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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 657, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-drug or rifamycin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) is an important public health concern, including in settings with high HIV prevalence. TB drug resistance can be directly transmitted or arise through resistance acquisition during first-line TB treatment. Limited evidence suggests that people living with HIV (PLHIV) might have an increased risk of acquired rifamycin-resistance (ARR). METHODS: To assess HIV as a risk factor for ARR during first-line TB treatment, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. ARR was defined as rifamycin-susceptibility at treatment start with rifamycin-resistance diagnosed during or at the end of treatment, or at recurrence. PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to 23 May 2024 for articles in English; conference abstracts were also searched from 2004 to 2021. The Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio of any association between HIV and ARR among individuals receiving first-line TB treatment. RESULTS: Ten studies that included data collected between 1990 and 2014 were identified: five from the United States, two from South Africa and one each from Uganda, India and Moldova. A total of 97,564 individuals were included across all studies, with 13,359 (13.7%) PLHIV. Overall, 312 (0.32%) acquired rifamycin-resistance, among whom 115 (36.9%) were PLHIV. The weighted odds of ARR were 4.57 (95% CI, 2.01-10.42) times higher among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals receiving first-line TB treatment. CONCLUSION: The available data, suggest that PLHIV have an increased ARR risk during first-line TB treatment. Further research is needed to clarify specific risk factors, including advanced HIV disease and TB disease severity. Given the introduction of shorter, 4-month rifamycin-based regimens, there is an urgent need for additional data on ARR, particularly for PLHIV. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022327337.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Infecções por HIV , Rifamicinas , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
2.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(8): 1022-1028, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasodilatation and bacterial dislocation are the main contributors to the catastrophic events in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of adding midodrine and rifaximin on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life in patients with DLC. METHODS: This interventional clinical study included 100 consecutively enrolled DLC patients randomized 1 : 1 into two groups. Group A received oral midodrine (5 mg/8 h) and rifaximin (550 mg/12 h) with standard diuretic therapy, while group B received only standard diuretic therapy. Clinical and laboratory data, including the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, were evaluated over a 3-month treatment period. RESULTS: In the study group, there was a significant reduction in Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, international normalized ratio, and mean arterial blood pressure at 2, 6, and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis incidence, hematemesis, paracentesis need, and hepatic encephalopathy showed improvement after 12 weeks compared with the control group. McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire significantly improved after 6 and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Survival rates demonstrated a noteworthy improvement (P = 0.014), substantiated by evidence in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSION: Combined midodrine with rifaximin represents an endowment to patients with DLC with spectacular improvements in synthetic liver functions, along with improved quality of life, and survival.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Midodrina , Qualidade de Vida , Rifamicinas , Rifaximina , Humanos , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Midodrina/uso terapêutico , Midodrina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Rifamicinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Adulto , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Ascite/mortalidade , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Peritonite/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0103424, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864598

RESUMO

Since 1999, doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine have been the recommended treatment for chronic Q fever, a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterial pathogen, Coxiella burnetii. Despite the duration of its use, the treatment is not ideal due to the lengthy treatment time, high mortality rate, resistant strains, and the potential for contraindicated usage. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that screened large panels of drugs against C. burnetii to identify novel targets with potential efficacy against C. burnetii. Twelve candidate antimicrobials approved for use in humans by the US Food and Drug Administration were selected and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined against the low virulence strain Nine Mile phase II. Rifabutin and rifaximin were the best performing antibiotics tested with MICs of ≤0.01 µg mL-1. Further screening of these top candidates was conducted alongside two drugs from the same class, rifampin, well-characterized, and rifapentine, not previously reported against C. burnetii. These were screened against virulent strains of C. burnetii representing three clinically relevant genotypes. Rifapentine was the most effective in the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, with a MIC ≤0.01 µg mL-1. In the human kidney epithelial cell line, A-498, efficacy of rifapentine, rifampin, and rifabutin varied across C. burnetii strains with MICs between ≤0.001 and 0.01 µg mL-1. Rifampin, rifabutin, and rifapentine were all bactericidal against C. burnetii; however, rifabutin and rifapentine demonstrated impressive bactericidal activity as low as 0.1 µg mL-1 and should be further explored as alternative Q fever treatments given their efficacy in vitro. IMPORTANCE: This work will help inform investigators and physicians about potential alternative antimicrobial therapies targeting the causative agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii. Chronic Q fever is difficult to treat, and alternative antimicrobials are needed. This manuscript explores the efficacy of rifamycin antibiotics against virulent strains of C. burnetii representing three clinically relevant genotypes in vitro. Importantly, this study determines the susceptibility of C. burnetii to rifapentine, which has not been previously reported. Evaluation of the bactericidal activity of the rifamycins reveals that rifabutin and rifapentine are bactericidal at low concentrations, which is unusual for antibiotics against C. burnetii.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Coxiella burnetii , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Febre Q , Rifampina , Rifamicinas , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coxiella burnetii/efeitos dos fármacos , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Febre Q/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Q/microbiologia , Rifabutina/farmacologia , Rifabutina/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular
4.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 732-738, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of rifaximin and probiotics for the correction of intestinal permeability in patients with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in combination with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The prospective interventional randomized investigation included 68 patients with MAFLD in combination with type 2 diabetes, who were examined and divided into the 2 groups of treatment. RESULTS: Results: The serum levels of interleukin (IL) - 6, IL-10 and zonulin, indicators of liver functional activity, liver attenuation coefficient between treatment group vs. control group after 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 and 6 months of therapy were significant differed. The serum levels of IL-6 and zonulin significantly decreasing and increasing of IL-10 in the treatment group after 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months of combined therapy. When comparing of stool short-chain fatty acids concentration between treatment group vs. control group after 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 and 6 months of therapy the levels of acetic, butyric and propionic acids significantly differences and increase in their levels were established. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The results of the study in dynamics during 6 months show that the additional appointment of rifaximin, multispecies probiotic and prebiotic to metformin in patients with MAFLD and type 2 diabetes led to the elimination of subclinical inflammation, modulation of the permeability of the intestinal barrier and lowering increased intestinal permeability, as well as to the lower serum activity of liver aminotransferases and decrease the stage of steatosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Permeabilidade , Probióticos , Rifaximina , Humanos , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Rifamicinas/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Interleucina-6/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Função da Barreira Intestinal
5.
J Nat Prod ; 87(5): 1321-1329, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647518

RESUMO

Ansamycins, represented by the antituberculosis drug rifamycin, are an important family of natural products. To obtain new ansamycins, Streptomyces rapamycinicus IMET 43975 harboring an ansamycin biosynthetic gene cluster was fermented in a 50 L scale, and subsequent purification work led to the isolation of five known and four new analogues, where hygrocin W (2) belongs to benzoquinonoid ansamycins, and the other three hygrocins, hygrocins X-Z (6-8), are new seco-hygrocins. The structures of ansamycins (1-8) were determined by the analysis of spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR and ECD) and MS spectrometric data. The Baeyer-Villiger enzyme which catalyzed the ester formation in the ansa-ring was confirmed through in vivo CRISPR base editing. The discovery of these compounds further enriches the structural diversity of ansamycins.


Assuntos
Streptomyces , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/química , Estrutura Molecular , Rifabutina/análogos & derivados , Rifabutina/química , Rifabutina/farmacologia , Família Multigênica , Rifamicinas/química , Rifamicinas/farmacologia
6.
Biomater Adv ; 161: 213862, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678666

RESUMO

The emergence of antibiotic resistance makes the treatment of bacterial infections difficult and necessitates the development of alternative strategies. Targeted drug delivery systems are attracting great interest in overcoming the limitations of traditional antibiotics. Here, we aimed for targeted delivery of rifaximin (RFX) by decorating RFX-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with synthetic P6.2 peptide, which was used as a targeting agent for the first time. Our results showed that encapsulation of RFX into NPs increased its antibacterial activity by improving its solubility and providing controlled release, while P6.2 modification allowed targeting of NPs to S. aureus bacterial cells. A promising therapeutic approach for bacterial infections, these P6.2-conjugated RFX-loaded PLGA NPs (TR-NP) demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against both strains of S. aureus. The antibacterial activity of RFX-loaded PLGA NPs (R-NP) showed significant results with an increase of 8 and 16-fold compared to free RFX against S. aureus and MRSA, respectively. Moreover, the activity of targeted nanoparticles was found to be increased 32 or 16-fold with an MBC value of 0.0078 µg/mL. All nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible at doses where they showed antimicrobial activity. Finally, it revealed that P6.2-conjugated targeted nanoparticles extremely accumulated in S. aureus rather than E. coli.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Nanopartículas , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Rifaximina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Rifaximina/farmacologia , Rifaximina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Humanos , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Rifamicinas/química , Rifamicinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química
7.
Clin Liver Dis ; 28(2): 297-315, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548441

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is complex, with hyperammonemia playing a central role in its development. Traditional therapies for HE have targeted ammonia and include medications such as lactulose and rifaximin. Although these agents are considered standard of care, nontraditional treatments seek to affect other factors in the pathogenesis of HE. Finally, procedural therapies include albumin dialysis, shunt closure, and the ultimate cure for HE, which is liver transplant. The treatments discussed provide alternative options for patients who have failed standard of care. However, more high-quality studies are needed to routinely recommend many of these agents.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Rifamicinas , Humanos , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Lactulose/uso terapêutico
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133977, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492395

RESUMO

The immunogenicity of haptens determines the performance of the resultant antibody for small molecules. Rigidity is one of the basic physicochemical properties of haptens. However, few studies have investigated the effect of hapten rigidity on the strength of an immune response and overall antibody performance. Herein, we introduce three molecular descriptors that quantify hapten rigidity. By using of these descriptors, four rifamycin haptens with varied rigidity were designed. The structural and physicochemical feasibility of the designed haptens was then assessed by computational chemistry. Immunization demonstrated that the strength of induced immune responses, i.e., the titer and affinity of antiserum, was significantly increased with increased rigidity of haptens. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated conformation constraint of rigid haptens contributed to the initial binding and activation of naïve B cells. Finally, a highly sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection of rifaximin, with an IC50 of 1.1 µg/L in buffer and a limit of detection of 0.2-11.3 µg/L in raw milk, river water, and soil samples. This work provides new insights into the effect of hapten rigidity on immunogenicity and offers new hapten design strategies for antibody discovery and vaccine development of small molecules.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Rifamicinas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoensaio , Haptenos
9.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 17(7): 537-547, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious disease cause of mortality worldwide, especially for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). Treating TB in PLWH can be challenging due to numerous drug interactions. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses drug interactions between antitubercular and antiretroviral drugs. Due to its clinical importance, initiation of antiretroviral therapy in patients requiring TB treatment is discussed. Special focus is placed on the rifamycin class, as it accounts for the majority of interactions. Clinically relevant guidance is provided on how to manage these interactions. An additional section on utilizing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to optimize drug exposure and minimize toxicities is included. EXPERT OPINION: Antitubercular and antiretroviral coadministration can be successfully managed. TDM can be used to optimize drug exposure and minimize toxicity risk. As new TB and HIV drugs are discovered, additional research will be needed to assess for clinically relevant drug interactions.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Antituberculosos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/farmacocinética , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Rifamicinas/administração & dosagem , Rifamicinas/farmacocinética , Rifamicinas/efeitos adversos
10.
Hepatol Commun ; 8(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) negatively affects the prognosis of cirrhosis, but treatment is not standard. Rifamycin SV MMX (RiVM) is a nonabsorbable rifampin derivative with colonic action. METHODS: In a phase 2 placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial patients with MHE were randomized to RiVM or placebo for 30 days with a 7-day follow-up. The primary endpoint was a change in stool cirrhosis dysbiosis ratio. Gut-brain (cognition, stool/salivary microbiome, ammonia, brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy), inflammation (stool calprotectin/serum cytokines), patient-reported outcomes (sickness impact profile: total/physical/psychosocial, high = worse), and sarcopenia (handgrip, bioelectric impedance) were secondary. Between/within groups and delta (post-pre) comparisons were performed. RESULTS: Thirty patients (15/group) were randomized and completed the study without safety concerns. While cirrhosis dysbiosis ratio was statistically similar on repeated measures ANOVA (95% CI: -0.70 to 3.5), ammonia significantly reduced (95% CI: 4.4-29.6) in RiVM with changes in stool microbial α/ß-diversity. MHE status was unchanged but only serial dotting (which tests motor strength) improved in RiVM-assigned patients. Delta physical sickness impact profile (95% CI: 0.33 = 8.5), lean mass (95% CI: -3.3 to -0.9), and handgrip strength (95% CI: -8.1 to -1.0) improved in RiVM versus placebo. Stool short-chain fatty acids (propionate, acetate, and butyrate) increased post-RiVM. Serum, urine, and stool bile acid profile changed to nontoxic bile acids (higher hyocholate/ursodeoxycholate and lower deoxycholate/lithocholate) post-RiVM. Serum IL-1ß and stool calprotectin decreased while brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed higher glutathione concentrations in RiVM. CONCLUSIONS: RiVM is well tolerated in patients with MHE with changes in stool microbial composition and function, ammonia, inflammation, brain oxidative stress, and sarcopenia-related parameters without improvement in cognition. RiVM modulates the gut-brain axis and gut-muscle axis in cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Rifamicinas , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Amônia , Disbiose/complicações , Força da Mão , Sarcopenia/complicações , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação , Músculos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/uso terapêutico
11.
J Nat Prod ; 87(2): 424-438, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38289177

RESUMO

Ever since the isolation of Amycolatopsis mediterranei in 1957, this strain has been the focus of research worldwide. In the last 60 years or more, our understanding of the taxonomy, development of cloning vectors and conjugation system, physiology, genetics, genomics, and biosynthetic pathway of rifamycin B production in A. mediterranei has substantially increased. In particular, the development of cloning vectors, transformation system, characterization of the rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster, and the regulation of rifamycin B production by the pioneering work of Heinz Floss have made the rifamycin polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster (PKS) an attractive target for extensive genetic manipulations to produce rifamycin B analogues which could be effective against multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Additionally, a better understanding of the regulation of rifamycin B production and the application of newer genomics tools, including CRISPR-assisted genome editing systems, might prove useful to overcome the limitations associated with low production of rifamycin analogues.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Rifamicinas , Amycolatopsis , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Rifamicinas/metabolismo
12.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 58(4): 360-369, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37310270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal bloating is a common complaint in patients with functional and organic bowel disease. Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic, has been tried for the treatment of this disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the efficacy of rifaximin in abdominal bloating and distension in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). METHODS: We accessed 4 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials that utilized rifaximin in FGID. We excluded observational studies, those including patients with organic bowel disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, or those in which rifaximin was given for other indications, such as hepatic encephalopathy. RESULTS: A total of 1426 articles were available, of which 813 articles were screened after removing duplicates and 34 articles were selected for full-text review. Finally, 10 trials (3326 patients) were included. Rifaximin was administered in doses ranging from 400 to 1650 mg per day for 1 to 2 weeks. Rifaximin therapy led to a higher likelihood of improvement in symptoms of bloating (44.6% vs. 34.6%, RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.35; n=2401 patients) without significant heterogeneity. However, daily doses less than 1200 mg/day were similar to placebo ( P =0.09). Bloating was quantified subjectively in 7 studies, and rifaximin led to a greater reduction in bloating scores compared with placebo (standardized mean difference -0.3, 95% CI -0.51, -0.1, P =0.04) but carried significant heterogeneity ( I2 =61.6%, P =0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Rifaximin therapy is associated with an increased likelihood of improvement in bloating and distension, as well as reduces the subjective severity of these symptoms in patients with FGID.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Encefalopatia Hepática , Rifamicinas , Humanos , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Flatulência
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(1): e0289523, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38054714

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Rifamycins are a group of antibiotics with a wide antibacterial spectrum. Although the binding target of rifamycin has been well characterized, the mechanisms underlying the discrepant killing efficacy between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria remain poorly understood. Using a high-throughput screen combined with targeted gene knockouts in the gram-negative model organism Escherichia coli, we established that rifampicin efficacy is strongly dependent on several cellular pathways, including iron acquisition, DNA repair, aerobic respiration, and carbon metabolism. In addition, we provide evidence that these pathways modulate rifampicin efficacy in a manner distinct from redox-related killing. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of rifamycin efficacy and may aid in the development of new antimicrobial adjuvants.


Assuntos
Rifampina , Rifamicinas , Rifampina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 119(2): 364-366, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37830544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is prevalent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients with cirrhosis. On October 1, 2022, a new, specific International Classification of Diseases-10 code for HE, K76.82, was introduced. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of K76.82. METHODS: Diagnostic performance of K76.82 for HE (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive ratio, and negative predictive ratio) was evaluated in 2 large health systems compared with lactulose, rifaximin, and K72.90. RESULTS: A total of 2,483 patients were analyzed. The combination term "lactulose or rifaximin" showed the highest sensitivity of >98% while K76.82 demonstrated a specificity of >87% in all cohorts. DISCUSSION: Although K76.82 is promising, the combination term "lactulose or rifaximin" identified patients with HE more accurately.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos , Rifamicinas , Humanos , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Lactulose/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico
15.
mBio ; 15(2): e0205123, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126769

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria underscores the need to define genetic vulnerabilities that can be therapeutically exploited. The Gram-negative pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, is considered an urgent threat due to its propensity to evade antibiotic treatments. Essential cellular processes are the target of existing antibiotics and a likely source of new vulnerabilities. Although A. baumannii essential genes have been identified by transposon sequencing, they have not been prioritized by sensitivity to knockdown or antibiotics. Here, we take a systems biology approach to comprehensively characterize A. baumannii essential genes using CRISPR interference (CRISPRi). We show that certain essential genes and pathways are acutely sensitive to knockdown, providing a set of vulnerable targets for future therapeutic investigation. Screening our CRISPRi library against last-resort antibiotics uncovered genes and pathways that modulate beta-lactam sensitivity, an unexpected link between NADH dehydrogenase activity and growth inhibition by polymyxins, and anticorrelated phenotypes that may explain synergy between polymyxins and rifamycins. Our study demonstrates the power of systematic genetic approaches to identify vulnerabilities in Gram-negative pathogens and uncovers antibiotic-essential gene interactions that better inform combination therapies.IMPORTANCEAcinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that is resistant to many common antibiotic treatments. To combat resistant A. baumannii infections, we need to identify promising therapeutic targets and effective antibiotic combinations. In this study, we comprehensively characterize the genes and pathways that are critical for A. baumannii viability. We show that genes involved in aerobic metabolism are central to A. baumannii physiology and may represent appealing drug targets. We also find antibiotic-gene interactions that may impact the efficacy of carbapenems, rifamycins, and polymyxins, providing a new window into how these antibiotics function in mono- and combination therapies. Our studies offer a useful approach for characterizing interactions between drugs and essential genes in pathogens to inform future therapies.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Rifamicinas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Genes Essenciais , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Rifamicinas/metabolismo , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 36(4): e0003923, 2023 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971270

RESUMO

Rifaximin-α is a gut-targeted antibiotic indicated for numerous gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Its multifaceted mechanism of action goes beyond direct antimicrobial effects, including alterations in bacterial virulence, cytoprotective effects on host epithelial cells, improvement of impaired intestinal permeability, and reduction of proinflammatory cytokine expression via activation of the pregnane X receptor. Rifaximin-α is virtually non-absorbed, with low systemic drug levels contributing to its excellent safety profile. While there are high concentrations of drug in the colon, low water solubility leads to low colonic drug bioavailability, protecting the gut microbiome. Rifaximin-α appears to be more active in the bile-rich small bowel. Its important biologic effects are largely at sub-inhibitory concentration. Although in vitro testing of clinical isolates from rifaximin recipients has revealed rifaximin-resistant strains in some studies, the risk of emergent rifaximin-α resistance appears to be lower than for many other antibiotics. Rifaximin-α has been used for many years for traveler's diarrhea with no apparent increase in resistance levels in causative pathogens. Further, rifaximin-α retains its efficacy after long-term and recurrent usage in chronic gastrointestinal disorders. There are numerous reasons why the risk of microbial resistance to rifaximin-α may be lower than that for other agents, including low intestinal bioavailability in the aqueous colon, the mechanisms of action of rifaximin-α not requiring inhibitory concentrations of drug, and the low risk of cross transmission of rifaximin-α resistance between bacterial species. Reported emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in liver-disease patients maintained on rifaximin needs to be actively studied. Further studies are required to assess the possible correlation between in vitro resistance and rifaximin-α efficacy.


Assuntos
Rifamicinas , Humanos , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Viagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18933, 2023 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37919333

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy (TPT) is an effective strategy to eliminate TB in low-incidence settings. Shorter TPT regimens incorporating the antimicrobial class of rifamycins are designed to improve adherence and completion rates but carry the risk of modifications to the gut microbiota. We enrolled six subjects diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) who accepted to initiate TPT. We also enrolled six healthy volunteers unexposed to the rifamycins. We profiled the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (V1-V2 region) to document the immediate effect of rifamycin-based TPT on the gut microbiota composition and tracked recovery to baseline two months after TPT. Overall, TPT accounted for 17% of the variance in gut microbial community dissimilarity. This rifamycin-based TPT induced dysbiosis was characterized by a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa (Clostridium-XIVa and Roseburia) and expansion of potentially pathogenic taxa within the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. Recovery of the gut microbial composition was incomplete two months after TPT. Robust clinical studies are necessary to comprehensively catalogue TPT-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis to inform strategies to mitigate potential long-term sequelae of this important TB control intervention.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tuberculose Latente , Rifamicinas , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Disbiose , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Hepatol Commun ; 7(8)2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37534941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for those with cirrhosis. Despite the known benefits of rifaximin use for HE, treatment retention remains low. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) rifaximin cost on treatment retention among commercially insured patients in the United States. METHODS: Adult patients with cirrhosis and HE were identified from the IBM MarketScan claims database. Those who began rifaximin treatment between January 1, 2011, and December 1, 2021 were included. Regression models were used to analyze the relationship between patients' 30-day OOP rifaximin cost and rifaximin retention (≥80% eligible days with rifaximin supply) at 180, 360, and 540 days. Models were controlled for patient demographic and clinical characteristics including age, sex, comorbid conditions, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and lactulose use. RESULTS: A total of 6839 adult patients were included. Most patients were between 55 and 64 years (57.1%), male (60.4%), and living in urban settings (84.6%). Treatment retention was low for all time periods; retention rates for rifaximin were 42%, 25%, and 16% at 180, 360, and 540 days, respectively. In multivariable analysis, 30-day OOP costs of ≥ $150 were associated with a decreased likelihood of rifaximin retention at 180, 360, and 540 days [relative risk (RR) = 0.67, RR = 0.62, and R = 0.60, respectively]. Younger age was associated with reduced treatment retention for all time periods. Metastatic cancer and depression were associated with reduced treatment retention at 180 days (RR = 0.70 and RR = 0.87, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of rifaximin treatment retention are low despite the known benefits of rifaximin use for breakthrough HE. High 30-day OOP cost is associated with reduced rifaximin treatment retention.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Rifamicinas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Gastos em Saúde , Rifamicinas/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 9(8): 1499-1507, 2023 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37433130

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a global public health threat, and development of novel therapeutics for treating infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is urgent. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen, responsible for high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The intracellular survival of S. aureus in macrophages contributes to immune evasion, dissemination, and resilience to antibiotic treatment. Here, we present a confocal fluorescence imaging assay for monitoring macrophage infection by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged S. aureus as a front-line tool to identify antibiotic leads. The assay was employed in combination with nanoscaled chemical analyses to facilitate the discovery of a new, active rifamycin analogue. Our findings indicate a promising new approach for the identification of antimicrobial compounds with macrophage intracellular activity. The antibiotic identified here may represent a useful addition to our armory in tackling the silent pandemic of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Rifamicinas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Rifamicinas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Macrófagos
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