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1.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 1583-1602, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765877

RESUMO

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a persistent degenerative condition characterized by the deterioration of cartilage. The Chinese herbal formula Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata- Angelica Sinensis-Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (RAR) has often been used in effective prescriptions for KOA as the main functional drug, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, network pharmacology and verification experiments were employed to investigate the impact and mode of action of RAR in the treatment of KOA. Methods: The destabilization of the medial meniscus model (DMM) was utilized to assess the anti-KOA effect of RAR by using gait analysis, micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT), and histology. Primary chondrocytes were extracted from the rib cartilage of a newborn mouse. The protective effects of RAR on OA cells were evaluated using a CCK-8 assay. The antioxidative effect of RAR was determined by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) production. Furthermore, network pharmacology and molecular docking were utilized to propose possible RAR targets for KOA, which were further verified through experiments. Results: In vivo, RAR significantly ameliorated DMM-induced KOA characteristics, such as subchondral bone sclerosis, cartilage deterioration, gait abnormalities, and the degree of knee swelling. In vitro, RAR stimulated chondrocyte proliferation and the expression of Col2a1, Comp, and Acan. Moreover, RAR treatment significantly reduced ROS accumulation in an OA cell model induced by IL-1ß and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH). Network pharmacology analysis combined with molecular docking showed that Mapk1 might be a key therapeutic target. Subsequent research showed that RAR could downregulate Mapk1 mRNA levels in IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes and DMM-induced rats. Conclusion: RAR inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and oxidative stress response via the MAPK signaling pathway in KOA, and Mapk1 may be a core target.


Assuntos
Achyranthes , Angelica sinensis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Farmacologia em Rede , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Animais , Angelica sinensis/química , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Achyranthes/química , Rehmannia/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118272, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710459

RESUMO

HEADINGS ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (RRP), a staple in traditional Chinese medicine, is derived from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and is renowned for its wound-healing properties. Despite its clinical prevalence, the molecular mechanisms underlying RRP's wound-healing effects have not been fully elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research endeavored to delineate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of RRP on wound healing, utilizing a zebrafish model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zebrafish larvae at 3 days post-fertilization were amputated at the fin and subsequently treated with RRP. The pro-wound healing and regenerative effects of RRP were evaluated through morphological analysis, assessment of cell proliferation and apoptosis, Additionally, mechanistic insights were gained through a comprehensive approach encompassing network pharmacology analysis, cell tracing, RNA-sequencing, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, and pharmacological inhibition. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrate that RRP significantly accelerates caudal fin regeneration in zebrafish following injury by suppressing cell apoptosis, promoting cell proliferation, and upregulating the expression of regenerative-related genes. Furthermore, RRP triggers autophagy signals during the regenerative process, which is attenuated by the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ). Notably, the administration of RRP enhances the expression of ahr1 and ahr2 in the regenerating fin. Genetic knockout of ahr1a, ahr1b, or ahr2 using CRISPR/Cas9, or pharmacological blockade of AHR signals with the antagonist CH-223191, diminishes the regenerative potential of RRP. Remarkably, zebrafish lacking ahr2 completely lose their fin regeneration ability. Additionally, inhibition of AHR signaling suppresses autophagy signaling during fin regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovers that RRP stimulates fin regeneration in zebrafish by inducing AHR signals and, at least partially, activating the autophagy process. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the wound-healing effects of RRP and may pave the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Autofagia , Proliferação de Células , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Regeneração , Rehmannia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nadadeiras de Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Rehmannia/química , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas
3.
Phytomedicine ; 129: 155510, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression and are a therapeutic target via maintaining the homeostasis of the host through the gut microbiota-brain axis (GMBA). A co-decoction of Lilii bulbus and Radix Rehmannia Recens (LBRD), in which verbascoside is the key active ingredient, improves brain and gastrointestinal function in patients with depression. However, in depression treatment using verbascoside or LBRD, mechanisms underlying the bidirectional communication between the intestine and brain via the GMBA are still unclear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the role of verbascoside in alleviating depression via gut-brain bidirectional communication and to study the possible pathways involved in the GMBA. METHODS: Key molecules and compounds involved in antidepressant action were identified using HPLC and transcriptomic analyses. The antidepressant effects of LBRD and verbascoside were observed in chronic stress induced depression model by behavioural test, neuronal morphology, and synaptic dendrite ultrastructure, and their neuroprotective function was measured in corticosterone (CORT)-stimulated nerve cell injury model. The causal link between the gut microbiota and the LBRD and verbascoside antidepressant efficacy was evaluate via gut microbiota composition analysis and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). RESULTS: LBRD and Verbascoside administration ameliorated depression-like behaviours and synaptic damage by reversing gut microbiota disturbance and inhibiting inflammatory responses as the result of impaired intestinal permeability or blood-brain barrier leakiness. Furthermore, verbascoside exerted neuroprotective effects against CORT-induced cytotoxicity in an in vitro depression model. FMT therapy indicated that verbascoside treatment attenuated gut inflammation and central nervous system inflammatory responses, as well as eliminated neurotransmitter and brain-gut peptide deficiencies in the prefrontal cortex by modulating the composition of gut microbiota. Lactobacillus, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Ruminococcus might play key roles in the antidepressant effects of LBRD via the GMBA. CONCLUSION: The current study elucidates the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway therapeutic effects of LBRD on depression by remodeling GMBA homeostasis and further verifies the causality between gut microbiota and the antidepressant effects of verbascoside and LBRD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Depressão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucosídeos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Fenóis , Rehmannia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Rehmannia/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Função da Barreira Intestinal , Polifenóis
4.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 26(7): 780-787, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560992

RESUMO

Two new iridoid glycosides, piasezkiiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from aqueous extract of the whole plant of Rehmannia piasezkii. Their structures were established from the spectroscopic data, chemical transformation, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 exhibited weak hepatoprotective activity against APAP-induced HepG2 cell damage.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Iridoides , Rehmannia , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Iridoides/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Células Hep G2 , Estrutura Molecular , Rehmannia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação
5.
Fitoterapia ; 175: 105960, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621426

RESUMO

Five undescribed eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, remophilanetriols E-I (1-5), along with seven known compounds (6-12) were isolated from the fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic data analysis and their absolute configurations were determined by comparing their calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and experimental ECD spectra. The anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities of all compounds were evaluated in vitro by MTT methods, and compounds 2, 8, 10, and 12 exhibited excellent anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities. In addition, compound 2 can reduce the levels of ROS and apoptosis in TGF-ß1-induced BEAS-2B cells.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos , Raízes de Plantas , Rehmannia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Rehmannia/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , China , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química
6.
Fitoterapia ; 175: 105968, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636908

RESUMO

Ten new cyclopentanoid monoterpenes (1-10) were isolated from the whole plant of Rehmannia piasezkii. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis. In in-vitro assays, compounds 3, 7, and 9 exhibited weak hepatoprotective activities against APAP-induced HepG2 cell damage. Compound 9 exhibited protective effect on hapassocin carbon tetrachloride model.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Rehmannia , Rehmannia/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Células Hep G2 , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/isolamento & purificação , China
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(17): 10106-10116, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629120

RESUMO

The authentication of ingredients in formulas is crucial yet challenging, particularly for constituents with comparable compositions but vastly divergent efficacy. Rehmanniae Radix and its derivatives are extensively utilized in food supplements, which contain analogous compositions but very distinct effects. Rehmanniae Radix, also a difficult-to-detect herbal ingredient, was chosen as a case to explore a novel HPTLC-QDa MS technique for the identification of herbal ingredients in commercial products. Through systematic condition optimization, including thin layer and mass spectrometry, a stable and reproducible HPTLC-QDa MS method was established, which can simultaneously detect oligosaccharides and iridoids. Rehmannia Radix and its processed products were then analyzed to screen five markers that could distinguish between raw and prepared Rehmannia Radix. An HPTLC-QDa-SIM method was further established for formula detection by using the five markers and validated using homemade prescriptions and negative controls. Finally, this method was applied to detect raw and prepared Rehmannia Radix in 12 commercial functional products and supplements.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Rehmannia , Rehmannia/química , Cromatografia em Camada Fina/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/química , Iridoides/análise , Iridoides/química
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(2): 125-132, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514261

RESUMO

Objective: To study the curative effect of rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside capsules and the role of mitochondrial autophagy on nucleos(t)ide drug-induced renal injury. Methods: Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) was used to construct a hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mouse model for renal injury. Renal function was measured in each group at one and two weeks of modeling. Mitochondrial autophagy indicators were measured at two weeks of modeling in renal tissue. Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect mitochondrial autophagy phenomena in renal tissue. The model was established for two weeks. Mouse with renal injury were treated with rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside capsules or isotonic saline for eight weeks by intragastric administration. Renal function was measured. Renal tissue morphology was observed. Mitochondrial autophagy indicators were detected in renal tissue. The protective effect of different concentrations of verbascoside (the main active ingredient of rehmannia glutinosa capsule) was observed on HK-2 cell damage induced by ADV. HK-2 cells were divided into control, ADV, and ADV plus verbascoside groups. The effects of verbascoside at different times and concentrations were observed on the HK-2 mitochondrial autophagy indicators. Fifty patients with chronic hepatitis B were collected who presented with renal injury after treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogs. The random number method was used to divide 29 cases into a control group that received conventional treatment. The treatment group of 21 cases was treated with rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside capsules on the basis of the control group. Serum creatinine (Scr) and urinary protein were detected at eight weeks.The χ(2) test or t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Compared with the control group, two weeks of modeling in the ADV group induced renal function injury in HBV mice. The expression of autophagy indicators was higher in the renal tissue of the ADV group than that of the control group. Transmission electron microscopy had revealed mitochondrial autophagy in the renal tissue of the ADV group. Compared with the control group, the renal function of HBV mice treated with rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside capsules improved for two months, and the expressions of autophagy indicators were down-regulated.Verbascoside promoted proliferation in ADV-damaged HK-2 cells, and the expression of autophagy indicators was down-regulated compared with the ADV alone group. In 50 patients with renal function injury, the urinary protein improvement was significantly superior in the treatment group than that in the control group, with eighteen and three cases being effective and ineffective in the treatment group and 12 and 17 cases being effective and ineffective in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (χ(2) = 9.975 0, P = 0.001 6). Serum creatinine was decreased in the treatment group compared with the control group, with 11 and 10 cases being effective and ineffective in the treatment group and 12 and 17 cases being effective and ineffective in the control group, with no statistically significant difference (χ(2) = 0.593 5, P = 0.441 1). Conclusion: Rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside capsule can improve the nucleos(t)ide drug-induced renal function injury in chronic hepatitis B, possibly playing a role via inhibiting PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial autophagy.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Hepatite B Crônica , Polifenóis , Rehmannia , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Creatinina , Vírus da Hepatite B , Rim , Autofagia
9.
Phytomedicine ; 128: 155362, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Currently, there is a lack of clinically effective treatments for the brain damage following ischemic stroke. Catalpol is a bioactive compound derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Rehmannia glutinosa and shown to be protective in various neurological diseases. However, the potential roles of catalpol against ischemic stroke are still not completely clear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to further elucidate the protective effects of catalpol against ischemic stroke. METHODS: A rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model was established to assess the effect of catalpol in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Behavioral tests were used to examine the effects of catalpol on neurological function of ischemic rats. Immunostaining was performed to evaluate the proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) as well as the angiogenesis in each group. The protein level of related molecules was detected by western-blot. The effects of catalpol on cultured NSCs as well as brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) subjected to OGD in vitro were also examined by similar methods. RESULTS: Catalpol attenuated the neurological deficits and improved neurological function of ischemic rats. It stimulated the proliferation of NSCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ), promoted their migration to the ischemic cortex and differentiation into neurons or glial cells. At the same time, catalpol increased the cerebral vessels density and the number of proliferating cerebrovascular endothelial cells in the infracted cortex of ischemic rats. The level of SDF-1α and CXCR4 in the ischemic cortex was found to be enhanced by catalpol treatment. Catalpol was also shown to promote the proliferation and migration of cultured NSCs as well as the proliferation of BMECs subjected to OGD insult in vitro. Interestingly, the impact of catalpol on cultured cells was inhibited by CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100. Moreover, the culture medium of BMECs containing catalpol promoted the proliferation of NSCs, which was also suppressed by AMD3100. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that catalpol exerts neuroprotective effects by promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis via the SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway, suggesting the therapeutic potential of catalpol in treating cerebral ischemia.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12 , Glucosídeos Iridoides , AVC Isquêmico , Neurogênese , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores CXCR4 , Rehmannia , Animais , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Masculino , Rehmannia/química , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Angiogênese
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(2)2024 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397145

RESUMO

Rehmannia glutinosa, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. The main bioactive component of R. glutinosa is catalpol. However, the biogenesis of catalpol, especially its downstream pathway, remains unclear. To identify candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of catalpol, transcriptomes were constructed from R. glutinosa using the young leaves of three cultivars, Beijing No. 3, Huaifeng, and Jin No. 9, as well as the tuberous roots and adventitious roots of the Jin No. 9 cultivar. As a result, 71,142 unigenes with functional annotations were generated. A comparative analysis of the R. glutinosa transcriptomes identified over 200 unigenes of 13 enzymes potentially involved in the downstream steps of catalpol formation, including 9 genes encoding UGTs, 13 for aldehyde dehydrogenases, 70 for oxidoreductases, 44 for CYP450s, 22 for dehydratases, 30 for decarboxylases, 19 for hydroxylases, and 10 for epoxidases. Moreover, two novel genes encoding geraniol synthase (RgGES), which is the first committed enzyme in catalpol production, were cloned from R. glutinosa. The purified recombinant proteins of RgGESs effectively converted GPP to geraniol. This study is the first to discover putative genes coding the tailoring enzymes mentioned above in catalpol biosynthesis, and functionally characterize the enzyme-coding gene in this pathway in R. glutinosa. The results enrich genetic resources for engineering the biosynthetic pathway of catalpol and iridoids.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Plantas Medicinais , Rehmannia , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Rehmannia/genética , Rehmannia/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
11.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338449

RESUMO

Radix Rehmanniae (RR), a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) widely employed in nourishing Yin and invigorating the kidney, has three common processing forms in clinical practice, including fresh Radix Rehmanniae (FRR), raw Radix Rehmanniae (RRR), and processed Radix Rehmanniae (PRR). However, until now, there has been less exploration of the dynamic variations in the characteristic constituents and degradation products of catalpol as a representative iridoid glycoside with the highest content in RR during the process from FRR to PRR. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) method was successfully established for the simultaneous determination of ten characteristic components to explore their dynamic variations in different processed products of RR. Among them, iridoid glycosides, especially catalpol, exhibited a sharp decrease from RRR to PRR. Then, three degradation products of catalpol were detected under simulated processing conditions (100 °C, pH 4.8 acetate buffer solution), which were isolated and identified as jiofuraldehyde, cataldehyde, and norviburtinal, respectively. Cataldehyde was first reported as a new compound. Moreover, the specificity of norviburtinal in self-made PRR samples was discovered and validated, which was further confirmed by testing in commercially available PRR samples. In conclusion, our study revealed the decrease in iridoid glycosides and the production of new degradation substances during the process from FRR to PRR, which is critical for unveiling the processing mechanism of RR.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Extratos Vegetais , Rehmannia , Terpenos , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Rehmannia/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(1)2024 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254987

RESUMO

Rehmannia chingii is an important medicinal plant with immense value in scientific research. However, its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) has not yet been characterized. Herein, based on whole-genome Illumina short reads and PacBio HiFi reads, we obtained the complete mitogenome of R. chingii through a de novo assembly strategy. We carried out comparative genomic analyses and found that, in comparison with the plastid genome (plastome) showing a high degree of structural conservation, the R. chingii mitogenome structure is relatively complex, showing an intricate ring structure with 16 connections, owing to five repetitive sequences. The R. chingii mitogenome was 783,161 bp with a GC content of 44.8% and contained 77 genes, comprising 47 protein-coding genes (CDS), 27 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. We counted 579 RNA editing events in 47 CDS and 12,828 codons in all CDSs of the R. chingii mitogenome. Furthermore, 24 unique sequence transfer fragments were found between the mitogenome and plastome, comprising 8 mitogenome CDS genes and 16 plastome CDS genes, corresponding to 2.39% of the R. chingii mitogenome. Mitogenomes had shorter but more collinear regions, evidenced by a comparison of the organelles of non-parasitic R. chingii, hemiparasitic Pedicularis chinensis, and holoparasitic Aeginetia indica in the Orobanchaceae family. Moreover, from non-parasitic to holoparasitic species, the genome size in the mitogenomes of Orobanchaceae species did not decrease gradually. Instead, the smallest mitogenome was found in the hemiparasitic species P. chinensis, with a size of 225,612 bp. The findings fill the gap in the mitogenome research of the medicinal plant R. chingii, promote the progress of the organelle genome research of the Orobanchaceae family, and provide clues for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico , Doenças Musculares , Orobanchaceae , Rehmannia , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 261(Pt 2): 129813, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286367

RESUMO

Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) has been reported to exhibit anti-anxiety effects, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Chronic constant light (CCL) induced cognitive dysfunction associated with oxidative stress in mice has been reported. Here, the neuroprotective effect of RGP on hippocampal neuron damage in CCL-treated mice was investigated. In vivo study, mice were subjected to CCL for 4 weeks and/or oral administration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg RGP every other day. In vitro experiment, hippocampal neuron cells (HT-22) was exposed to LED light and/or supplemented with 62.5, 125 and 250 µg/mL RGP. Mice exposed to CCL showed impaired cognitive and depressive-like behavior in the hippocampus, which were reversed by RGP. Meanwhile, RGP reversed light-induced oxidative stress and autophagy both in mice and hippocampal neuron cells (HT-22). Furthermore, compared with Light-exposed group, RGP treatment activated the AKT/mTOR pathway. Importantly, the AKT inhibitor Perifosine significantly weakened the neuroprotective of RGP on Light-induced oxidative stress and autophagy in HT-22 cells by inhibiting AKT/mTOR pathway and increasing the content of autophagy-related protein. Our data demonstrated, for the first time, that oxidative stress and the AKT/mTOR pathway plays a critical role in Light-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death in mice and HT-22 cells.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Rehmannia , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Rehmannia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Autofagia , Hipocampo/metabolismo
14.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 26(2): 280-292, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36877100

RESUMO

Seven new pentasaccharides (1-7), rehmaglupentasaccharides A-G, were isolated from the air-dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Their structures were established from the spectroscopic data obtained and by chemical evidence. The known verbascose (8) and stachyose (9) were also obtained in the current investigation, and the structure of stachyose was unequivocally defined using X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-9 were tested for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines, influence on dopamine receptor activation, and proliferation effects against Lactobacillus reuteri.


Assuntos
Rehmannia , Humanos , Rehmannia/química , Linhagem Celular , Raízes de Plantas/química
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 153(2): 401-410, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37159915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flaps are commonly used for repairing tissues and wounds in surgery. However, various factors can cause postoperative necrosis in these flaps. Catalpol is a bioactive component in extracts from Rehmannia glutinosa , which has pharmacologic characteristics that may improve flap survival. METHODS: The experiments were performed in 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into three groups: control, low-dose catalpol, and high-dose catalpol. The flap survival rate, neutrophil density, microvessel density, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde levels were measured; histopathologic analysis was performed 7 days after surgery. Blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and lead oxide-gelatin angiography. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nod-like receptor 3, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1), IL-1ß, and IL-18 were determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Catalpol treatment increased flap survival, reduced neutrophil recruitment and release, decreased malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase levels; thus, it effectively reduced oxidative stress, up-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, and increased microvessel density. Laser Doppler flowmetry and lead oxide-gelatin angiography showed that catalpol treatment improved angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that catalpol inhibited the production of inflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6, by down-regulating toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor-κB. Furthermore, catalpol reduced cell pyroptosis by inhibiting the production of nod-like receptor 3 inflammasomes, thereby down-regulating the release of IL-1ß and IL-18. CONCLUSION: Catalpol can improve the rate of flap survival. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: The research verified that the Rehmannia extract catalpol, through angiogenesis, inflammatory response, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and pyroptosis-related pathways, effectively improved the flap survival rate, which will provide new ideas for clinical medication.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos Iridoides , Chumbo , Óxidos , Rehmannia , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Rehmannia/metabolismo , Interleucina-18 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Gelatina , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Malondialdeído , Proteínas NLR , Superóxido Dismutase
16.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 26(3): 293-301, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37162445

RESUMO

Four new iridoid glycosides (1-4), rehmaglutosides L-O, were isolated from the air-dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Their structures were established from the spectroscopic data obtained and by chemical evidence. The known mellittoside (5) and ajugol (6) were also obtained in the current investigation, and the structure of mellittoside was unequivocally defined using X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-6 were tested for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines and proliferation effects on Lactobacillus Reuteri.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos , Rehmannia , Humanos , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Rehmannia/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 8): 127647, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37884235

RESUMO

Aging is a degenerative progress, accompanied by oxidative damage, metabolic disorders and intestinal flora imbalance. Natural macromolecular polysaccharides have shown excellent anti-aging and antioxidant properties, while maintaining metabolic and intestinal homeostasis. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, infrared spectrum and other chemical structure information of four Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides (RG50, RG70, RG90, RGB) were determined, and their free radical scavenging ability was assessed. Molecular weight and monosaccharide composition analysis exhibited that RG50 (2-72 kDa), RG70 (3.2-37 kDa), RG70 (3-42 kDa), and RGB (3.1-180 kDa) were heteropolysaccharide with significant different monosaccharide species and molar ratios. We found that RG70 had the best antioxidant activity in vitro and RG70 could enhance the antioxidant enzyme system of Caenorhabditis elegans, diminished lipofuscin and reactive oxygen species levels, up-regulate the expression of daf-16, skn-1 and their downstream genes, and down-regulate the expression of age-1. Metabolomics results showed that RG70 mainly influenced glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and citric acid cycle. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that RG70 significantly up-regulated the abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4B4_group, which were positively correlated with amino acid metabolism and energy cycling. These results suggest that RG70 may delay aging by enhancing antioxidant effects, affecting probiotics and regulating key metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rehmannia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Rehmannia/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Envelhecimento , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 463, 2023 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rehmannia glutinosa is a rich source of terpenoids with a high medicinal reputation. The present study compared dedifferentiated cells (DDCs) and cambial meristematic cells (CMCs) cell cultures of R. glutinosa for terpenoid (catalpol) and indole alkaloid (IA) biosynthesis. In this regard, we used widely targeted metabolomics and transcriptome sequencing approaches together with the comparison of cell morphology, cell death (%), and catalpol production at different time points. RESULTS: We were able to identify CMCs based on their morphology and hypersensitivity to zeocin. CMCs showed higher dry weight content and better catalpol production compared to DDCs. The metabolome analysis revealed higher concentrations of IA, terpenoids, and catalpol in CMCs compared to DDCs. The transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that a total of 27,201 genes enriched in 139 pathways were differentially expressed. The higher catalpol concentration in CMCs is related to the expression changes in genes involved in acetyl-CoA and geranyl-PP biosynthesis, which are precursors for monoterpenoid biosynthesis. Moreover, the expressions of the four primary genes involved in monoterpenoid biosynthesis (NMD, CYP76A26, UGT6, and CYP76F14), along with a squalene monooxygenase, exhibit a strong association with the distinct catalpol biosynthesis. Contrarily, expression changes in AADC, STR, and RBG genes were consistent with the IA biosynthesis. Finally, we discussed the phytohormone signaling and transcription factors in relation to observed changes in metabolome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study provides novel data for improving the catalpol and IA biosynthesis in R. glutinosa.


Assuntos
Rehmannia , Rehmannia/genética , Rehmannia/metabolismo , Meristema/metabolismo , Glucosídeos Iridoides/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 168: 115809, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907043

RESUMO

The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Rehmanniae Radix (RR) refers to the fresh or dried root tuber of the plant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch of the family Scrophulariaceae. As a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), it possesses multiple effects, including analgesia, sedation, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-tumor, immunomodulation, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulation, and nerve damage repair, and it has been widely used in clinical practice. In recent years, scientists have extensively studied the active components and pharmacological effects of RR. Active ingredients mainly include iridoid glycosides (such as catalpol and aucuboside), phenylpropanoid glycosides (such as acteoside), other saccharides, and unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the Chinese patent medicine (CPM) and Chinese decoction related to RR have also become major research subjects for TCM practitioners; one example is the Bolus of Six Drugs, which includes Rehmannia, Lily Bulb and Rehmannia Decoction, and Siwu Decoction. This article reviews recent literature on RR; summarizes the studies on its chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, and clinical applications; and analyzes the progress and limitations of current investigations to provide reference for further exploration and development of RR.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Rehmannia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos Iridoides
20.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 37(22): e9635, 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817339

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Currently, research on oligosaccharides primarily focuses on the physiological activity and function, with a few studies elaborating on the spatial distribution characterization and variation in the processing of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Thus, imaging the spatial distributions and dynamic changes in oligosaccharides during the steaming process is significant for characterizing the metabolic networks of R. glutinosa. It will be beneficial to characterize the impact of steaming on the active ingredients and distribution patterns in different parts of the plant. METHODS: A highly sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry image (MALDI-MSI) method was used to visualize the spatial distribution of oligosaccharides in processed R. glutinosa. Furthermore, machine learning was used to distinguish the processed R. glutinosa samples obtained under different steaming conditions. RESULTS: Imaging results showed that the oligosaccharides in the fresh R. glutinosa were mainly distributed in the cortex and xylem. As steaming progressed, the tetra- and pentasaccharides were hydrolyzed and diffused gradually into the tissue section. MALDI-MS profiling combined with machine learning was used to identify the processed R. glutinosa samples accurately at different steaming intervals. Eight algorithms were used to build classification machine learning models, which were evaluated for accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. The linear discriminant analysis and random forest models performed the best, with prediction accuracies of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively, and thus can be considered for identifying the steaming durations of R. glutinosa. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-MSI combined with machine learning can be used to visualize the distribution of oligosaccharides and identify the processed samples after steaming for different durations. This can enhance our understanding of the metabolic changes that occur during the steaming process of R. glutinosa; meanwhile, it is expected to provide a theoretical reference for the standardization and modernization of processing in the field of medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Rehmannia , Rafinose , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Rehmannia/química , Oligossacarídeos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Lasers
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