percentage points increase in the growth rate of cases. We also find that the association of K-12 school visits or in-person school openings with case growth is stronger for counties that do not require staff to wear masks at schools. These findings support policies that promote masking and other precautionary measures at schools and giving vaccine priority to education workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Retorno à Escola/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Máscaras , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-07-20.
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54527

RESUMO

O objetivo desta lista de verificação é reforçar a conformidade e a adesão às medidas de saúde pública delineadas no documento recentemente atualizado Considerations for school-related public health measures in the context of COVID-19 [Considerações para medidas de saúde pública relacionadas a escolas no contexto da COVID-19], considerando-se principalmente as crianças menores de 18 anos em contextos educacionais e em escolas com recursos limitados. A lista de verificação foi elaborada de acordo com os princípios e as abordagens das escolas promotoras de saúde.7,8 Este documento destaca a importância da coordenação multinível (ou seja, nos níveis escolar, subnacional e nacional) e de abordagens participativas e cocriadas pelas várias partes interessadas (por exemplo, trabalhadores das escolas, professores, alunos e pais). Esta abordagem visa a otimizar o cumprimento das medidas sociais e de saúde pública baseadas nos contextos sociais e culturais, conforme descrito no documento Considerations for implementing and adjusting public health and social measures in the context of COVID-19 [Considerações para a implementação e ajuste de medidas sociais e de saúde pública no contexto da COVID-19].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Saúde Pública , Retorno à Escola , Instituições Acadêmicas
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