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2.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678274

RESUMO

Plenty of studies have shown that tea has an effect of inhibiting gynecologic tumors. However, there still remained controversy of the association between tea and gynecologic tumors in epidemiological studies. In this study, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Database were used to search the literature from 1 January 1960 to 26 December 2022 to investigate the association between tea intake and gynecologic cancer risk. In total, 19 cohort studies with 2,020,980 subjects and 12,155 gynecological tumor cases were retrieved. The pooled relative risk (RR) of gynecologic tumor for tea intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.96-1.04). RRs were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-1.01) for ovarian cancer, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.97-1.07) for endometrial cancer, and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91-1.23) for cervical cancer. Subgroup analyses were adopted based on the tea type and geographic location. Interestingly, significant preventive impact of non-herbal tea on ovarian cancer (pooled relative risk: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55-0.81) was found, especially for black tea (pooled relative risk: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.51-0.80). Dose-response analysis indicated that although it is not statistically significant, a decreasing trend of ovarian cancer risk could be observed when the tea consumption was 1.40 to 3.12 cups/day. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ovarian cancer, but not other gynecologic cancers, could possibly be prevented by drinking non-herbal tea. In addition, the preventive impact of green tea on gynecologic cancer seemed to be relatively weak and needs further cohorts to validate it.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/prevenção & controle , Chá , Estudos de Coortes , Risco , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 22(1): 5, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624453

RESUMO

The association between body weight variability and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been investigated previously with mixed findings. However, there has been no extensive study which systematically evaluates the current evidence. Furthermore, the impact of ethnicity and type 2 diabetes on this phenomena has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effect of weight variability on risk of CVD (any cardiovascular (CV) event, composite CV outcome, CV death, Stroke, Myocardial Infarction) and the influence of ethnicity and type 2 diabetes status on the observed association. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to the meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. The electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that investigated the relationship between body weight or BMI variability and CV diseases using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords. The relative risks (RRs) for the outcomes were collected from studies, pooled, and analysed using a random-effects model to estimate the overall relative risk. Of 5645 articles screened, 23 studies with a total population of 15,382,537 fulfilled the prespecified criteria and were included. Individuals in the highest strata of body weight variability were found to have significantly increased risk of any CV event (RR = 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.17-1.38; P < 0.0001; I2 = 97.28%), cardiovascular death (RR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.60; P < 0.0001; I2 = 55.16%), myocardial infarction (RR = 1.32; 95% CI 1.09-1.59; P = 0.0037; I2 = 97.14%), stroke (RR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19-1.24; P < 0.0001; I2 = 0.06%), and compound CVD outcomes (RR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.08-1.73; P = 0.01; I2 = 92.41%). Similar RRs were observed regarding BMI variability and per unit standard deviation (SD) increase in body weight variability. Comparable effects were seen in people with and without diabetes, in White Europeans and Asians. In conclusion, body weight variability is associated with increased risk of CV diseases regardless of ethnicity or diabetes status. Future research is needed to prove a causative link between weight variability and CVD risk, as appropriate interventions to maintain stable weight could positively influence CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Risco , Peso Corporal
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674018

RESUMO

Increasing patient inflow into the emergency department makes it necessary to optimize triage management. The scope of this work was to determine simple factors that could detect fractures in patients without the need for specialized personnel. Between 2014 and 2015, 798 patients were admitted to an orthopedic emergency department and prospectively included in the study. The patients received a questionnaire before contacting the doctor. Objective and subjective data were evaluated to determine fracture risk for the upper and lower extremities. The highest risk for fractures in one region was the hip (73.21%; n = 56), followed by the wrist (60.32%; n = 63) and the femoral shaft (4 of 7, 57.14%; n = 7). The regions with the lowest risk were the knee (8.41%; n = 107), the ankle (18.29%; n = 164), and the forearm shaft (30.00%; n = 10). Age was a predictor for fracture: patients older than 59 years had a risk greater than 59.26%, and patients older than 90 years had a risk greater than 83.33%. The functional questions could exclude fractures. Three factors seem to be able to predict fracture risk: the injured region, the patient's age, and a functional question. They can be used for a probatory heuristic that needs to be proven in a prospective way.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Ortopedia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Risco , Hospitalização
5.
J Rheumatol ; 50(1): 39-43, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587954

RESUMO

Twenty-eight HLA alleles of the A and B loci were determined in 23 American Blacks and 50 Caucasians with primary ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence of HLA B27 was significantly increased in American Black patients (48 per cent) vs Black controls (two per cent), but was much less than the 94 per cent found in Caucasian patients (controls eight per cent). The lower prevalence of B27 in American Black patients vs Caucasian patients was significant (p < 0.001), and indicated that susceptibility to AS is not as closely associated with B27 in Blacks as in Caucasians. No other HLA antigen was significantly associated with AS in either racial group. Among B27 positive individuals, the relative risk of developing AS was significantly lower in American Blacks than in Caucasians. These data indicate that for diagnostic purposes, the absence of B27 is less important in ruling out AS in Blacks than in Caucasians.


Assuntos
Antígeno HLA-B27 , Espondilite Anquilosante , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Risco , Antígenos HLA , /genética
7.
Menopause ; 30(2): 215-217, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541862

RESUMO

Aspirin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. Low-dose aspirin may be considered for primary prevention in women on an individualized basis for those aged 40 to 59 years with a 10-year cardiovascular risk of 10% or more and without increased bleeding risk. Low-dose aspirin for primary prevention is not advised for low-risk women or women aged 60 years or older.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Risco , Prevenção Primária
8.
Int J Drug Policy ; 111: 103933, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529033

RESUMO

The overdose crisis in Canada has continuously evolved and is increasingly challenging to contain, while efforts from governments and policymakers to address it have often fallen short and resulted in unintended consequences. One of the main repercussions has been an unprecedented rise in adulterants in the illegal drug supply, including a wide array of pharmacological and psychoactive compounds and chemicals, which has resulted in a progressively toxic drug supply. Most recently, there has been a stark increase in synthetic benzodiazepine-laced opioids (i.e., 'benzodope') in some Canadian jurisdictions. This unique combination carries distinct and amplified risks for people who use drugs including fatal and non-fatal overdoses, increased dependence and withdrawal symptoms, and places them in extremely vulnerable positions. The emergence of benzodiazepines within the illicit drug supply has substantially contributed to drug-related morbidity and mortality in Canada, and has further complicated current public health initiatives and overdose prevention efforts. This reality underscores the need for effective and sustainable policy solutions to address the evolving overdose epidemic including increased knowledge and education on the specific harms of opioid and benzodiazepine co-use (especially in regards to the complexity of opioid/benzodiazepine overdoses), scaling-up harm reduction measures, and eliminating the toxic drug supply altogether.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Drogas Ilícitas , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides , Canadá/epidemiologia , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Risco
9.
Occup Environ Med ; 80(2): 77-85, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has suggested that women firefighters may have a greater risk of adverse reproductive outcomes compared with non-firefighting women. In this study, we investigated the association between firefighter occupational factors and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of US firefighters surveyed in 2017 compared preterm birth among firefighters to non-firefighters using age-at-pregnancy-standardised prevalence ratios. Generalised estimating equations estimated relative risks and 95% CIs between firefighter occupational factors (career or volunteer, wildland status, shift schedule, fire responses, work restriction) and preterm birth risk. We adjusted for age-at-pregnancy, education, gravidity, BMI, and smoking and considered effect modification by age-at-pregnancy and career versus volunteer status. RESULTS: Among 934 women who reported 1356 live births, 12% were preterm (n=161). Preterm birth prevalence among firefighters was 1.41 times greater than non-firefighters (95% CI 1.18 to 1.68). Among wildland and combination wildland/structural firefighters, volunteers had 2.82 times the risk of preterm birth (95% CI 1.19 to 6.67) compared with career firefighters. Firefighters who started restricting their work in the 2nd trimester had a nonsignificant 0.67 times lower risk of preterm birth than those who started in the 3rd trimester or did not restrict work at all (95% CI 0.43 to 1.03). CONCLUSIONS: Firefighters may have greater risk of preterm birth than non-firefighters, which could be influenced by roles in the fire service and work restrictions taken.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Voluntários , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez
10.
Head Neck ; 45(2): 439-448, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (LR-PTC) can be managed by immediate surgery (IS) or active surveillance (AS). We compare the psychological impact of these treatments on patients with LR-PTC. METHODS: Psychological data were collected over 1 year, with assessments at the time of treatment decision (T1), at 6 months (T2) and 12 months (T3) follow-up. Assessments included 13 validated psychological tools. RESULTS: Of 27 enrolled patients, 20 chose AS and 7 chose IS. The average times to T2 and T3 were 5.7 and 11.3 months, respectively. For both groups, Impact of Events Scale scores significantly decreased (p = 0.001) at T2, and depressive/anxiety symptoms remained low. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of assessing psychological outcomes among patients treated for LR-PTC. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of AS versus IS on quality of life and changes that patients experience over longer time periods following their treatment decision.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Tireoidectomia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Risco , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(2): e026477, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542728

RESUMO

Background This study was conducted to examine the impacts of coffee and green tea consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among people with severe hypertension. Methods and Results In the JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk), 18 609 participants (6574 men and 12 035 women) aged 40 to 79 years at baseline who completed a lifestyle, diet, and medical history questionnaire, and health examinations, were followed up until 2009. We classified the participants into four blood pressure (BP) categories: optimal and normal BP, high-normal BP, grade 1 hypertension, and grade 2-3 hypertension. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the multivariable hazard ratios with 95% CIs of CVD mortality. During the 18.9 years of median follow-up, a total of 842 CVD deaths were documented. Coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality among people with grade 2-3 hypertension; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CI) of CVD mortality were 0.98 (0.67-1.43) for <1 cup/day, 0.74 (0.37-1.46) for 1 cup/day, and 2.05 (1.17-3.59) for ≥2 cups/day, compared with non-coffee drinkers. Such associations were not found among people with optimal and normal, high-normal BP, and grade 1 hypertension. Green tea consumption was not associated with an increased risk of CVD across any BP categories. Conclusions Heavy coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality among people with severe hypertension, but not people without hypertension and with grade 1 hypertension. In contrast, green tea consumption was not associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality across all categories of BP.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Chá , Estudos de Coortes , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160850, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing climate change will elevate the incidence of diarrheal in 2030-2050 in Asia, including Taiwan. This study investigated associations between meteorological factors (temperature, precipitation) and burden of age-cause-specific diarrheal diseases in six regions of Taiwan using 13 years of (2004-2016) population-based data. METHODS: Weekly cause-specific diarrheal and meteorological data were obtained from 2004 to 2016. We used distributed lag non-linear model to assess age (under five, all age) and cause-specific (viral, bacterial) diarrheal disease burden associated with extreme high (99th percentile) and low (5th percentile) of climate variables up to lag 8 weeks in six regions of Taiwan. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool these region-specific estimates. RESULTS: Extreme low temperature (15.30 °C) was associated with risks of all-infectious and viral diarrhea, with the highest risk for all-infectious diarrheal found at lag 8 weeks among all age [Relative Risk (RR): 1.44; 95 % Confidence Interval (95 % CI): 1.24-1.67]. The highest risk of viral diarrheal infection was observed at lag 2 weeks regardless the age. Extreme high temperature (30.18 °C) was associated with risk of bacterial diarrheal among all age (RR: 1.07; 95 % CI: 1.02-1.13) at lag 8 weeks. Likewise, extreme high precipitation (290 mm) was associated with all infectious diarrheal, with the highest risk observed for bacterial diarrheal among population under five years (RR: 2.77; 95 % CI: 1.60-4.79) at lag 8 weeks. Extreme low precipitation (0 mm) was associated with viral diarrheal in all age at lag 1 week (RR: 1.08; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.15)]. CONCLUSION: In Taiwan, extreme low temperature is associated with an increased burden of viral diarrheal, while extreme high temperature and precipitation elevated burden of bacterial diarrheal. This distinction in cause-specific and climate-hazard specific diarrheal disease burden underscore the importance of incorporating differences in public health preparedness measures designed to enhance community resilience against climate change.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Diarreia , Humanos , Adolescente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Temperatura , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Risco , Diarreia/epidemiologia
14.
Environ Res ; 219: 115116, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549491

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hazardous exposures from the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks have been linked to increased incidence of adverse health conditions, often associated with increased mortality. We assessed mortality in a pooled cohort of WTC rescue/recovery workers over 15 years of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed mortality through 2016 in a pooled and deduplicated cohort of WTC rescue/recovery workers from three WTC-exposed cohorts (N = 60,631): the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY); the WTC Health Registry (WTCHR); and the General Responder Cohort (GRC). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated to assess mortality vs. the US and NY state populations. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of WTC exposures (date of first arrival, working on the WTC debris pile) with mortality risk. RESULTS: There were 1912 deaths over 697,943.33 person-years of follow-up. The SMR for all-cause mortality was significantly lower-than-expected, both when using US (SMR 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.45) and NYS (SMR 0.51, 95% CI 0.49-0.53) as reference populations. SMRs were not elevated for any of the 28 major causes of death. Arriving at the WTC site on 9/11-9/17/2001 vs. 9/18/2001-6/30/2002 was associated with 30-50% higher risk of all-cause, heart disease and smoking-related mortality in non-FDNY/non-GRC members. Conversely, arriving on 9/11/2001 vs. 9/18/2001-6/30/2002 was associated with 40% lower all-cause and smoking-related mortality risk in FDNY members. Working on vs. off the WTC pile was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in non-FDNY/non-GRC members (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50), and cancer-specific mortality in GRC members (aHR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84), but lower mortality risks were found in FDNY members. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe excess mortality among WTC rescue/recovery workers compared with general populations. However, significantly increased mortality risks among some sub-groups with high WTC exposure warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Humanos , Seguimentos , Trabalho de Resgate , New York/epidemiologia , Risco , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
15.
Environ Res ; 219: 115109, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a heavy metal with carcinogenic properties, highly prevalent in industrialized areas worldwide. Prior reviews evaluating whether cadmium influences breast cancer have been inconclusive and not reflected several recent studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cadmium exposure and female breast cancer incidence, with an emphasis on separately estimating dietary vs. airborne vs. biomarker measures of cadmium and studies published until October 2022. METHODS: We evaluated risk of bias using set criteria and excluded one study judged to have high risk based on self-report of breast cancer and insufficient adjustment. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of epidemiological studies, including subgroups by exposure route and by menopausal status. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were eligible for our meta-analysis. Only 2 studies addressed airborne cadmium directly. Breast cancer risk was elevated in women exposed to higher levels of cadmium across all studies - pooled odds ratio: 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.28), with notable heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 77%). When examining separately by exposure route, dietary cadmium was not linked with an elevated risk - (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.91, 1.21; I2 = 69%), consistent with prior reviews, but biomarker-based studies showed an elevated but non-significant pooled measure (OR: 1.37; 95%CI: 0.96, 1.94; I2 = 84%). We did not observe any clear patterns of different risk by menopausal status. CONCLUSION: Findings from our meta-analysis suggest that exposure to higher cadmium increases the risk of breast cancer in women, but with remaining questions about whether non-dietary exposure may be more risky or whether residual confounding by constituents of tobacco smoke may be at play.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Metais Pesados , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Risco , Mama/química
16.
Int J Cancer ; 150(7): 1166-1173, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605002

RESUMO

Cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) is an independent predictor of outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aimed to investigate the association between ptDNA and VTE in mCRPC. This prospective biomarker study included 180 mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone and enzalutamide from April 2013 to December 2018. We excluded patients with a previous VTE history and/or ongoing anticoagulation therapy. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to determine ptDNA fraction from pretreatment plasma samples. VTE risk based on survival analysis was performed using cumulative incidence function and estimating sub-distributional hazard ratio (SHR). At a median follow-up of 58 months (range 0.5-111.0), we observed 21 patients who experienced VTE with a cumulative incidence at 12 months of 17.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-23.9). Elevated ptDNA, visceral metastasis, prior chemotherapy and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly associated with higher VTE incidence compared to patients with no thrombosis (12-month estimate, 18.6% vs 3.5%, P = .0003; 44.4% vs 14.8%, P = .015; 24.7% vs 4.5%, P = .006; and 30.0% vs 13.5%, P = .05, respectively). In the multivariate analysis including ptDNA level, visceral metastases, number of lesions and serum LDH, high ptDNA fraction was the only independent factor associated with the risk of thrombosis (HR 5.78, 95% CI 1.63-20.44, P = .006). These results first suggest that baseline ptDNA fraction in mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide may be associated with increased VTE risk. These patients may be followed-up more closely for the VTE risk, and the need for a primary thromboprophylaxis should be taken into account in mCRPC with elevated ptDNA.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Risco
17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 31(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While an association between exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and risk of lung cancer has been reported in several studies, its interaction with tobacco smoking in determining lung cancer risk is not well characterized. This study aims at performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of results of epidemiology studies on this. METHODS: Studies included in the systematic review were identified from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, without limitation of year of publication or language. Two reviewers independently reviewed the studies and abstracted relevant data from selected studies, applied a customized quality assessment tool and calculated the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the interaction between DE exposure and tobacco smoking on a multiplicative scale. Next, a random-effects meta-analysis of the interaction RR was conducted. RESULTS: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, of which two were cohort and five case-control studies. Results on the interaction were heterogeneous (I2 = 45.6%). The summary RR for interaction was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.42-1.46). There was no indication of publication bias. There was no increased risk of lung cancer among non-smoking workers exposed to DE. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested a less-than-multiplicative effect between DE exposure and tobacco smoking in determining lung cancer risk, but the hypothesis of multiplicative interaction cannot be rejected. The small number of relevant studies and the high heterogeneity among them prevent from definite conclusions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
18.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1264, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk stratified breast cancer screening is being considered as a means of improving the balance of benefits and harms of mammography. Stratified screening requires the communication of risk estimates. We aimed to co-develop personalised 10-year breast cancer risk communications for women attending routine mammography. METHODS: We conducted think-aloud interviews on prototype breast cancer risk letters and accompanying information leaflets with women receiving breast screening through the UK National Breast Screening Programme. Risk information was redesigned following feedback from 55 women in three iterations. A deductive thematic analysis of participants' speech is presented. RESULTS: Overall, participants appreciated receiving their breast cancer risk. Their comments focused on positive framing and presentation of the risk estimate, a desire for detail on the contribution of individual risk factors to overall risk and effective risk management strategies, and clearly signposted support pathways. CONCLUSION: Provision of breast cancer risk information should strive to be personal, understandable and meaningful. Risk information should be continually refined to reflect developments in risk management. Receipt of risk via letter is welcomed but concerns remain around the acceptability of informing women at higher risk in this way, highlighting a need for co-development of risk dissemination and support pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Mamografia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Risco , Programas de Rastreamento , Comunicação
19.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278236, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548250

RESUMO

Entropy is an alternative measure to calculate the risk, simplify the portfolios and equity risk premium. It has higher explanatory power than capital asset price model (CAPM) beta. The comparison of Entropy and CAPM beta provide in depth analysis about the explanatory power of the model that in turn help investor to make right investment decisions that minimizes risk. In this context, this study aims to compare Shannon and Rennyi Entropies with the CAPM beta for measuring the risk. Ordinary Least square approach has been utilized using a dataset of 67 enterprises registered in Pakistan Stock exchange. The comparative analysis of CAPM beta and entropy has been carried out with the R2 parameters. The result indicates that entropy has more explanatory power as compare to CAPM beta's explanatory power, and this turns out to be the best option to evaluate the risk performances. The result implies that an investor should make the best investment decision by choosing an enterprise that provide with good returns at minimum risk based on entropy technique.


Assuntos
Declarações Financeiras , Entropia , Paquistão , Custos e Análise de Custo , Risco
20.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association of egg intake with 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of individuals of Mediterranean origin. METHODS: In 2001-2002, n = 1514 men and n = 1528 women (>18 years old) from the greater Athens area, Greece, were enrolled. Information on any egg intake, eaten as a whole, partly or in recipes was assessed via a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Follow-up for CVD evaluation (2011-2012) was achieved in n = 2020 participants (n = 317 CVD cases). RESULTS: Ranking from lowest (<1 serving/week) to intermediate (1-4 servings/week) and high (4-7 servings/week) egg consumption tertiles, lower CVD incidence was observed (18%, 9% and 8%, respectively, p-for-trend = 0.004). Unadjusted analysis revealed that 1-3 eggs/week and 4-7 eggs/week were associated with a 60% and 75%, respectively, lower risk of developing CVD compared with the reference group (<1 egg/week). When adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors, significance was retained only for 1-3 eggs/week (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.28, 1.00). When total saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake was taken into account, this inverse association was non-significant. Multi-adjusted analysis revealed that in participants of low SFA intake, 1 serving/day increase in egg intake resulted in 45% lower risk of developing CVD. In the case of higher SFA consumption, only 1-3 eggs/week seemed to protect against CVD (HR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.86). In the case of intermediate cardiometabolic disorders, no significant trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Overall dietary habits principally in terms of SFA intake may be detrimental to define the role of eggs in cardiac health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ácidos Graxos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Incidência , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto
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