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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620613

RESUMO

For over 60 years, Colombia has endured violent civil conflict forcibly displacing more than 8 million people. Recent efforts have begun to explore mental health consequences of these contexts, with an emphasis on national surveys. To date few Colombian studies explore mental health and well-being from a lived experience perspective. Those that do, overlook processes that enable survival. In response to this gap, we conducted a life history study of seven internally displaced Colombian women in the Cundinamarca department, analysing 18 interview sessions and 36 hours of transcripts. A thematic network analysis, informed by Latin-American perspectives on gender and critical resilience frameworks, explored women's coping strategies in response to conflict-driven hardships related to mental well-being. Analysis illuminated that: (1) the gendered impacts of the armed conflict on women's emotional well-being work through exacerbating historical gendered violence and inequality, intensifying existing emotional health challenges, and (2) coping strategies reflect women's ability to mobilise cognitive, bodied, social, material and symbolic power and resources. Our findings highlight that the sociopolitical contexts of women's lives are inseparable from their efforts to achieve mental well-being, and the value of deep narrative and historical work to capturing the complexity of women's experiences within conflict settings. We suggest the importance of social interventions to support the mental health of women in conflict settings, in order to centre the social and political contexts faced by such marginalised groups within efforts to improve mental health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Violência , Conflitos Armados , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9.1): 3S-6S, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609954

RESUMO

The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) model has contributed to building research capacity and has produced evidence for improving public health program performance in countries with limited research capacity. The model involves hands-on mentorship and consists of three modules/weeks. It is recognized to be an innovative research capacity building model. In a world changed by COVID-19, where bringing people together is not viable, an innovative, interactive, web-based, knowledge-transfer platform (e-SORT IT) for virtual implementation of SORT IT modules was created. The platform design imitated the residential course as closely as possible with the same lectures, plenary sessions, and breakout rooms. Despite the challenges, the platform performed well and even though participants and mentors were located in eight different time zones, the course was successful; 90% of participants achieved their milestones and 10 manuscripts were successfully completed. Participant evaluation revealed a satisfaction level that was nearly equivalent to the residential module. However, mentor evaluation indicated a number of shortcomings including capacity building, professional networking, communication, engagement, and contribution by participants, as well as overall module success. In conclusion, COVID-19 stimulated the creation of the e-SORT IT platform that provided a functional alternative to the residential version. Despite the limitations of reduced capacity building and networking, the e-SORT IT platform should be considered a success - it delivered the goods. This is an example of innovation and flexibility, two attributes that are sorely needed to maintain activities during the pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Mentores/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 5)(8): S99-S102, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634027

RESUMO

Implant reconstruction following scapulectomy in children is a challenging task. Dual suspension reconstruction may offer an alternative but there is a dearth of literature on functional outcomes following this procedure for malignant tumours in children. A retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Children with malignant tumours of the scapula who underwent total scapulectomy with dual suspension reconstruction (n=5) between Jan 2009 and June 2015 were included. Mean follow up was 50±13.39 months. There were four boys and one girl having mean age of 11±3.57 years. All patients were Enneking Stage IIB with 4 patients diagnosed as Ewing's Sarcoma and 1 as osteosarcoma. The MSTS scores ranged from 20-25 points, with a median of 23. One patient developed postoperative surgical site infection requiring surgical debridement whereas all patients remained disease-free till last follow up. Our findings suggest that scapulectomy with dual suspension reconstruction achieves satisfactory functional results with low rate of complications.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640916

RESUMO

Approximately 4% of the world's population suffers from rare diseases. A vast majority of these disorders have a genetic background. The number of genes that have been linked to human diseases is constantly growing, but there are still genetic syndromes that remain to be discovered. The diagnostic yield of genetic testing is continuously developing, and the need for testing is becoming more significant. Due to limited resources, including trained clinical geneticists, patients referred to clinical genetics units must be accurately selected. Around 30-40% of genetic disorders are associated with specific facial characteristics called dysmorphic features. As part of our research, we analyzed the performance of classifiers based on deep learning face recognition models in detecting dysmorphic features. We tested two classification problems: a multiclass problem (15 genetic disorders vs. controls) and a two-class problem (disease vs. controls). In the multiclass task, the best result reached an accuracy level of 84%. The best accuracy result in the two-class problem reached 96%. More importantly, the binary classifier detected disease features in patients with diseases that were not previously present in the training dataset. The classifier was able to generalize differences between patients and controls, and to detect abnormalities without information about the specific disorder. This indicates that a screening tool based on deep learning and facial recognition could not only detect known diseases, but also detect patients with diseases that were not previously known. In the future, this tool could help in screening patients before they are referred to the genetic unit.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Pesquisa , Síndrome
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 714, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is triggered by an infection and represents one of the greatest challenges of modern intensive care medicine. With regard to a targeted antimicrobial treatment strategy, the earliest possible pathogen detection is of crucial importance. Until now, culture-based detection methods represent the diagnostic gold standard, although they are characterized by numerous limitations. Culture-independent molecular diagnostic procedures represent a promising alternative. In particular, the plasmatic detection of circulating, cell-free DNA by next-generation sequencing (NGS) has shown to be suitable for identifying disease-causing pathogens in patients with bloodstream infections. METHODS: The DigiSep-Trial is a randomized, controlled, interventional, open-label, multicenter trial characterizing the effect of the combination of NGS-based digital precision diagnostics with standard-of-care microbiological analyses compared to solely standard-of-care microbiological analyses in the clinical picture of sepsis/septic shock. Additional anti-infective expert consultations are provided for both study groups. In 410 patients (n = 205 per arm) with sepsis/septic shock, the study examines whether the so-called DOOR-RADAR (Desirability of Outcome Ranking/Response Adjusted for Duration of Antibiotic Risk) score (representing a combined endpoint including the criteria (1) intensive/intermediate care unit length of stay, (2) consumption of antibiotics, (3) mortality, and (4) acute kidney injury (AKI)) can be improved by an additional NGS-based diagnostic concept. We also aim to investigate the cost-effectiveness of this new diagnostic procedure. It is postulated that intensive/intermediate care unit length of stay, mortality rate, incidence of AKI, the duration of antimicrobial therapy as well as the costs caused by complications and outpatient aftercare can be reduced. Moreover, a significant improvement in patient's quality of life is expected. DISCUSSION: The authors´ previous work suggests that NGS-based diagnostics have a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to standard-of-care microbiological analyses for detecting bloodstream infections. In combination with the here presented DigiSep-Trial, this work provides the optimal basis to establish a new NGS-driven concept as part of the national standard based on the best possible evidence. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: DRKS-ID DRKS00022782 . Registered on August 25, 2020 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04571801 . Registered October 1, 2020.


Assuntos
Sepse , Choque Séptico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pesquisa , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
7.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 384-389, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problem based learning is self-directed form of learning. Problem of Diabetes Mellitus was chosen. The objective was to evaluate perception of students towards Problem based learning and test their understanding. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted from November 2019 till October 2020. An online Problem based learning session of a week was conducted to second-year Bachelors of Dental Surgery students using online applications. Tutors facilitated students in a group of five to six each. Pre-post testing of evaluation questions was done. At end of session, feedback of students on Problem based learning and tutor of Problem based learning were received with 'Dolmans and Schmidt' and 'Dolmans and Ginns' questionnaire. RESULTS: There was increase in correct response in nine out of 12 evaluation questions. Most students agreed to influence of discussion, content tested, course objectives, lectures, tutor and reference literature. The students agreed that tutors facilitated active, self-directed, contextual and collaborative learning. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of discussion among participants, content tested, course objectives, reference literature during the Problem based learning session were agreed upon by majority of the students. The tutors' role was accepted by participants in terms of stimulation to self-directed, active, collaborative and contextual learning.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Nepal , Percepção , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pesquisa , Estudantes de Odontologia
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4334-4343, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581036

RESUMO

Xanthoceras sorbifolia, an excellent oil-rich woody species, has high comprehensive economic value in edible, medicinal, and ornamental fields. The chemical composition, pharmacological effect, and quality control of X. sorbifolia were introduced, and its development and application were reviewed in this study. As revealed by the previous research, the main chemical constituents of X. sorbifolia were triterpenoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, steroids, phenolic acids, organic acids, etc. It possesses pharmacological effects, such as neuroprotection, bacteriostasis, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, analgesia, anti-HIV, and anti-coagulation. X. sorbifolia is widely applied in medical, food, chemical industry, and other fields, and deserves in-depth research and development.


Assuntos
Sapindaceae , Triterpenos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Flavonoides , Pesquisa
12.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(8): 919-921, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590556

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, of which the pathogenesis is complex and the mortality rate is high. However, current basic research is facing the dilemma of high heterogeneity and difficult translation to clinical practice. In-depth basic research is one of the most important ways to break through the "bottleneck" of clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current progress and challenges in the field of basic research on sepsis, and look forward to the potential research directions in the future. Cell function, energy metabolism, microbiota, epigenetics and recovery period of sepsis may be the research priorities.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sepse , Humanos , Pesquisa , Sepse/terapia
14.
Magnes Res ; 34(2): 90-92, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524085
17.
Mol Cell ; 81(18): 3659-3664, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547228

RESUMO

To celebrate our Focus Issue, we asked a selection of researchers working on different aspects of metabolism what they are excited about and what is still to come. They discuss emerging concepts, unanswered questions, things to consider, and technologies that are enabling new discoveries, as well as developing and integrating approaches to drive the field forward.


Assuntos
Metabolismo/fisiologia , Pesquisa/tendências , Humanos , Pesquisadores
18.
Croat Med J ; 62(4): 353-359, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472738

RESUMO

AIM: To report on patients who underwent surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) at our institution. METHODS: This retrospective single-center case series enrolled the patients who underwent surgical treatment of pial AVM at the Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Brno, between 2005 and 2019. The data are summarized as descriptive statistics presenting basic characteristics in all the patients and in sex or age subgroups. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled. The majority of AVMs were of Spetzler-Martin grade II (n=27; 54%), localized supratentorialy (n=43; 86%), and half of AVMs were ruptured. A total resection was performed in 48 patients (96%), and a good overall outcome was achieved in 44 patients (88%). Surgery-associated morbidity was 2%, and the mortality rate was 0% due to meticulous selection of patients for surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: Microsurgery is an appropriate method of treatment for S-M grade I-III pial AVMs. Microsurgery may be used to treat the majority of small-nidus AVMs with a low mortality and morbidity, when precisely planned and performed by an expert vascular team. The meticulous selection of patients for surgical treatment is crucial.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Microcirurgia , Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
EMBO Rep ; 22(10): e53834, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533268

RESUMO

From immunology to manufacturing to social science: COVID-19 has been a boon for research and development in many research areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2 , Ciências Sociais
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