Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.632
Filtrar
2.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306181, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959227

RESUMO

Babesia is a tick-transmitted parasite that infects wild and domestic animals, causes babesiosis in humans, and is an increasing public health concern. Here, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Babesia infections in the rodents in Southeastern Shanxi, China. Small rodents were captured, and the liver and spleen tissues were used for Babesia detection using traditional PCR and sequencing of the partial 18S rRNA gene. The analysis revealed that 27 of 252 small rodents were positive for Babesia, with an infection rate of 10.71%. The infection rates in different sexes and rodent tissues were not statistically different, but those in different rodent species, habitats, and sampling sites were statistically different. The highest risk of Babesia infection was observed in Niviventer confucianus captured from the forests in Huguan County. Forty-three sequences from 27 small rodents positive for Babesia infection were identified as Babesia microti, including 42 sequences from 26 N. confucianus, and one sequence from Apodemus agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all sequences were clustered together and had the closest genetic relationship with Babesia microti strains isolated from Rattus losea and N. confucianus in China, and belonged to the Kobe-type, which is pathogenic to humans. Compared to other Kobe-type strains based on the nearly complete 18S rRNA gene, the sequences obtained in this study showed the difference by 1-3 bp. Overall, a high prevalence of Babesia microti infection was observed in small rodents in Southeastern Shanxi, China, which could benefit us to take the implementation of relevant prevention and control measures in this area.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesiose , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Roedores , Animais , Babesia microti/genética , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Roedores/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia
3.
Hand Clin ; 40(3): 429-440, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972687

RESUMO

This article highlights the use of rodents as preclinical models to evaluate the management of nerve injuries, describing the pitfalls and value from rodent nerve injury and regeneration outcomes, as well as treatments derived from these rodent models. The anatomic structure, size, and cellular and molecular differences and similarities between rodent and human nerves are summarized. Specific examples of success and failure when assessing outcome metrics are presented for context. Evidence for translation to clinical practice includes the topics of electrical stimulation, Tacrolimus (FK506), and acellular nerve allografts.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regeneração Nervosa , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Animais , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Ratos , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , Humanos , Tacrolimo , Roedores , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Imunossupressores , Camundongos
4.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 89(6): 1014-1023, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981697

RESUMO

Damages of various origin accumulated in the genomic DNA can lead to the breach of genome stability, and are considered to be one of the main factors involved in cellular senescence. DNA repair systems in mammalian cells ensure effective damage removal and repair of the genome structure, therefore, activity of these systems is expected to be correlated with high maximum lifespan observed in the long-lived mammals. This review discusses current results of the studies focused on determination of the DNA repair system activity and investigation of the properties of its key regulatory proteins in the cells of long-lived rodents and bats. Based on the works discussed in the review, it could be concluded that the long-lived rodents and bats in general demonstrate high efficiency in functioning and regulation of DNA repair systems. Nevertheless, a number of questions around the study of DNA repair in the cells of long-lived rodents and bats remain poorly understood, answers to which could open up new avenues for further research.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Reparo do DNA , Roedores , Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/metabolismo , Roedores/genética , Roedores/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Longevidade
5.
Parasite ; 31: 34, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949636

RESUMO

Wild rodents serve as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium and are overpopulated globally. However, genetic data regarding Cryptosporidium in these animals from China are limited. Here, we have determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium among 370 wild rodents captured from three distinct locations in the southern region of Zhejiang Province, China. Fresh feces were collected from the rectum of each rodent, and DNA was extracted from them. The rodent species was identified by PCR amplifying the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR amplification and amplicon sequencing the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene. Positive samples of C. viatorum and C. parvum were further subtyped by analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. A positive Cryptosporidium result was found in 7% (26/370) of samples, involving five rodent species: Apodemus agrarius (36), Niviventer niviventer (75), Rattus losea (18), R. norvegicus (155), and R. tanezumi (86). Their respective Cryptosporidium positive rates were 8.3%, 5.3%, 11.1%, 7.1%, and 7.0%. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of three Cryptosporidium species: C. parvum (4), C. viatorum (1), and C. muris (1), and two genotypes: Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV (16) and C. mortiferum-like (4). Additionally, two subtypes of C. parvum (IIdA15G1 and IIpA19) and one subtype of C. viatorum (XVdA3) were detected. These results demonstrate that various wild rodent species in Zhejiang were concurrently infected with rodent-adapted and zoonotic species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium, indicating that these rodents can play a role in maintaining and dispersing this parasite into the environment and other hosts, including humans.


Title: Transmission interspécifique de Cryptosporidium chez les rongeurs sauvages de la région sud de la province chinoise du Zhejiang et son impact possible sur la santé publique. Abstract: Les rongeurs sauvages servent de réservoirs à Cryptosporidium et ont des grandes populations à l'échelle mondiale. Cependant, les données génétiques concernant Cryptosporidium chez ces animaux en Chine sont limitées. Ici, nous avons déterminé la prévalence et les caractéristiques génétiques de Cryptosporidium parmi 370 rongeurs sauvages capturés dans trois endroits distincts de la région sud de la province du Zhejiang, en Chine. Des excréments frais ont été collectés dans le rectum de chaque rongeur et l'ADN en a été extrait. L'espèce de rongeur a été identifiée par amplification par PCR du gène du cytochrome b des vertébrés. Cryptosporidium a été détecté par amplification PCR et séquençage d'amplicons de la petite sous-unité du gène de l'ARN ribosomal. Les échantillons positifs de C. viatorum et C. parvum ont ensuite été sous-typés en analysant le gène de la glycoprotéine de 60 kDa. Un résultat positif pour Cryptosporidium a été trouvé dans 7 % (26/370) des échantillons, impliquant cinq espèces de rongeurs : Apodemus agrarius (36), Niviventer niviventer (75), Rattus losea (18), R. norvegicus (155) et R. tanezumi (86). Leurs taux respectifs de positivité pour Cryptosporidium étaient de 8,3 %, 5,3 %, 11,1 %, 7,1 % et 7,0 %. L'analyse des séquences a confirmé la présence de trois espèces de Cryptosporidium : C. parvum (4), C. viatorum (1) et C. muris (1), et de deux génotypes : Cryptosporidium génotype IV de rat (16) et C. mortiferum-like (4). De plus, deux sous-types de C. parvum (IIdA15G1 et IIpA19) et un sous-type de C. viatorum (XVdA3) ont été détectés. Ces résultats démontrent que diverses espèces de rongeurs sauvages du Zhejiang sont simultanément infectées par des espèces/génotypes de Cryptosporidium zoonotiques et adaptés aux rongeurs, ce qui indique que ces rongeurs peuvent jouer un rôle dans le maintien et la dispersion de ce parasite dans l'environnement et d'autres hôtes, y compris les humains.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Fezes , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Filogenia , Humanos , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Genótipo
6.
J Neurosci Res ; 102(7): e25364, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953607

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a condition that occurs commonly in children from infancy through adolescence and is a global health concern. Pediatric TBI presents with a bimodal age distribution, with very young children (0-4 years) and adolescents (15-19 years) more commonly injured. Because children's brains are still developing, there is increased vulnerability to the effects of head trauma, which results in entirely different patterns of injury than in adults. Pediatric TBI has a profound and lasting impact on a child's development and quality of life, resulting in long-lasting consequences to physical, cognitive, and emotional development. Chronic issues like learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and emotional disturbances can develop. Early intervention and ongoing support are critical for minimizing these long-term deficits. Many animal models of TBI exist, and each varies significantly, displaying different characteristics of clinical TBI. The neurodevelopment differs in the rodent from the human in timing and effect, so TBI outcomes in the juvenile rodent can thus vary from the human child. The current review compares findings from preclinical TBI work in juvenile and adult rodents to clinical TBI research in pediatric and adult humans. We focus on the four brain regions most affected by TBI: the prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Each has its unique developmental projections and thus is impacted by TBI differently. This review aims to compare the healthy neurodevelopment of these four brain regions in humans to the developmental processes in rodents.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Humanos , Animais , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Roedores , Encéfalo/patologia , Pré-Escolar
7.
Microb Genom ; 10(7)2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953769

RESUMO

Several hundred ciliate species live in animals' guts as a part of their microbiome. Among them, Muniziella cunhai (Trichostomatia, Pycnotrichidae), the largest described ciliate, is found exclusively associated with Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capybara), the largest known rodent reaching up to 90 kg. Here, we present the sequence, structural and functional annotation of this giant microeukaryote macronuclear genome and discuss its phylogenetic placement. The 85 Mb genome is highly AT rich (GC content 25.71 %) and encodes a total of 11 397 protein-coding genes, of which 2793 could have their functions predicted with automated functional assignments. Functional annotation showed that M. cunhai can digest recalcitrant structural carbohydrates, non-structural carbohydrates, and microbial cell walls, suggesting a role in diet metabolization and in microbial population control in the capybara's intestine. Moreover, the phylogenetic placement of M. cunhai provides insights on the origins of gigantism in the subclass Trichostomatia.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Filogenia , Animais , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/classificação , Roedores/microbiologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Composição de Bases , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1409685, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957795

RESUMO

Introduction: Wild rodents can serve as reservoirs or carriers of E. bieneusi, thereby enabling parasite transmission to domestic animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of E. bieneusi in wild rodents from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region and Liaoning Province of China. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for zoonotic transmission at the genotype level, a genetic analysis of the isolates was performed. Methods: A total of 486 wild rodents were captured from two provinces in China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the vertebrate cytochrome b (cytb) gene in the fecal DNA of the rodents to detect their species. The genotype of E. bieneusi was determined via PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. The examination of genetic characteristics and zoonotic potential requires the application of similarity and phylogenetic analysis. Results: The infection rates of E. bieneusi in the four identified rodent species were 5.2% for Apodemus agrarius (n = 89), 4.5% for Cricetulus barabensis (n = 96), 11.3% for Mus musculus (n = 106), and 38.5% for Rattus norvegicus (n = 195). Infection was detected at an average rate of 17.4% among 486 rodents. Of the 11 identified genotypes, nine were known: SHR1 (detected in 32 samples), D (30 samples), EbpA (9 samples), PigEbITS7 (8 samples), HNR-IV (6 samples), Type IV (5 samples), HNR-VII (2 samples), HNH7 (1 sample), and HNPL-V (1 sample). Two novel genotypes were also discovered, NMR-I and NMR-II, each comprising one sample. The genotypes were classified into group 1 and group 13 via phylogenetic analysis. Discussion: Based on the initial report, E. bieneusi is highly prevalent and genetically diverse in wild rodents residing in the respective province and region. This indicates that these animals are crucial for the dissemination of E. bieneusi. Zoonotic E. bieneusi-carrying animals present a significant hazard to local inhabitants. Therefore, it is necessary to increase awareness regarding the dangers presented by these rodents and reduce their population to prevent environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Enterocytozoon , Fezes , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Microsporidiose , Filogenia , Roedores , Zoonoses , Animais , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Prevalência , Citocromos b/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Camundongos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , DNA Fúngico/genética , Ratos
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 70(1): 1-13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985754

RESUMO

Shrews and small rodents inhabit the drainage channel banks in reclai med areas and have their own helminth complex. The aim of the study is to conduct the 3rd research period during 2015-2019 the helminth fauna of these animals living on the drainage channel banks of model reclamation systems in Brest Polesie (south-western part of Belarus), to establish the species composition of helminths and the animal infection by these, and to compare the data obtained with previous research periods. 4,000 trap-days were worked out. 151 specimens of shrews of 4 species and 510 small rodents of 8 species were caught. Animals were examined by the method of complete helminthological dissections. Their numbers were 3.78 and 12.75 individuals per 100 trap-days, and helminth infection was 94.7% and 65.9%, respectively. 66 helminth species were found in animals. The dominant helminth species in infection have been identified. The trematode Prosolecithus danubica Tkach et Bray, 1995 (definitive host: common shrew), the acanthocephalans Centhrorhynchus aluconis (Müller, 1780) (larval host: lesser shrew) and Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) (definitive host: striped field mouse) are new species of helminths for Belarus. New hosts in Belarus have been found for 6 helminth species. Shrews and small rodents are involved in the life cycles of bird, non-ruminant artiodactyl and carnivorous mammal helminths. Nine helminth species have significance for medicine and 7 species for veterinary science. The results are compared with data from the 1st (1996-1999) and 2nd (2005-2010) research periods.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Roedores , Musaranhos , Animais , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , República de Belarus/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15994, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987328

RESUMO

Mitigating pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) and post-harvest food loss (PHFL) is essential for enhancing food securrity. To reduce food loss, the use of plant derived specialized metabolites can represent a good approach to develop a more eco-friendly agriculture. Here, we have discovered that soybean seeds hidden underground during winter by Tscherskia triton and Apodemus agrarius during winter possess a higher concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to those remaining exposed in fields. This selection by rodents suggests that among the identified volatiles, 3-FurAldehyde (Fur) and (E)-2-Heptenal (eHep) effectively inhibit the growth of plant pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani and Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, compounds such as Camphene (Cam), 3-FurAldehyde, and (E)-2-Heptenal, suppress the germination of seeds in crops including soybean, rice, maize, and wheat. Importantly, some of these VOCs also prevent rice seeds from pre-harvest sprouting. Consequently, our findings offer straightforward and practical approaches to seed protection and the reduction of PHS and PHFL, indicating potential new pathways for breeding, and reducing both PHS and pesticide usage in agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Glycine max , Sementes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Glycine max/microbiologia , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Germinação , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Roedores/microbiologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 253, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fleas are one of the most common and pervasive ectoparasites worldwide, comprising at least 2500 valid species. They are vectors of several disease-causing agents, such as Yersinia pestis. Despite their significance, however, the molecular genetics, biology, and phylogenetics of fleas remain poorly understood. METHODS: We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the rodent flea Nosopsyllus laeviceps using next-generation sequencing technology. Then we combined the new mitogenome generated here with mt genomic data available for 23 other flea species to perform comparative mitogenomics, nucleotide diversity, and evolutionary rate analysis. Subsequently, the phylogenetic relationship within the order Siphonaptera was explored using the Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on concentrated data for 13 mt protein-coding genes. RESULTS: The complete mt genome of the rodent flea N. laeviceps was 16,533 base pairs (bp) in a circular DNA molecule, containing 37 typical genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA [tRNA] genes, and two ribosomal RNA [rRNA] genes) with one large non-coding region (NCR). Comparative analysis among the order Siphonaptera showed a stable gene order with no gene arrangement, and high AT content (76.71-83.21%) with an apparent negative AT and GC skew except in three fleas Aviostivalius klossi bispiniformis, Leptopsylla segnis, and Neopsylla specialis. Moreover, we found robust evidence that the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was the most conserved protein-coding gene (Pi = 0.15, non-synonymous/synonymous [Ka/Ks] ratio = 0.13) of fleas. Phylogenomic analysis conducted using two methods revealed different topologies, but both results strongly indicated that (i) the families Ceratophyllidae and Leptopsyllidae were paraphyletic and were the closest to each other, and (ii) the family Ctenophthalmidae was paraphyletic. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we obtained a high-quality mt genome of the rodent flea N. laeviceps and performed comparative mitogenomics and phylogeny of the order Siphonaptera using the mt database. The results will enrich the mt genome data for fleas, lay a foundation for the phylogenetic analysis of fleas, and promote the evolutionary analysis of Siphonaptera.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Sifonápteros , Animais , Sifonápteros/genética , Sifonápteros/classificação , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Roedores , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA de Transferência/genética
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(2): 412-423, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875197

RESUMO

The nutria (Myocastor coypus) is a globally widespread invasive species. Attempts to eradicate nutria by shooting, poisoning, and trapping have been mostly unsuccessful, leading to calls for the development of new control methods. The compound 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is known to cause follicular atresia in mammals and may control conception when administered orally. It was hypothesized that VCD administered PO will cause follicular destruction in female nutria. VCD (250 mg/kg PO) was administered or coconut oil, as a control, to five nutria females each for 12 d. Sixty days following VCD exposure, males were introduced to the females. Over the following 7 mon, the effect of VCD on nutria fertility was assessed by conducting ultrasound monitoring to determine pregnancy status and measuring blood serum progesterone and estradiol levels. Finally, after performing ovariectomies, viable follicles were counted on histologic ovarian cortical sections. It was found that the female estrous cycles became synchronized, suggesting a Whitten effect in this species. Also, an increase in the females' serum progesterone levels following the introduction of males occurred, suggesting a male presence effect. Orally administered doses of 250 mg/kg VCD for 12 d had no significant effect on nutria pregnancy rates or on the number of follicles in the ovaries examined. Further studies, using a higher dose or longer administration period, are necessary to conclude whether orally administered VCD can be used as a contraceptive agent for nutria.


Assuntos
Cicloexenos , Compostos de Vinila , Animais , Feminino , Compostos de Vinila/farmacologia , Compostos de Vinila/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Cicloexenos/administração & dosagem , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Roedores , Animais de Zoológico , Gravidez
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(2): 502-510, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875208

RESUMO

Rodents are typically viewed as asymptomatic reservoirs for leptospirosis infection, as clinical disease in rodents is rarely described. This report includes three separate cases of leptospirosis in Patagonian maras (Dolichotis patagonum) over a 3-yr period in multiple locations within a single zoo. All three cases presented with varying clinical signs including lethargy, conjunctival hyperemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and presumed renal azotemia. Infection with Leptospira spp. was diagnosed antemortem by PCR on whole blood (n = 1, Case 1) or urine (n = 2, Cases 2 and 3). Leptospira antibody titers measured by serum microagglutination testing (n = 3) were elevated or increased in all three animals over a 1-3-wk period for Leptospira serovars Bratislava and Hardjo (Case 1) and Grippotyphosa (Case 2 and 3). Two of the three animals responded to treatment with penicillin and doxycycline and supportive care, whereas one animal did not respond to treatment. Postmortem findings in this individual included conjunctivitis, chemosis, dehydration, icterus, tricavitary serosanguinous effusions, necrotizing hepatitis, diffuse pulmonary congestion, and edema. Immunohistochemical examination identified scattered Leptospira organisms within hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells. A wild raccoon (Procyon lotor) at the institution tested positive by PCR on kidney tissue for the same Leptospira spp. serovar and was the suspected source of infection. This case series highlights the clinical importance of leptospirosis as a differential for Patagonian maras presenting with lethargy, ocular signs, acute hepatic disease, and azotemia.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Antibacterianos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/patologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia , Roedores
14.
Curr Protoc ; 4(6): e1057, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38923877

RESUMO

The Affective Bias Test (ABT) quantifies acute changes in affective state based on the affective biases they generate in an associative reward learning task. The Reward Learning Assay (RLA) provides a control assay for the ABT and reward-induced biases generated in this model are sensitive to changes in core affective state. Both tasks involve training animals to associate a specific digging substrate with a food reward. Animals learn to discriminate between two digging substrates placed in ceramic bowls, one rewarded and one unrewarded. In the ABT, the animal learns two independent substrate-reward associations with a fixed reward value following either an affective state or drug manipulation, or under control conditions. Affective biases generated are quantified in a choice test where the animals exhibit a bias (make more choices) for one of the substrates which is specifically related to affective state at the time of learning. The ABT is used to investigate biases generated during learning as well as modulation of biases associated with past experiences. The RLA follows a similar protocol, but the animal remains in the same affective state throughout and a reward-induced bias is generated by pairing one substrate with a higher value reward. The RLA provides a control to determine if drug treatments affect memory retrieval more generally. Studies in depression models and following environmental enrichment suggest that reward-induced biases are sensitive to core changes in affective state. Each task offers different insights into affective processing mechanisms and may help improve the translational validity of animal studies and benefit pre-clinical drug development. © 2024 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Bowl digging and discrimination training Basic Protocol 2: The reward learning assay Basic Protocol 3: The affective bias test - new learning Basic Protocol 4: The affective bias test - modulation of affective biases associated with past experiences.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão , Recompensa , Animais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Ratos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Roedores , Camundongos
15.
Virol J ; 21(1): 146, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918816

RESUMO

The genus Jeilongvirus comprises non-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses that are classified within the Paramyxoviridae family by phylogeny. Jeilongviruses are found in various reservoirs, including rodents and bats. Rodents are typical viral reservoirs with diverse spectra and zoonotic potential. Little is currently known about jeilongviruses in rodents from central China. The study utilized high-throughput and Sanger sequencing to obtain jeilongvirus genomes, including those of two novel strains (HBJZ120/CHN/2021 (17,468 nt) and HBJZ157/CHN/2021 (19,143 nt)) and three known viruses (HBXN18/CHN/2021 (19,212 nt), HBJZ10/CHN/2021 (19,700 nt), HBJM106/CHN/2021 (18,871 nt)), which were characterized by genome structure, identity matrix, and phylogenetic analysis. Jeilongviruses were classified into three subclades based on their topology, phylogeny, and hosts. Based on the amino acid sequence identities and phylogenetic analysis of the L protein, HBJZ120/CHN/2021 and HBJZ157/CHN/2021 were found to be strains rather than novel species. Additionally, according to specific polymerase chain reaction screening, the positive percentage of Beilong virus in Hubei was 6.38%, suggesting that Beilong virus, belonging to the Jeilongvirus genus, is likely to be widespread in wild rodents. The identification of novel strains further elucidated the genomic diversity of jeilongviruses. Additionally, the prevalence of jeilongviruses in Hubei, China, was profiled, establishing a foundation for the surveillance and early warning of emerging paramyxoviruses.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Roedores , Animais , China , Roedores/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Paramyxovirinae/genética , Paramyxovirinae/classificação , Paramyxovirinae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5431, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38926409

RESUMO

Multi-host parasites pose greater health risks to wildlife, livestock, and humans than single-host parasites, yet our understanding of how ecological and biological factors influence a parasite's host range remains limited. Here, we assemble the largest and most complete dataset on permanently parasitic mammalian mites and build a predictive model assessing the probability of single-host parasites to become multi-hosts, while accounting for potentially unobserved host-parasite links and class imbalance. This model identifies statistically significant predictors related to parasites, hosts, climate, and habitat disturbance. The most important predictors include the parasite's contact level with the host immune system and two variables characterizing host phylogenetic similarity and spatial co-distribution. Our model reveals an overrepresentation of mites associated with Rodentia (rodents), Chiroptera (bats), and Carnivora in the multi-host risk group. This highlights both the potential vulnerability of these hosts to parasitic infestations and the risk of serving as reservoirs of parasites for new hosts. In addition, we find independent macroevolutionary evidence that supports our prediction of several single-host species of Notoedres, the bat skin parasites, to be in the multi-host risk group, demonstrating the forecasting potential of our model.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ácaros , Filogenia , Animais , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Roedores/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Carnívoros/parasitologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(12)2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928062

RESUMO

Astrocyte dysfunctions have been consistently observed in patients affected with depression and other psychiatric illnesses. Although over the years our understanding of these changes, their origin, and their consequences on behavior and neuronal function has deepened, many aspects of the role of astroglial dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain unknown. In this review, we summarize the known astroglial dysfunctions associated with MDD and PTSD, highlight the impact of chronic stress on specific astroglial functions, and how astroglial dysfunctions are implicated in the expression of depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, focusing on behavioral consequences of astroglial manipulation on emotion-related and fear-learning behaviors. We also offer a glance at potential astroglial functions that can be targeted for potential antidepressant treatment.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos do Humor , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico , Roedores
18.
J Obes ; 2024: 7204607, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831961

RESUMO

Obesity is a complex chronic disease characterized by excess body fat (adipose) that is harmful to health and has been a major global health problem. It may be associated with several diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are lipid mediators that have anti-inflammatory characteristics and can be found in animals and plants, with capybara oil (CO) being a promising source. So, we intend to evaluate the hepatic pathophysiological alterations in C57Bl/6 mice with NAFLD, caused by obesity, and the possible beneficial effects of OC in the treatment of this disease. Eighteen 3-month-old male C57Bl/6 mice received a control or high-fat diet for 18 weeks. From the 15th to the 18th week, the animals received treatment-through orogastric gavage-with placebo or free capybara oil (5 g/kg). Parameters inherent to body mass, glucose tolerance, evaluation of liver enzymes, percentage of hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, the process of cell death with the apoptotic biomarkers (Bax, Bcl2, and Cytochrome C), and the ultrastructure of hepatocytes were analyzed. Even though the treatment with CO was not able to disassemble the effects on the physiological parameters, it proved to be beneficial in reversing the morphological and ultrastructural damage present in the hepatocytes. Thus, demonstrating that CO has beneficial effects in reducing steatosis and the apoptotic pathway, it is a promising treatment for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Fígado , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Óleos , Roedores , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/ultraestrutura , Óleos/farmacologia , Óleos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892408

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatments, not least due to the lack of authentic animal models. Typically, rodent models recapitulate the effects but not causes of AD, such as cholinergic neuron loss: lesioning of cholinergic neurons mimics the cognitive decline reminiscent of AD but not its neuropathology. Alternative models rely on the overexpression of genes associated with familial AD, such as amyloid precursor protein, or have genetically amplified expression of mutant tau. Yet transgenic rodent models poorly replicate the neuropathogenesis and protein overexpression patterns of sporadic AD. Seeding rodents with amyloid or tau facilitates the formation of these pathologies but cannot account for their initial accumulation. Intracerebral infusion of proinflammatory agents offer an alternative model, but these fail to replicate the cause of AD. A novel model is therefore needed, perhaps similar to those used for Parkinson's disease, namely adult wildtype rodents with neuron-specific (dopaminergic) lesions within the same vulnerable brainstem nuclei, 'the isodendritic core', which are the first to degenerate in AD. Site-selective targeting of these nuclei in adult rodents may recapitulate the initial neurodegenerative processes in AD to faithfully mimic its pathogenesis and progression, ultimately leading to presymptomatic biomarkers and preventative therapies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Roedores , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética
20.
Parasite ; 31: 33, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38912917

RESUMO

Wild rodents are key carriers of various human pathogens, including Blastocystis spp. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis among wild rodents in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region and Liaoning Province of China. From November 2023 to February 2024, 486 rodents were captured in these regions. Fresh feces were collected from the intestines of each rodent for the isolation of DNA and PCR amplification of the vertebrate cytochrome b (cytb) gene to identify rodent species. Subsequently, PCR analysis and sequencing of the partial small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene were utilized to detect Blastocystis in all fecal samples. Of the total samples, 27.4% (133/486) were found to be Blastocystis positive. The results revealed the presence of four species of rodents infected with Blastocystis, 32.3% (63/195) in Rattus norvegicus, 15.1% (16/106) in Mus musculus, 20.2% (18/89) in Apodemus agrarius, and 37.5% (36/96) in Cricetulus barabensis. Sequence analysis confirmed the existence of five Blastocystis subtypes: ST1 (n = 4), ST2 (n = 2), the ST4 (n = 125, the dominant subtype), ST10 (n = 1), and a novel ST (n = 1). The identified zoonotic subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST4, and ST10) highlight the possible role played by wild rodents in the transmission of Blastocystis to humans, thereby elevating the chances of human infection. Meanwhile, the discovery of novel sequences also provides new insights into the genetic diversity of this parasite.


Title: Enquête moléculaire sur les infections à Blastocystis chez des rongeurs sauvages de la région autonome de Mongolie intérieure et de la province du Liaoning, Chine : forte prévalence et dominance du sous-type ST4. Abstract: Les rongeurs sauvages sont des vecteurs clés de divers agents pathogènes humains, dont Blastocystis spp. Notre étude visait à évaluer la prévalence et les caractéristiques génétiques de Blastocystis chez les rongeurs sauvages de la région autonome de Mongolie intérieure et de la province chinoise du Liaoning. De novembre 2023 à février 2024, 486 rongeurs ont été capturés dans ces régions. Des matières fécales fraîches ont été collectées dans les intestins de chaque rongeur pour l'isolement de l'ADN et l'amplification par PCR du gène du cytochrome b des vertébrés (cytb) afin d'identifier les espèces de rongeurs. Par la suite, l'analyse PCR et le séquençage de la petite sous-unité partielle du gène de l'ARN ribosomal (ARNr) ont été utilisés pour détecter les Blastocystis dans tous les échantillons fécaux. Sur le total des échantillons, 27.4% (133/486) présentaient un résultat positif à Blastocystis. Les résultats ont révélé la présence de quatre espèces de rongeurs infectées par Blastocystis, 32.3% (63/195) chez Rattus norvegicus, 15.1% (16/106) chez Mus musculus, 20.2% (18/89) chez Apodemus agrarius et 37.5% (36/96) chez Cricetulus barabensis. L'analyse de séquence a confirmé l'existence de cinq sous-types de Blastocystis : ST1 (n = 4), ST2 (n = 2), ST4 (n = 125, le sous-type dominant), ST10 (n = 1) et un nouveau ST (n = 1). Les sous-types zoonotiques identifiés (ST1, ST2, ST4 et ST10) mettent en évidence le rôle possible joué par les rongeurs sauvages dans la transmission de Blastocystis à l'Homme, augmentant ainsi les risques d'infection humaine. Parallèlement, la découverte de nouvelles séquences fournit également de nouvelles informations sur la diversité génétique de ce parasite.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Doenças dos Roedores , China/epidemiologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Citocromos b/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Prevalência , Genótipo , Variação Genética , Filogenia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...