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2.
Vet Rec ; 190(9): 343, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521859
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e054062, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and predictors of morally injurious events (MIEs) and post-traumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) in UK health and social care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: September-October 2020 in the UK. Online survey hosted on Qualtrics, and recruited through Prolific. PARTICIPANTS: 400 health and social care workers, aged 18 or above and living and working in the UK during the pandemic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MIEs were assessed using the Moral Injury Events Scale and PTED was assessed using the PTED self-rating scale. Potential predictors were measured using surveys of exposure to occupational stressors, optimism, self-esteem, resilient coping style, consideration of future consequences and personal belief in a just world. RESULTS: 19% of participants displayed clinical levels of PTED, and 73% experienced at least one COVID-related MIE. Exposure to occupational stressors increased the risk of experiencing PTED and MIEs, whereas personal belief in a procedurally just world, which is the belief that they experienced fair processes, was a protective mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: MIEs and PTED are being experienced by UK health and social care professionals, particularly in those exposed to work-related stressors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e057467, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare students have played a significant role in the National Health Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. We captured data on the well-being of medical students during the acute phase of the pandemic with the Social and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on medical students: a national survey Evaluation (SPICE-19) study. We will evaluate changes in mental health and well-being of medical and nursing students 1 year after SPICE-19, in a cross-sectional study, to understand the impact of the pandemic, and inform well-being policies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be a national, multi-institution, cross-discipline study. An online 53-item survey of demographics, mental health and well-being will be used to record responses. Students studying for a medical or nursing degree at any UK universities will be eligible to participate. The survey will be advertised through the Neurology and Neurosurgery Interest Group national network. Participation is anonymous and voluntary, with relevant mental health resources made available to participants. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by the University of Oxford Central University Research Ethics Committee (R75719/RE001) on 21 May 2021. Study findings will be presented at national and international meetings, and submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 118, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting restrictions placed upon society have had a profound impact on both physical and mental health, particularly for young people. AIMS: The current study assesses the impact of COVID-19 on student mental health. METHOD: Four hundred and thirty four first year Undergraduate students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires (PHQ-P, GAD-7 and SAS-SV) to assess for depression, anxiety and mobile phone addiction respectively with data being collected over a 2 year period. The data from each year was compared (216 and 218 students respectively). RESULTS: A MANOVA revealed that COVID-19 had a significant impact on self-reported levels of depression, anxiety and smartphone addiction-which all significantly increased from the 2020 to the 2021 group. The percentage of students who had a score which warranted a classification of clinical depression increased from 30 to 44%, and for anxiety increased from 22 to 27%-those students who showed a comorbidity across the two rose from 12 to 21%. Smartphone addiction levels rose from 39 to 50%. Correlational analysis showed a significant relationship between Smartphone usage and depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that COVID-19 has had a major impact upon student mental health, and smartphone addiction. The importance of identifying predictive factors of depression and anxiety is emphasised, and suggestions for intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051736, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence on the associations between socioeconomic position and young people's physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the UK. DESIGN: Scoping review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were searched for articles published up to and including January 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Observational studies in children and adolescents (aged 5-18 years) from the UK that had assessed associations between at least one indicator of socioeconomic position and at least one outcome of physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by one reviewer and 20% were double checked. Indicators of socioeconomic position were tabulated with domains of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. RESULTS: Fifty-seven publications were included in the review; 37 publications from 19 studies (k=23) of children and 21 publications from 15 studies (k=23) of adolescents. Most studies were cross-sectional. 63% of studies of children, and 40% of studies of adolescents assessed Index of Multiple Deprivation. Eighteen studies measured physical activity in children, 13 measured sedentary behaviour. Eleven studies of adolescents included a measure of physical activity, 10 included a measure of sedentary behaviour. Among children and adolescents, the association between socioeconomic position and measures of either physical activity or sedentary behaviour was highly variable depending on the measure of both socioeconomic position used and the behavioural outcome, with the exception of higher family affluence which was consistently associated with higher reported physical activity among adolescents. CONCLUSION: Physical activity and sedentary behaviours of children and adolescents in the UK are complex and influenced by multiple indicators of socioeconomic position that are, in most cases, different across age stages, outcomes examined and measurement tools. Greater consistency in the use and measures of socioeconomic position as well as outcomes of behaviour are required for robust country-specific meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e061076, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the differences between women and men in the probability of entrapment, frequency of injury and outcomes following a motor vehicle collision. Publishing sex-disaggregated data, understanding differential patterns and exploring the reasons for these will assist with ensuring equity of outcomes especially in respect to triage, rescue and treatment of all patients. DESIGN: We examined data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) registry to explore sex differences in entrapment, injuries and outcomes. We explored the relationship between age, sex and trapped status using multivariate logistical regression. SETTING: TARN is a UK-based trauma registry covering England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: We examined data for 450 357 patients submitted to TARN during the study period (2012-2019), of which 70 027 met the inclusion criteria. There were 18 175 (26%) female and 51 852 (74%) male patients. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We report difference in entrapment status, injury and outcome between female and male patients. For trapped patients, we examined the effect of sex and age on death from any cause. RESULTS: Female patients were more frequently trapped than male patients (female patients (F) 15.8%, male patients (M) 9.4%; p<0.0001). Trapped male patients more frequently suffered head (M 1318 (27.0%), F 578 (20.1%)), face, (M 46 (0.9%), F 6 (0.2%)), thoracic (M 2721 (55.8%), F 1438 (49.9%)) and limb injuries (M 1744 (35.8%), F 778 (27.0%); all p<0.0001). Female patients had more injuries to the pelvis (F 420 (14.6%), M 475 (9.7%); p<0.0001) and spine (F 359 (12.5%), M 485 (9.9%); p=0.001). Following adjustment for the interaction between age and sex, injury severity score, Glasgow Coma Scale and the Charlson Comorbidity Index, no difference in mortality was found between female and male patients. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences between female and male patients in the frequency at which patients are trapped and the injuries these patients sustain. This sex-disaggregated data may help vehicle manufacturers, road safety organisations and emergency services to tailor responses with the aim of equitable outcomes by targeting equal performance of safety measures and reducing excessive risk to one sex or gender.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Veículos Automotores , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 21, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the association of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with dementia differs by sex remains unclear, and the role of socioeconomic, lifestyle, genetic, and medical factors in their association is unknown. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort study of 502,649 individuals. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and women-to-men ratio of HRs (RHR) for the association between CVD (coronary heart diseases (CHD), stroke, and heart failure) and incident dementia (all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VD)). The moderator roles of socioeconomic (education, income), lifestyle (smoking, BMI, leisure activities, and physical activity), genetic factors (APOE allele status), and medical history were also analyzed. RESULTS: Compared to people who did not experience a CVD event, the HRs (95%CI) between CVD and all-cause dementia were higher in women compared to men, with an RHR (Female/Male) of 1.20 (1.13, 1.28). Specifically, the HRs for AD were higher in women with CHD and heart failure compared to men, with an RHR (95%CI) of 1.63 (1.39, 1.91) and 1.32 (1.07, 1.62) respectively. The HRs for VD were higher in men with heart failure than women, with RHR (95%CI) of 0.73 (0.57, 0.93). An interaction effect was observed between socioeconomic, lifestyle, genetic factors, and medical history in the sex-specific association between CVD and dementia. CONCLUSION: Women with CVD were 1.5 times more likely to experience AD than men, while had 15% lower risk of having VD than men.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Demência , Fatores Sexuais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/classificação , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 159, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective targeted prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) depends on accurate prediction of disease risk. We assessed the role of metabolomic profiling in improving T2D risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors. METHODS: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic profiling was undertaken on baseline plasma samples in 65,684 UK Biobank participants without diabetes and not taking lipid-lowering medication. Among a subset of 50,519 participants with data available on all relevant co-variates (sociodemographic characteristics, parental history of diabetes, lifestyle-including dietary-factors, anthropometric measures and fasting time), Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios for the associations of 143 individual metabolic biomarkers (including lipids, lipoproteins, fatty acids, amino acids, ketone bodies and other low molecular weight metabolic biomarkers) and 11 metabolic biomarker principal components (PCs) (accounting for 90% of the total variance in individual biomarkers) with incident T2D. These 11 PCs were added to established models for T2D risk prediction among the full study population, and measures of risk discrimination (c-statistic) and reclassification (continuous net reclassification improvement [NRI], integrated discrimination index [IDI]) were assessed. RESULTS: During median 11.9 (IQR 11.1-12.6) years' follow-up, after accounting for multiple testing, 90 metabolic biomarkers showed independent associations with T2D risk among 50,519 participants (1211 incident T2D cases) and 76 showed associations after additional adjustment for HbA1c (false discovery rate controlled p < 0.01). Overall, 8 metabolic biomarker PCs were independently associated with T2D. Among the full study population of 65,684 participants, of whom 1719 developed T2D, addition of PCs to an established risk prediction model, including age, sex, parental history of diabetes, body mass index and HbA1c, improved T2D risk prediction as assessed by the c-statistic (increased from 0.802 [95% CI 0.791-0.812] to 0.830 [0.822-0.841]), continuous NRI (0.44 [0.38-0.49]) and relative (15.0% [10.5-20.4%]) and absolute (1.5 [1.0-1.9]) IDI. More modest improvements were observed when metabolic biomarker PCs were added to a more comprehensive established T2D risk prediction model additionally including waist circumference, blood pressure and plasma lipid concentrations (c-statistic, 0.829 [0.819-0.838] to 0.837 [0.831-0.848]; continuous NRI, 0.22 [0.17-0.28]; relative IDI, 6.3% [4.1-9.8%]; absolute IDI, 0.7 [0.4-1.1]). CONCLUSIONS: When added to conventional risk factors, circulating NMR-based metabolic biomarkers modestly enhanced T2D risk prediction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lipoproteínas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 83(4): 1-7, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most international medical graduates obtain a non-training job, such as a trust grade role, when they first start work in the UK. This transition into a new healthcare system comes with many sociocultural and educational challenges. The aim of this study was to learn more about the different types of challenges and propose solutions where possible. METHOD: Qualitative data from a cohort of current or previous trust grade international medical graduates were collected at a UK teaching hospital. This was achieved through the use of questionnaires, interviews and obtaining views through a monthly forum meeting. RESULTS: Findings showed that participants lacked insight into the system and lacked clarity in relation to the role of a supervisor, career pathways, and medicolegal and ethical issues. Discrepancies in study budgets and study leave days, compared to those available to doctors in trainee posts was another issue that was raised. Communication in complex clinical scenarios was also reported to be an issue for many participants. Suggested solutions included a tailored online induction for international medical graduates in trust grade roles and a setting up a buddy system with existing or previous trust grade doctors. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the challenges faced by international medical graduates in trust grade roles and proposed solutions where possible. Although responses varied, educational barriers were the most widely highlighted concern. To understand the full extent of these hurdles, perceptions of other healthcare professionals should be explored.


Assuntos
Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros , Confiança , Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Reino Unido
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7280, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508678

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that there are social inequalities in multimorbidity, with a recent review indicating that area levels of deprivation are consistently associated with greater levels of multimorbidity. Definitions of multimorbidity, the most common of which is the co-occurrence of more than one long term condition, can include long term physical conditions, mental health conditions or both. The most commonly used measure of deprivation in England and Wales is the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), an index of seven different deprivation domains. It is unclear which features of IMD may be mediating associations with multimorbidity. Thus, there may be associations because of the individual characteristics of those living in deprived areas, characteristics of the areas themselves or overlap in definitions. Data from over 25,000 participants (aged 16+) of Understanding Society (Wave 10, 1/2018-3/2020) were used to understand the most salient features of multimorbidity associated with IMD and whether physical or mental conditions are differentially associated with the seven domains of IMD. 24% of participants report multimorbidity. There is an increased prevalence of multimorbidity composed of only long-term physical conditions in the most deprived decile of deprivation (22%, 95% CI[19,25]) compared to the least deprived decile (16%, 95% CI[14,18]). Mental health symptoms but not reporting of conditions vary by decile of IMD. Associations with multimorbidity are limited to the health, income, education and employment domains of IMD. We conclude that multimorbidity represents a substantial population burden, particularly in the most deprived areas in England and Wales.


Assuntos
Renda , Multimorbidade , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 143, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of adiposity with prostate cancer specific mortality remains unclear. We examined how adiposity relates to fatal prostate cancer and described the cross-sectional associations of commonly used adiposity measurements with adiposity estimated by imaging in UK Biobank. We also conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to integrate the new data with existing prospective evidence. METHODS: 218,237 men from UK Biobank who were free from cancer at baseline were included. Body mass index (BMI), total body fat percentage (using bioimpedance), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were collected at recruitment. Risk of dying from prostate cancer (primary cause) by the different adiposity measurements was estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results from this and other prospective cohort studies were combined in a dose-response meta-analysis. RESULTS: In UK Biobank, 661 men died from prostate cancer over a mean follow-up of 11.6 years. In the subsample of participants with magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMI, body fat percentage and WC were strongly associated with imaging estimates of total and central adiposity (e.g. visceral fat, trunk fat). The hazard ratios (HR) for prostate cancer death were 1.07 (95% confidence interval = 0.97-1.17) per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI, 1.00 (0.94-1.08) per 5% increase in total body fat percentage, 1.06 (0.99-1.14) per 10 cm increase in WC and 1.07 (1.01-1.14) per 0.05 increase in WHR. Our meta-analyses of prospective studies included 19,633 prostate cancer deaths for BMI, 670 for body fat percentage, 3181 for WC and 1639 for WHR, and the combined HRs for dying from prostate cancer for the increments above were 1.10 (1.07-1.12), 1.03 (0.96-1.11), 1.07 (1.03-1.11), and 1.06 (1.01-1.10), respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, we found that men with higher total and central adiposity had similarly higher risks of prostate cancer death, which may be biologically driven and/or due to differences in detection. In either case, these findings support the benefit for men of maintaining a healthy body weight.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Neoplasias da Próstata , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Vet Rec ; 190(10): 422, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593579
17.
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8550, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595824

RESUMO

Some social settings such as households and workplaces, have been identified as high risk for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Identifying and quantifying the importance of these settings is critical for designing interventions. A tightly-knit religious community in the UK experienced a very large COVID-19 epidemic in 2020, reaching 64.3% seroprevalence within 10 months, and we surveyed this community both for serological status and individual-level attendance at particular settings. Using these data, and a network model of people and places represented as a stochastic graph rewriting system, we estimated the relative contribution of transmission in households, schools and religious institutions to the epidemic, and the relative risk of infection in each of these settings. All congregate settings were important for transmission, with some such as primary schools and places of worship having a higher share of transmission than others. We found that the model needed a higher general-community transmission rate for women (3.3-fold), and lower susceptibility to infection in children to recreate the observed serological data. The precise share of transmission in each place was related to assumptions about the internal structure of those places. Identification of key settings of transmission can allow public health interventions to be targeted at these locations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Judeus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Value Health ; 25(5): 787-795, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) compared with sorafenib for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in the United Kingdom, including a selected subgroup of patients who have been identified as benefiting from treatment with SIRT. METHODS: A de novo economic model was developed comparing SIRT with sorafenib using data from two large randomized controlled trials. The model structure comprised a decision tree representing the outcome of the work-up procedure, transitioning into a 3-state partitioned survival model to project long-term survival outcomes. Cost-effectiveness in a post hoc defined subgroup with low tumor burden and good liver function was explored. RESULTS: At list price, SIRT was predicted to be less costly but less effective than sorafenib with an estimated saving of £156 089 per quality-adjusted life-year forgone, with cost savings of £4589 and 0.029 fewer quality-adjusted life-years than sorafenib. Accounting for existing confidential discounts for sorafenib, two SIRTs were cost-effective at a £30 000 willingness-to-pay threshold compared with sorafenib when a discount for the technologies was introduced. In the subgroup with low tumor burden and good liver function, SIRT may be associated with greater survival benefits and cost savings. CONCLUSIONS: Accounting for confidential discounts, on average, SIRT technologies represent value for money in the whole advanced hepatocellular carcinoma population, being less effective but less costly than sorafenib. Results from a subgroup with low tumor burden and good liver function suggest that the cost-effectiveness of SIRTs may be maximized in this group, but further research is required to demonstrate the validity of effectiveness benefits.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Sirtuínas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Sirtuínas/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
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