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Food Chem ; 319: 126529, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199146


Claims in the lay literature suggest soaking nuts enhances mineral bioavailability. Research on legumes and grains indicate soaking reduces phytate levels, however, there is no evidence to support or refute these claims for nuts. We assessed the effects of different soaking regimes on phytate and mineral concentrations of whole and chopped almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and walnuts. The treatments were: 1. Raw; 2. soaked for 12 h in salt solution; 3. soaked for 4 h in salt solution; 4. soaked for 12 h in water. Phytate concentrations were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and minerals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Differences in phytate concentrations between treated and untreated nuts were small, ranging from -12% to +10%. Overall, soaking resulted in lower mineral concentrations, especially for chopped nuts, and did not improve phytate:mineral molar ratios. This research does not support claims that 'activating' nuts results in greater nutrient bioavailability.

Arachis/química , Nozes/química , Rosanae/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nutrientes/química , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/química
Mycologia ; 112(1): 133-153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860412


Inocybe (Inocybaceae) is one of the most diverse ectomycorrhizal genera in arctic and alpine habitats where the primary hosts are Salix, Betula, and Dryas. Subgenus Inocybe is common in these habitats and typically characterized by the presence of thick-walled pleurocystidia. Here, we focus on species that have angular or nodulose spores. Historically, over 30 taxa from this group have been reported from arctic and alpine habitats. Many names have been synonymized, whereas molecular analysis has revealed new species. Nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) sequence data of 26 type specimens in this group now allow for further taxonomic clarification and comparison across continents of disjunct populations. Here, we compare ITS sequence data and the D1-D2 portion of nuc 28S rDNA (28S) from Rocky Mountain specimens with those of types and European reference material. We report 10 species from the Rocky Mountain alpine zone, all of which are conspecific with known European boreal, montane, or alpine species, and four are described as new; all have intercontinental distributions. Nodulose-spored Inocybe taxa that occur in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone include I. alpinomarginata, sp. nov., I. arctica, I. giacomi, I. leonina, I. murina, sp. nov., I. occulta, I. paragiacomi, sp. nov., I. phaeocystidiosa, I. purpureobadia, and I. subgiacomi, sp. nov. Remarkably, these species occur at elevations up to 4000 m and at latitudes as low as 36°N, hundreds of miles from the Arctic, the European alpine, and original type localities. Distributions are explained in part by host distributions and historical glaciation patterns. A key and full descriptions for Rocky mountain species are provided to promote species recognition.

Agaricales/classificação , Micorrizas/classificação , Filogenia , Agaricales/citologia , Agaricales/genética , Altitude , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ecossistema , Micorrizas/citologia , Micorrizas/genética , Rosanae/classificação , Rosanae/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos/classificação , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Estados Unidos