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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297329, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723045

RESUMO

Based on a review of related concepts and theories this study investigates the different impacts of research and development (R&D) innovation and political background on corporate growth in a particular context. Unlike other studies, we integrate these two factors. We empirically analyze 6079 sets of data from 1292 A-share private manufacturing enterprises in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2012 to 2019. The results show that these factors directly impact corporate growth and have heterogeneous effects at different enterprise growth levels. We find the effect of R&D innovation on corporate growth is more pronounced for young firms. These findings highlight the need for firms to adjust their investments in R&D innovation and political backgrounds at different stages of development to adapt to different markets and political environments.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , China , Pesquisa/economia , Política , Humanos , Setor Privado , Invenções , Investimentos em Saúde
6.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(2): ar22, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709798

RESUMO

In recent years, an increasing number of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) undergraduates have chosen to study in STEM fields and pursue careers in research. Yet, very little research has been undertaken on the barriers and inclusive experiences often faced by D/HH undergraduates who prefer to use spoken English in research settings, instead of American Sign Language (ASL). To identify barriers and inclusive strategies, we studied six English speaking D/HH undergraduate students working in research laboratories with their eight hearing mentors, and their three hearing peers sharing their experiences. Three researchers observed the interactions between all three groups and conducted interviews and focus groups, along with utilizing the Communication Assessment Self-Rating Scale (CASS). The main themes identified in the findings were communication and environmental barriers in research laboratories, creating accessible and inclusive laboratory environments, communication strategies, and self-advocating for effective communication. Recommendations for mentors include understanding the key elements of creating an inclusive laboratory environment for English speaking D/HH students and effectively demonstrating cultural competence to engage in inclusive practices.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Humanos , Surdez , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Pesquisa , Língua de Sinais , Mentores , Idioma , Comunicação , Barreiras de Comunicação
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302449, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718013

RESUMO

This paper proposes a method for increasing the impact of academic research by providing materials for public use, thus engaging the maker community, and by collaborating with internet content creators to extend the reach. We propose a framework for engagement and report a multi-year study that evaluates short, intermediate, and long-term outcomes, with a second effort to demonstrate repeatability of the short-term outcomes. In the first study, we posted forty-one 3D printable compliant mechanisms on public repositories and collaborated with physicist and content creator Derek Muller (Veritasium YouTube channel). Outputs and outcomes from this interaction were measured over 3 years. The framework was exercised again with four new 3D printable mechanisms in collaboration with engineer and STEM influencer Mark Rober. The proposed methods aim to help researchers extend the reach of their work to broader audiences, including professional engineers, hardware designers, educators, students, researchers, and hobbyists. This work demonstrates promising impacts of the framework, including (1) extending public awareness of research findings to broader audiences by engaging the maker community and collaborating with content creators, (2) accelerating the pace of innovation and further hardware-based research through public application of research findings, (3) fostering a culture of open-source design and collaboration among other researchers, engineers, educators, and makers, and (4) increasing utilization of peer-reviewed published content. These outreach practices can be valuable tools for researchers to increase impact of and excitement for their research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Pesquisa , Internet , Pesquisadores
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e085472, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In over 50 years since the genetic counseling (GC) profession began, a systematic study of GC communication skills and patient-reported outcomes in actual sessions across multiple clinical specialties has never been conducted. To optimize GC quality and improve efficiency of care, the field must first be able to comprehensively measure GC skills and determine which skills are most critical to achieving positive patient experiences and outcomes. This study aims to characterise GC communication skills using a novel and pragmatic measure and link variations in communication skills to patient-reported outcomes, across clinical specialties and with patients from diverse backgrounds in the USA. Our community-engagement and provider-engagement approach is crucial to develop recommendations for quality, culturally informed GC care, which are greatly needed to improve GC practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed methods, sequential explanatory design will be used to collect and analyze: audio-recorded GC sessions in cancer, cardiac, and prenatal/reproductive genetic indications; pre-visit and post-visit quantitative surveys capturing patient experiences and outcomes and post-visit qualitative interview data. A novel, practical checklist will measure GC communication skills. Coincidence analysis will identify patterns of GC skills that are consistent with high scores on patient-reported measures. Two-level, multilevel models will be used to evaluate how GC communication skills and other session/patient characteristics predict patient-reported outcomes. Four community advisory boards (CABs) and a genetic counselor advisory board will inform the study design and analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the single Institutional Review Board of the University of Minnesota. This research poses no greater than minimal risk to participants. Results from this study will be shared through national and international conferences and through community-based dissemination as guided by the study's CABs. A lay summary will also be disseminated to all participants.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Neoplasias , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pesquisa , Comunicação
12.
Zebrafish ; 21(2): 92-100, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621209

RESUMO

Zebrafish have been used as an education tool for students of all ages and can be used in many learning environments to teach different fields of science. In this study, we focus on the biology of zebrafish. We describe an educational program within a weeklong science camp for students between 12 and 14 years old. The methodology described is based on running annual science camps over an 11-year period. In these camps, students learnt about the developmental stages of zebrafish, as well as general zebrafish biology, husbandry, ecology, behavior, and reproduction. This article describes how to provide students and educators with an educational program to explore, discover, and contribute to the ever-evolving landscape of biological understanding through active and visual learning. We describe the methodology, the evaluation, revisions to our program over time, and future directions for expansion.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Humanos , Pesquisa , Aprendizagem Espacial , Ensino
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 849-852, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621889

RESUMO

Chinese drug registration laws and regulations have always reserved a place for the new traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) drugs for syndromes, but so far no such new drugs have been approved for registration. This paper expounded on the relevant policies, regulations, and technologies of new TCM drugs for syndromes in China and pointed out that the application of the animal model of TCM syndromes to carry out pharmacodynamics research and clinical efficacy evaluation criteria of TCM syndromes were the main technical difficulties in the research and development of new TCM drugs for syndromes. Not all syndromes are suitable for developing new drugs, and the indications for new TCM drugs should be constant syndromes. Among the three research and development models of simple syndrome, syndrome-unified disease, and combined disease and syndrome, the research and development model of combined disease and syndrome is recommended. Clinical positioning is the key to new TCM drugs for syndromes. It is encouraged to conduct high-quality human use experience studies to determine the clinical positioning of new TCM drugs for syndromes, as well as the target population, dose, course of treatment, and initial therapeutic and safety, and apply for exemption from non-clinical effectiveness studies. Clinical trials of new TCM drugs for syndromes should take the target symptoms or signs as the main efficacy index and the efficacy of TCM syndromes as the secondary efficacy index. Clinical research program design should implement the "patient-centered" concept and introduce clinical outcome evaluation indicators. In the clinical safety evaluation, special conditions such as characteristic syndromes and changes should be considered. With the construction of the human use experience technology system and the promotion of the TCM registration and evaluation evidence system featuring the "combination of TCM theory, human use experience, and clinical trials", it is believed that many high-quality new TCM drugs for syndromes will be developed in the future.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Pesquisa , Síndrome , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico
14.
Ambio ; 53(6): 826-844, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643345

RESUMO

We ask how environmental justice and urban ecology have influenced one another over the past 25 years in the context of the US Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program and Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) project. BES began after environmental justice emerged through activism and scholarship in the 1980s but spans a period of increasing awareness among ecologists and environmental practitioners. The work in Baltimore provides a detailed example of how ecological research has been affected by a growing understanding of environmental justice. The shift shows how unjust environmental outcomes emerge and are reinforced over time by systemic discrimination and exclusion. We do not comprehensively review the literature on environmental justice in urban ecology but do present four brief cases from the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia, to illustrate the global relevance of the topic. The example cases demonstrate the necessity for continuous engagement with communities in addressing environmental problem solving.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Baltimore , Justiça Social , Região do Caribe , Ásia , Cidades , África , Pesquisa , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estados Unidos
16.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(4): e13793, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618871

RESUMO

Multiple treatment options exist for children with epilepsy, including surgery, dietary therapies, neurostimulation, and antiseizure medications (ASMs). ASMs are the first line of therapy, and more than 30 ASMs have U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of various epilepsy and seizure types in children. Given the extensive FDA approval of ASMs in children, it is crucial to consider how the physiological and developmental changes throughout childhood may impact drug disposition. Various sources of pharmacokinetic (PK) variability from different extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as patients' size, age, drug-drug interactions, and drug formulation could result in suboptimal dosing of ASMs. Barriers exist to conducting clinical pharmacological studies in neonates, infants, and children due to ethical and practical reasons, limiting available data to fully characterize these drugs' disposition and better elucidate sources of PK variability. Modeling and simulation offer ways to circumvent traditional and intensive clinical pharmacology methods to address gaps in epilepsy and seizure management in children. This review discusses various physiological and developmental changes that influence the PK and pharmacodynamic (PD) variability of ASMs in children, and several key ASMs will be discussed in detail. We will also review novel trial designs in younger pediatric populations, highlight the role of extrapolation of efficacy in epilepsy, and the use of physiologically based PK modeling as a tool to investigate sources of PK/PD variability in children. Finally, we will conclude with current challenges and future directions for optimizing the efficacy and safety of these drugs across the pediatric age spectrum.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Farmacologia Clínica , Estados Unidos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Criança , Pesquisa , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação por Computador , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(4): 191, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care (PC) contributes to improved end-of-life care for patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) and solid tumors (ST) by addressing physical and psychological symptoms and spiritual needs. Research on PC in HM vs. ST patients is fragmented and suggests less use. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of all deceased members of a large German health insurance provider for the year before death. First, we analyzed the frequency and the beginning of different types of PC and compared patients with HM vs. ST. Second, we analyzed the adjusted impact of PC use on several end-of-life quality outcomes in patients with HM vs. ST. We performed simple and multiple (logistic) regression analysis, adjusted for relevant covariates, and standardized for age and sex. RESULTS: Of the 222,493 deceased cancer patients from 2016 to 2020, we included 209,321 in the first analysis and 165,020 in the second analysis. Patients with HM vs. ST received PC less often (40.4 vs. 55.6%) and later (34 vs. 50 days before death). PC use significantly improved all six quality indicators for good end-of-life care. HM patients had worse rates in five of the six indicators compared with ST patients. Interaction terms revealed that patients with ST derived greater benefit from PC in five of six quality indicators than those with HM. CONCLUSION: The data highlight the need to integrate PC more often, earlier, and more effectively into the care of patients with HM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Pesquisa , Seguro Saúde
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