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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 50, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993683

RESUMO

Inhalation is a promising and challenging method in pharmaceutical and biological science research. A stable environment is critical in dynamic inhalation administration. However, the establishment of a stable inhalation system is very challenging. Indacaterol glycopyrronium bromide inhalation powder (IM/GP mixed powder) is composed of indacaterol maleate and glycopyrronium bromide powder to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study is to build suitable inhalation conditions and then to evaluate the pulmonary safety of this drug in Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats. In the research, through the coordination of the atomization flow, air pump flow, and scraper speed, aerosols were stabilized at 200 ± 20% mg/m3, and then rats were nose-only administered with the IM/GP mixed powder, Ultibro, and lactose-magnesium stearate mixed powder at 2.6 mg/kg/day for 14 days and 14 days of recovery period, respectively. After exposure, hematology, inflammatory cytokines in rats bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum, histopathological examination were performed. Results showed that the stability of powder aerosols can be realized under the atomization generation flow: 10 L/min, sampling flow: 2 L/min, system pumping capacity: 10 L/min and powder scraper speed: 8-10 L/min, and there were no significant adverse effects on body weight, clinic signs, hematology, and pathology in rats. Overall, the results suggested that the IM/GP mixed powder inhalation at the dose of 2.6 mg/kg/d can be reached when the aerosol concentration is within the range of 200 ± 20% mg/m3, and there were no pulmonary toxicity effects in rats.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação , Roedores , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Animais , Glicopirrolato , Pulmão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010801

RESUMO

Lead poisoning is often considered a traditional disease; however, the specific mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. The study of Pb-induced alterations in cellular metabolic pathways is important to understand the biological response and disorders associated with environmental exposure to lead. Metabolomics studies have recently been paid considerable attention to understand in detail the biological response to lead exposure and the associated toxicity mechanisms. In the present study, wild rodents collected from an area contaminated with lead (N = 18) and a control area (N = 10) were investigated. This was the first ever experimental metabolomic study of wildlife exposed to lead in the field. While the levels of plasma phenylalanine and isoleucine were significantly higher in a lead-contaminated area versus the control area, hydroxybutyric acid was marginally significantly higher in the contaminated area, suggesting the possibility of enhancement of lipid metabolism. In the interregional least-absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression model analysis, phenylalanine and isoleucine were identified as possible biomarkers, which is in agreement with the random forest model. In addition, in the random forest model, glutaric acid, glutamine, and hydroxybutyric acid were selected. In agreement with previous studies, enrichment analysis showed alterations in the urea cycle and ATP-binding cassette transporter pathways. Although regional rodent species bias was observed in this study, and the relatively small sample size should be taken into account, the present results are to some extent consistent with those of previous studies on humans and laboratory animals.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Roedores , Animais , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metabolômica
3.
J Toxicol Sci ; 47(1): 1-11, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987136

RESUMO

The nonclinical safety package to support development and approval of drugs intended to be administered by topical application generally follows International Council for Harmonisation multidisciplinary 3 (ICH M3) and topic specific safety (ICH S) guidances. However, some aspects of topical drug development may require case-by-case determination of nonclinical safety strategies. The necessity to conduct a dermal rodent carcinogenicity study is one such example that is not considered an obligate component of a nonclinical safety data package for drug approval. While absence of systemic exposure, as stated in ICH M3, is a primary reason to forego a dermal carcinogenicity assessment, there may also be other factors for consideration in determining the need for a life-time carcinogencity study by dermal route to aid in the overall human cancer risk assessment. We therefore reviewed nonclinical carcinogencity data packages from drugs approved by the FDA or PMDA over a ~25 year time period to evaluate outcomes of oral versus topical carcinogencity studies and to understand their utility for informing the overall human risk assessment. We also discuss various other properties of topical small molecules that could impact the decisions to conduct a dermal life-time rodent carcinogenicity study. Collectively, the need to conduct 2-year dermal carcinogenicity studies in rodents should be determined case-by-case and consider scientific factors such existing systemic toxicity and carcinogenicity study data, anticipated drug exposures in skin, skin evaluation from the chronic minipig toxicity study, and genetic toxicity profile.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Roedores , Animais , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Medição de Risco , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
4.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 195: 114869, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896056

RESUMO

NFκB plays a key role in inflammation and skeletal disorders. Previously, we reported that pharmacological inhibition of NFκB at the level of TRAF6 suppressed RANKL, CD40L and IL1ß-induced osteoclastogenesis and attenuated cancer-induced bone disease. TNFα is also known to regulate TRAF6/NFκB signalling, however the anti-inflammatory and osteoprotective effects associated with inhibition of the TNFα/TRAF6/NFκB axis have not been investigated. Here, we show that in vitro and ex vivo exposure to the verified small-molecule inhibitor of TRAF6, 6877002 prevented TNFα-induced NFκB activation, osteoclastogenesis and calvarial osteolysis, but it had no effects on TNFα-induced apoptosis or growth inhibition in osteoblasts. Additionally, 6877002 disrupted T-cells support for osteoclast formation and synoviocyte motility, without affecting the viability of osteoblasts in the presence of T-cells derived factors. Using the collagen-induced arthritis model, we show that oral and intraperitoneal administration of 6877002 in mice reduced joint inflammation and arthritis score. Unexpectedly, no difference in trabecular and cortical bone parameters were detected between vehicle and 6877002 treated mice, indicating lack of osteoprotection by 6877002 in the arthritis model described. Using two independent rodent models of osteolysis, we confirmed that 6877002 had no effect on trabecular and cortical bone loss in both osteoporotic rats or RANKL- treated mice. In contrast, the classic anti-osteolytic alendronate offered complete osteoprotection in RANKL- treated mice. In conclusion, TRAF6 inhibitors may be of value in the management of the inflammatory component of bone disorders, but may not offer protection against local or systemic bone loss, unless combined with anti-resorptive therapy such as bisphosphonates.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antígenos CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteólise/prevenção & controle , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/prevenção & controle , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteólise/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Roedores/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2393: 179-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837180

RESUMO

Tumor development can be indirectly evaluated using features of the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as hemoglobin saturation (HbSat), blood vessel dilation, and formation of new vessels. High values of HbSat and other features of the TME could indicate high metabolic activity and could precede the formation of angiogenic tumors; therefore, changes in HbSat profile can be used as a biomarker for tumor progression. One methodology to evaluate HbSat profile over time, and correlate it with tumor development in vivo in a preclinical model, is through a dorsal skin-fold window chamber. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of this methodology to evaluate hemoglobin saturation profile and to predict tumor development. We will cover the surgical preparation of the mouse, the installation/maintenance of the dorsal window chamber, and the imaging processing and evaluation to the HbSat profile to predict new development of new tumor areas over time. We included, in this chapter, step by step examples of the imaging processing method to obtain pixel level HbSat values from raw pixels data, the computational method to determine the HbSat profile, and the steps for the classification of the areas into tumor and no-tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Animais , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Hemoglobinas , Camundongos , Oximetria , Roedores , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
J Morphol ; 283(1): 66-90, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775628

RESUMO

Recent studies have analyzed and described the endocranial cavities of caviomorph rodents. However, no study has documented the changes in the morphology and relative size of such cavities during ontogeny. Expecting to contribute to the discussion of the endocranial spaces of extinct caviomorphs, we aimed to characterize the cranial endocast morphology and paranasal sinuses of the largest living rodent, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, by focusing on its ontogenetic growth patterns. We analyzed 12 specimens of different ontogenetic stages and provided a comparison with other cavioids. Our study demonstrates that the adult cranial endocast of H. hydrochaeris is characterized by olfactory bulbs with an irregular shape, showing an elongated olfactory tract without a clear circular fissure, a marked temporal region that makes the endocast with rhombus outline, and gyrencephaly. Some of these traits change as the brain grows. The cranial pneumatization is present in the frontal and lacrimal bones. We identified two recesses (frontal and lacrimal) and one sinus (frontal). These pneumatic cavities increase their volume as the cranium grows, covering the cranial region of the cranial endocast. The encephalization quotient was calculated for each specimen, demonstrating that it decreases as the individual grows, being much higher in younger specimens than in adults. Our results show that the ontogenetic stage can be a confounding factor when it comes to the general patterns of encephalization of extinct rodents, reinforcing the need for paleobiologists to take the age of the specimens into account in future studies on this subject to avoid age-related biases.


Assuntos
Seios Paranasais , Roedores , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Fósseis , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 25-48, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807435

RESUMO

Precise cell-specific spatio-temporal molecular signaling cascades regulate the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Importantly, the mechanisms regulating uterine receptivity, conceptus apposition and adhesion to the uterine luminal epithelia/superficial glandular epithelia and, in some species, invasion into the endometrial stroma and decidualization of stromal cells, are critical prerequisite events for placentation which is essential for the appropriate regulation of feto-placental growth for the remainder of pregnancy. Dysregulation of these signaling cascades during this critical stage of pregnancy can lead to pregnancy loss, impaired growth and development of the conceptus, and alterations in the transplacental exchange of gasses and nutrients. While many of these processes are conserved across species, significant variations in the molecular mechanisms governing maternal recognition of pregnancy, conceptus implantation, and placentation exist. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of a successful pregnancy in humans, rodents, sheep, and pigs. Improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing these processes is critical to enhancing the fertility and reproductive health of humans and livestock species.


Assuntos
Placentação , Roedores , Animais , Implantação do Embrião , Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta , Gravidez , Ovinos , Suínos , Útero
8.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 25(1): 211-255, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823692

RESUMO

Sedation and anesthesia in rodent species are complex due to their wide species variation, small size, and metabolism. This review article covers recent advances in sedation and anesthesia as well as an updated drug formulary for sedation protocols. Setup, equipment, monitoring, maintenance, and recovery are reviewed as well as species-specific anatomy.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Roedores , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais
9.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 271: 275-292, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296031

RESUMO

Centrally administered bombesin induces scratching and grooming in rats. These behaviors were blocked by early benzomorphan kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists as reported by Gmerek and Cowan in 1984. This was the first evidence that KORs may be involved in the sensation of itch-like behaviors. Subsequent development of additional animal models for acute and chronic itch has led to important discoveries since then. For example, it was found that (a) gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), natriuretic polypeptide b and their cognate receptors are keys for the transmission of itch sensation at the spinal cord level, (b) dynorphins (Dyns), the endogenous KOR agonists, work as inhibitory neuromodulators of itch at the spinal cord level, (c) in a mouse model for acute itch, certain KOR antagonists elicit scratching, (d) in mouse models of acute or chronic itch, KOR agonists (e.g., U50,488, nalfurafine, CR 845, nalbuphine) suppress scratching induced by different pruritogens, and (e) nalfurafine, CR 845, and nalbuphine are in the clinic or in clinical trials for pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease, as well as pruritus in chronic skin diseases.


Assuntos
Antipruriginosos , Receptores Opioides kappa , Animais , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Roedores
10.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106177, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627759

RESUMO

We investigated the patterns of flea infestation in wild populations of eight Sigmodontinae rodent species: Akodon azarae, Calomys callidus, Calomys venustus, Holochilus chacarius, Necromys lasiurus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus rufus. Rodents were captured in systematic trapping sessions carried out along 2 years at two localities from El Espinal Ecoregion, Argentina. Mean flea intensity, occurrence (presence/absence) of flea infestation, richness and diversity were compared for different ages, body condition, sex and rodent tribes (Akodontini, Oryzomyini and Phyllotini). A total of 376 fleas of the following species and subspecies were collected: Craneopsylla minerva wolffhuegeli, Polygenis (Neopolygenis) pradoi, Polygenis (Polygenis) axius axius, and Polygenis (Polygenis) byturus. The most important factor driving flea infestation was the rodent tribe, with Phyllotini showing the highest values of occurrence, abundance and species richness. Only C. m. wolffhuegeli was affected by the sex of the host. Age and body condition of the hosts did not affect flea infestation. Our results contribute to knowledge of the ecology of fleas on rodent hosts in El Espinal Ecoregion. The relevance of host taxonomy as driver of flea dynamics highlight the importance of considering host community structures at the time of studying the ecology of parasites.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Doenças dos Roedores , Sifonápteros , Animais , Argentina , Arvicolinae , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores , Sigmodontinae
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909834

RESUMO

Rubiadin is identified as a bioactive anthraquinone that exists in some quinone rich plants. The current research was carried out to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory impact of Rubiadin in acute and chronic inflammation test models in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin was examined in cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced edema as chronic and acute inflammation models in rats. TNF-α level and histopathological changes were assessed using sampled foot tissue of rat in the acute model. Also, the IL-1ß level was assessed in the chronic model. One-way ANOVA (post hoc Tukey's) analysis was used for comparing the groups. Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a significant reduction in TNF α level and the paw edema compared to the control group in carrageenan test. Also, it was observed that the anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) is comparable to mefenamic acid (30 mg/kg, i.p.) as the standard drug. Rubiadin was effective in granuloma induced by cotton pellet concerning the granuloma and transudate formation amount. Rubiadin's anti-inflammatory effects were associated with a significant IL-1ß decrease in this model. The results suggest that Rubiadin as a natural compound can possess significant peripheral anti-inflammatory impacts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Roedores , Animais , Antraquinonas , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/toxicidade , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941892

RESUMO

Bio-logging is a common method to collect ecological data on wild animals, but might also induce stress, reduce body condition, and alter behavior. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) are a semi-aquatic and nocturnal species that are challenging to observe in the wild. Bio-loggers are hence useful tools to study their behaviour and movements, but this raises concerns of potential negative impacts of tagging. To investigate the potential negative impacts of glue-on tags, we compared body weight change for tagged and untagged Eurasian beavers. We hypothesized that tagged beavers would gain less body weight compared to untagged beavers, and that weight change might be affected by tagging length, tag weight, water temperature and the season of tagging. Daily percentage body weight change in relation to initial body weight during the first capture was compared during 57 tagging periods (18±7 days) and 32 controls periods (64±47 days). Body weight change varied between the two groups, with untagged beavers on average gaining daily weight whilst tagged beavers on average lost weight daily, indicating a negative effect of tagging. The average reduction in percentage body weight change per day for tagged beavers was small (0.1 ± 0.3%), and with large individual variation. Neither tag weight, number of tagging days, nor season were important in explaining body weight change of tagged animals. In other words, we found that tagging reduced daily body weight during the tagging period but were unable to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for this decline. Detrimental effects of tagging have important implications for animal welfare and can introduce bias in data that are collected. This calls for careful consideration in the use of tags. We conclude that studies investigating the effects of tagging should consider individual variation in the effects of tagging and, where possible, compare tagged animals with a control group.


Assuntos
Roedores/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Perda de Peso
13.
Curr Protoc ; 1(11): e285, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748292

RESUMO

In vivo rodent, whole peripheral nerve models are useful for studying the electrical conduction of sensory and motor fibers under normal physiological conditions as well as for assessing neurological outcomes after the application of physical alterations or pharmacological agents to the nervous system. Significant literature has focused on single-neuron and central nervous system electrophysiology protocol development. However, creation and development of in vivo whole-nerve electrophysiological recording protocols are sparse in the scientific literature. Here, detailed protocols for designing and building an in vivo whole-nerve electrophysiology system are described, including straightforward techniques to create working stimulation and recording electrodes that may be adapted to numerous study designs. Further, we include details for rodent anesthesia, surgical dissection (for the sciatic nerve), compound action potential signal optimization, data acquisition, data analyses, and troubleshooting tips. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: In vivo electrophysiology system wiring, hardware, and software setups Support Protocol 1: Design and 3D printing of electrophysiology base electrodes Support Protocol 2: Building needle electrodes Basic Protocol 2: Rodent anesthesia and surgery for nerve exposure Basic Protocol 3: Compound action potential recording and troubleshooting using WinWCP Basic Protocol 4: Compound action potential data analysis using WinWCP.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Roedores , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca , Nervo Isquiático
14.
Zootaxa ; 5057(3): 29-63, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811205

RESUMO

Six mite species of the genus Leptotrombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura and Imamura, 1916 and one species from each of the genera Lorillatum Nadchatram, 1963 and Trombiculindus Radford, 1948, incompletely described by Schluger et al. (1960b, 1963) from rodents and tree shrews in North Vietnam, are re-described based on type series. Lectotypes and paralectotypes have been designated for all redescribed species. Two new synonyms have been established: Leptotrombidium magnum (Schluger, 1960) (= Leptotrombidium dooleyi Nadchatram, 1970, syn. nov.; = Leptotrombidium submagnum Wang, Li and Shi, 1988, syn. nov.).


Assuntos
Trombiculidae , Animais , Roedores , Vietnã
15.
Zootaxa ; 5027(2): 175-210, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811235

RESUMO

Nephelomys albigularis is a sigmodontine rodent of the tribe Oryzomyini distributed in the Andean forests from central Ecuador to central Peru. Although several studies recognize this species as monotypic, significant morphological variation has been reported in Peruvian populations that were not properly assessed by direct comparisons with the type series from central Ecuador. We present a preliminary review of N. albigularis with an integrative approach and emphasis on Peruvian populations. We analyzed specimens using morphological and morphometric methods, complemented with phylogenetic analyses and species delimitation using sequence data from the cytochrome-b gene. Our results reveal that N. albigularis (sensu lato) comprises two taxa: N. albigularis s.s., from the montane forests in central and southern Ecuador and northwestern Peru, and Nephelomys sp. nov. from montane forest east of the Maran River. These taxa are morphologically distinct and are separated by a genetic distance of 5.90 1.01%. Nephelomys sp. nov. differs from N. albigularis s.s. by longer rump hairs, narrow hypothenar pads, faintly bicolor tail; absent interorbital ridges, low zygomatic plates, smoothly squared posterior margin of the hard palate or with a small median postpalatal process, smoothly edged ventral margin of the external auditory meatus, and slightly angular mandibular sigmoid notches. In this work, we present a diagnosis and description of the new species of Nephelomys and discuss the role of the Maran River as a potential driver for speciation in the genus Nephelomys.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Roedores , Animais , Florestas , Peru , Filogenia
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e012721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755807

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in rodents from Valdivia, Chile. A total of 74 rodents (synanthropic n=38; wild n=36) were trapped in Valdivia. We performed conventional PCR assays for Apicomplexa organisms targeting two overlapping 18S rDNA gene fragments (600 bp and 900 bp) followed by sequencing of selected amplicons. Hepatozoon spp. occurrence was 82.43% (61/74). Twelve sequences obtained from the 600 bp and ten from the 900 bp 18S rDNA fragments were identified as Hepatozoon sp. Six sequences obtained from 18S rDNA-based overlapping PCR protocols were used for concatenated (1,400 bp) phylogenetic, haplotype and distance analyses. Hepatozoon spp. 18S rDNA concatenated sequences from the present study were detected in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Abrothrix longipilis grouped with Hepatozoon species earlier described in rodents and reptiles from Chile and Brazil. Nucleotide polymorphism of the six 18S rDNA sequences (1,400 bp) from this study, and other Chilean sequences from rodents and rodent's ticks, showed high diversity with a total of nine Chilean haplotypes. Three haplotypes from Valdivia were identified for the first time in this study, suggesting the circulation of novel haplotypes in rodents from southern Chile.


Assuntos
Eucoccidiida , Roedores , Animais , Chile , Eucoccidiida/genética , Variação Genética , Camundongos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ratos
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1266-1273, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814542

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the genetic characteristics and evolution of hantavirus carried by rodents in port area of Ningde in Fujian province in the summer of 2020. Methods: Rodents were captured in the port area of Ningde, the RNA was extracted from rodent lung tissues and detected by using specific kit. The positive samples were used for whole-genome sequencing of the virus. Bioinformatics software was used for the analysis on the similarity and genetic variation of the sequences. Results: A total of 112 rodents were captured, including 5 Rattus norvegicus and 2 Rattus flavipectus, the positive rate of hantavirus was 6.25% (7/112). By virus gene sequencing, two hantavirus complete genome sequences were obtained (named as FJ35 and FJ36, GenBank accession numbers: MW449188-MW449193). The genetic analysis results showed that the hantavirus detected in positive samples were SEOV and shared 99% nucleotide similarity with hantavirus strains LZSF21 and JX20140581 isolated from Shandong province. Phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood method showed that the hantavirus detected in positive samples belonged to S3 subtype, sharing the same subtype with hantavirus strains Z37 from Zhejiang province, LZSF21 from Shandong province, and zy27 and Gongzhuling 415 from northeastern China. Compared with FJ372, the amino acid variation of N259S was observed at sites 251-264 of nucleoprotein, which might be related to antigenicity. Another variation of Q81R was observed in glycoprotein compared with SEOV 80-39 segment of coded amino acid of international reference strain, which might also cause the change in antigenicity. Conclusion: The high positive rate of hantavirus in rodents in the port area of Ningde- would increase the risk of natural human infection and epidemic in local area. The hantavirus positive rodents in this focus might be from an endemic area in Shandong. It is necessary to strengthen the imported rodent control in the port area of Ningde. The virus detected in 2 positive samples belonged to SEOV subtype Ⅲ and shared high homologies of nucleotides and amino acid sequences with the hantavirus strains in surrounding area. However, some slight variations occurred in glycoprotein and nucleoprotein amino acid sequences, which might cause changes in its antigeniity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus , Hantavirus , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Hantavirus/genética , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Ratos , Roedores
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696405

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Roedores/virologia
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13246-13254, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702032

RESUMO

There is limited information available about the physiological content of glyceraldehyde, a precursor of toxic advanced glycation end products. The conventional derivatization method for aldoses using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone did not allow reproducible quantification of glyceraldehyde due to the instability of glyceraldehyde compared to other aldoses. We optimized the derivatization condition to achieve high and reproducible recovery of derivatives for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantification. Based on the stability of glyceraldehyde during sample preparation and high recovery of spiked standard, the present method provides reproducible quantification of glyceraldehyde in the body. The glyceraldehyde contents in fasting conditions in the rodent liver (mice: 50.0 ± 3.9 nmol/g; rats: 35.5 ± 4.9 nmol/g) were higher than those in plasma (9.4 ± 1.7 and 7.2 ± 1.2 nmol/mL). The liver glyceraldehyde levels significantly increased after food consumption (p < 0.05) but remained constant in the plasma. High fat diet feeding significantly increased plasma glyceraldehyde levels in mice (p < 0.005). In healthy human volunteers, the plasma glyceraldehyde levels remained unchanged after the consumption of steamed rice. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the plasma glyceraldehyde level was positively correlated with the plasma glucose level (r = 0.84; p < 0.0001).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gliceraldeído , Animais , Jejum , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Roedores
20.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633389

RESUMO

There is an urgent clinical need for heart valve replacements that can grow in children. Heart valve transplantation is proposed as a new type of transplant with the potential to deliver durable heart valves capable of somatic growth with no requirement for anticoagulation. However, the immunobiology of heart valve transplants remains unexplored, highlighting the need for animal models to study this new type of transplant. Previous rat models for heterotopic aortic valve transplantation into the abdominal aorta have been described, though they are technically challenging and costly. For addressing this challenge, a renal subcapsular transplant model was developed in rodents as a practical and more straightforward method for studying heart valve transplant immunobiology. In this model, a single aortic valve leaflet is harvested and inserted into the renal subcapsular space. The kidney is easily accessible, and the transplanted tissue is securely contained in a subcapsular space that is well vascularized and can accommodate a variety of tissue sizes. Furthermore, because a single rat can provide three donor aortic leaflets and a single kidney can provide multiple sites for transplanted tissue, fewer rats are required for a given study. Here, the transplantation technique is described, providing a significant step forward in studying the transplant immunology of heart valve transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Roedores , Animais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Transplante Heterotópico
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