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1.
Nurse Pract ; 48(2): 35-40, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are uncommon neuroendocrine tumors located near the carotid bifurcation within the carotid body. CBTs are slow-growing; affected individuals may remain asymptomatic for years and are often diagnosed incidentally following imaging studies. When present, symptoms are nonspecific. Because incidence is low, retrospective review of CBT case series is an ideal study design for investigating common symptomology, identifying successful diagnostic tools, and evaluating treatment outcomes. METHODS: This article describes a case series of 11 patients treated for CBTs at an academic medical center in the Southeastern US. A retrospective chart review of 11 patients who had been discharged from the hospital following treatment for CBTs between 2017 and 2021 was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to delineate the case series. RESULTS: There were four males (36%) and seven females (64%) included in the retrospective case series. The age range was 34 to 79 with a mean of 56.73 (standard deviation 16.038). Three patients were found to have a neck mass on physical exam. Additional symptoms included vocal cord paralysis, facial paralysis, ischemic stroke, Bell palsy, dysphonia, and dizziness. Two patients had familial CBTs. Ten patients underwent surgical excision. CONCLUSION: This case series showed that patients with CBTs should be assessed with a combination of history and physical exams along with imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis. Because CBTs may become malignant and metastasize, it is important for NPs to be knowledgeable about presenting symptoms and appropriate diagnostic studies to be able to refer patients to vascular surgeons early to prevent complications.


Assuntos
Tumor do Corpo Carotídeo , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Tumor do Corpo Carotídeo/cirurgia , Tumor do Corpo Carotídeo/diagnóstico , Tumor do Corpo Carotídeo/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Pesquisa
2.
Nature ; 613(7945): 791-793, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639444
3.
4.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 147(2): 119-121, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657102

RESUMO

Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding and eating disorder) are not only common mental health disorders but they also affect an individual's physical, psychological, and social well-being, with high impact and burden. Importantly, previous research has found that eating disorders have high mortality, higher than many other psychiatric disorders. Here, we discuss findings from Castellini and colleagues in the context of previous studies.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Pesquisa
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 654, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635338

RESUMO

Scientists are concerned that the research they conduct accurately portrays the needs of people living with spinal cord injuries (SCI). As such, this study set out to investigate the main problems faced by people with SCI and their expectations for research. This quantitative, exploratory, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out online, with a non-probabilistic sample of 618 Brazilian adults with SCI who had registered voluntarily to participate in the research of the Neurorehab group. The virtual questionnaire consisted of 22 questions based on ISCOS Data Sets. The majority (68.9%) of participants were male, with higher education or a post-graduate qualification (49.5%). Most injuries had experienced traumatic injuries (78.5%) and 58.7% were paraplegic. The mean age was 38.04 years (SD = 9.85). The main difficulties faced after SCI were locomotion/accessibility (70.9%), neurogenic bladder (68.8%), neurogenic bowel (48.2%), and sexuality (36.1%). The highest demand was for experimental studies on stem cells (22.5%), rehabilitation (14.2%), and cures (13.9%). Most (84.3%) of those who reported sexuality problems after SCI were men (p = 0.013). The findings obtained empower people with SCI by enabling them to influence the agenda of scientific research based on their expectations and difficulties. This survey will also aid organizations to engage stakeholders to implement a comprehensive SCI management program.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 24(1): 22, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities are known to be closely related to many diseases, such as obesity and HIV, and it is of interest to identify differentially abundant microbial species between two or more environments. Since the abundances or counts of microbial species usually have different scales and suffer from zero-inflation or over-dispersion, normalization is a critical step before conducting differential abundance analysis. Several normalization approaches have been proposed, but it is difficult to optimize the characterization of the true relationship between taxa and interesting outcomes.  RESULTS: To avoid the challenge of picking an optimal normalization and accommodate the advantages of several normalization strategies, we propose an omnibus approach. Our approach is based on a Cauchy combination test, which is flexible and powerful by aggregating individual p values. We also consider a truncated test statistic to prevent substantial power loss. We experiment with a basic linear regression model as well as recently proposed powerful association tests for microbiome data and compare the performance of the omnibus approach with individual normalization approaches. Experimental results show that, regardless of simulation settings, the new approach exhibits power that is close to the best normalization strategy, while controling the type I error well.  CONCLUSIONS: The proposed omnibus test releases researchers from choosing among various normalization methods and it is an aggregated method that provides the powerful result to the underlying optimal normalization, which requires tedious trial and error. While the power may not exceed the best normalization, it is always much better than using a poor choice of normalization.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Lineares , Pesquisa
8.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677927

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenolic pigments that give food varied colors. Because of their high antioxidant activities, the consumption of anthocyanins has been associated with the benefit of preventing various chronic diseases. However, due to natural evolution or human selection, anthocyanins are found only in certain species. Additionally, the insufficient levels of anthocyanins in the most common foods also limit the optimal benefits. To solve this problem, considerable work has been done on germplasm improvement of common species using novel gene editing or transgenic techniques. This review summarized the recent advances in the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis and focused on the progress in using the CRISPR/Cas gene editing or multigene overexpression methods to improve plant food anthocyanins content. In response to the concerns of genome modified food, the future trends in developing anthocyanin-enriched plant food by using novel transgene or marker-free genome modified technologies are discussed. We hope to provide new insights and ideas for better using natural products like anthocyanins to promote human health.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Alimentos , Pesquisa , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
10.
Chemistry ; 29(5): e202300069, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692211

RESUMO

Invited for the cover of this issue are the groups of Professors Passarella and Pieraccini at the University of Milan, in collaboration with some of the members of TubInTrain consortium. The image depicts work with the elements of nature, in particular the destabilising effect of maytansinol (the constellation) on microtubules (the trees). Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.202203431.


Assuntos
Maitansina , Microtúbulos , Pesquisa
11.
Mol Cell ; 83(2): 157-159, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669475

RESUMO

We talk with Peiguo Yang about how his early work in P granules and liquid droplets led to the current focus of his lab: biomolecular condensates in neurodegeneration and viral infection. He tells us about the innovative research environment at Westlake University and gives advice for the challenges researchers face during career transitions.


Assuntos
Viroses , Humanos , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisa/tendências
12.
Homeopathy ; 112(1): 1-2, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691386
13.
Med (N Y) ; 4(1): 5-7, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640754

RESUMO

We asked some of the speakers of the recent conference on Ethical Considerations in Research for Pediatric Populations organized by the New York Academy of Sciences and NYU Grossman to discuss the current challenges around pediatric research. See also our Q&A with Dr. Arthur Caplan in this issue of Med.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Criança , Humanos , New York
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2251353, 2023 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652248

RESUMO

Importance: Underrepresentation of women and racial and ethnic minority individuals among reviewers and funded investigators in health research has been widely reported. It is unknown whether such underrepresentation exists in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Objective: To describe gender and racial and ethnic makeup of VHA Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) study sections and funding awardees and to explore the associations between gender and racial and ethnic makeup of study sections and awardees who were women and racial and ethnic minority individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study at the VHA evaluated study section members and funding awardees from 5 review cycles from March 13, 2018, through March 6, 2020, identified via the HSR&D and National Institutes of Health websites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the likelihood of an awardee being a woman or a racial or ethnic minority individual based on the gender and racial and ethnic makeup of study sections, respectively. Separate models were conducted for investigator-initiated research proposals only. Results: Thirty-six study sections comprised 664 reviewers, including 381 women (57.4%) and 81 racial and ethnic minority individuals (12.2%). Of the 146 funded proposals, 77 (52.7%) were awarded to women and 25 (17.1%) to racial and ethnic minority investigators; 29 (19.9%) were reviewed by study sections with no racial and ethnic minority reviewers. The odds of a woman awardee were more than 5 times greater for proposals reviewed by study sections comprising the highest proportion of women (fourth quartile; >58.3%) than the lowest proportion of women (first quartile; ≤50.0%) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.24 [95% CI, 1.70-16.13]). Similarly, the odds of a racial or ethnic minority awardee were 3 times greater for proposals reviewed by study sections in the top 50th percentile for proportion of racial and ethnic minority individuals (>7.3%) than the bottom 50th percentile (aOR, 3.08 [95% CI, 1.18-8.09]). Secondary analyses limited to investigator-initiated research proposals identified similar associations. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of VHA HSR&D-funded research, racial and ethnic minority individuals were underrepresented among investigators and reviewers. More women and racial and ethnic minority reviewers on study sections were associated with women and racial and ethnic minority individuals awarded funding.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Saúde dos Veteranos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Minoritários , Pesquisa
16.
Public Health ; 215: 12-16, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Much applied health research pays insufficient attention to potential unequal impacts across social groups or is typically focused on a single dimension (e.g. socio-economic status), rarely considering the intersecting social processes driving inequalities (e.g. racism, sexism, classism). All health research needs a strong intersectional equity focus in order to inform action to reduce health inequalities as well as improve population health. STUDY DESIGN: Focus On Research and Equity (FOR EQUITY) is a new Web-based platform aiming to strengthen the intersectional equity focus of applied health research. METHODS: The platform was developed in collaboration with members of the public, practitioners and researchers working internationally. The development involved a systematic review of academic and grey literature, a series of workshops and user testing. RESULTS: FOR EQUITY encompasses (1) a Health Inequalities Assessment Tool, with an intersectional perspective on inequalities; (2) a FOR EQUITY Guidance Inventory providing access to a range of international research toolkits and guidance; and (3) a FOR EQUITY Library including case studies illustrating how researchers have attempted to integrate an equity lens into the research process and more general resources on health inequalities. CONCLUSION: FOR EQUITY can support researchers to strengthen the equity lens in their studies to make research evidence more relevant for action to reduce social and health inequalities. However, a single focus on toolkits is unlikely to sufficiently address the barriers to embedding equity in research. A mainstreaming strategy to transform the very roots of the 'institution of research' is required.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Racismo , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Classe Social , Instalações de Saúde
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 53: 151-158, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is the primary treatment for chronic intestinal failure (CIF) due to non-malignant disease and is increasingly used in patients with a diagnosis of cancer. This project engaged with patients, family members and healthcare professionals to ascertain what questions they want researched. METHODS: This study followed the five-stage process of the James Lind Alliance that involved (1) setting up a steering group, (2) carrying out an initial survey to gather participants' questions, (3) data processing, (4) an interim priority setting survey and (5) final priority setting workshop. Surveys were translated and back translated into Italian, Danish and French. RESULTS: The project was delivered by an international steering committee with representation from Denmark, Italy, the United Kingdom and United States consisting of three patients, six healthcare professionals and facilitated by University researchers. For the first survey, 633 questions were submitted by 292 respondents from 12 countries. There were 79 questions removed as out of scope or already in the published literature. Responses were collated into two interim surveys of 41 questions for benign CIF and 13 questions for HPN and cancer. In the second survey, 216 respondents prioritised their top ten questions. The ordering from the cancer and HPN survey was taken as definitive; top priorities were quality of life, survival, when to commence HPN, using HPN with anti-cancer treatments, access barriers, measuring benefit and ethical implications. For CIF with benign disease, 18 questions were discussed in two workshops attended by 13 patients and 7 healthcare professionals. The questions were ranked using a modified nominal group technique; the top research priorities were prevention and treatment of liver disease, improving central infusion lines, oral absorption, avoiding long-term negative consequences, vascular access, side effects, line infections, decreasing stoma output, quality of life and sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Priorities identified will assist researchers to focus on research questions important to patients, family members and healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Adulto , Prioridades em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Família , Pesquisa , Neoplasias/terapia
19.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660851

RESUMO

When incentives are offered to parents and their children to partake in research, there are concerns that parents may be unduly influenced by the incentives, and the children may be exploited. We present a case from a low- and middle-income country and consider the ethical issues that arise when the children are asked to participate in a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of a nutritional supplement on growth. The first commenter, from Malaysia, notes that their residents might not share Americans' expectations regarding children's role in the consent process from a cultural perspective, which may alter the analysis of the concerns. The authors of the second commentary emphasize the use of incentives that benefit the child participant rather than their parent or are provided directly to the child participant to address the concerns. The third commentator discusses the importance of minimizing the study's risks and balancing the benefits and the risks, which attenuates the concerns.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Motivação , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Pesquisa , Suplementos Nutricionais
20.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 182: 106380, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638898

RESUMO

Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models are an important facet of pharmaceutical and clinical research as they combine mechanistic models of physiology in health and disease with pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics to predict systems-level effects. The quantitative clinical pharmacology toolbox has traditionally included both mechanistic modeling and population approaches, collectively called pharmacometrics, but the current landscape requires the optimization and use of multiple models together. Here, we explore several case studies in drug development that exemplify three approaches for using QSP and pharmacometrics models together - parallel synchronization, cross-informative use, and sequential integration. While these approaches are increasingly applied in drug development, achieving a true convergence of QSP and pharmacometrics that fully exploits their synergy will require new tools and methods that enable greater technical integration, in addition to nurturing scientists with diverse modeling expertise that enable cross-discipline strategy. Extensions of existing methods used in each approach as well as additional resources including machine learning models, data-at-scale, end-to-end computation platforms, and real-time analytics will enable this convergence.


Assuntos
Farmacologia em Rede , Farmacologia Clínica , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Pesquisa , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Modelos Biológicos
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