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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7780, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565924

RESUMO

Dandruff, a common scalp disorder characterized by flaking dead skin, is often treated with conventional topical products. However, limitations exist due to potential side effects and high costs. Therefore, searching for natural, cost-effective solutions for dandruff and hair loss is crucial. Rosemary herb and neem tree, both cultivated in Egypt, possess well-documented anti-inflammatory properties derived from their rich phenolic phytoconstituents. This study formulated a standardized combined extract of rosemary and neem (RN-E 2:1) into hair gel and leave-in tonic formats. This extract demonstrated superior efficacy against Malassezia furfur (a causative agent of dandruff) and Trichophyton rubrum (associated with scalp disorders) compared to the conventional antifungal agent, ketoconazole. The combined extract (RN-E 2:1) also exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, the suppression of iNOS expression is considered concentration-dependent. Quality control verified formulation stability, and ex-vivo studies confirmed effective ingredient penetration into the epidermis, the primary site of fungal presence. Remarkably, both formulations outperformed the standard treatment, minoxidil in hair growth trials. These findings highlight the potential of natural extracts for scalp and hair health.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Caspa , Rosmarinus , Caspa/tratamento farmacológico , Caspa/microbiologia , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7342, 2024 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538682

RESUMO

The present work aimed to investigate the effect of salinity in natural habitats in Egypt on the main secondary metabolites of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Artemisia monosperma L. plants compared to plants grown at normal conditions. Plants grown under salinity were collected from Egyptian Western Coastal region habitats irrigated with underground water. Results showed that salinity increased the essential oil percentage of R. officinalis L. by 52.7% and A. monosperma L by 0.29% in addition to the total phenolics and flavonoids content in dry leaves compared to control plants. GC/MS analysis of rosemary essential oils revealed that salinity decreased the amount of some major oil monoterpenes component as verbenone, with a slight effect on 1,8 cineole and increased Camphor, endo- Boreneol, and linalool in addition to the appearance of new specific components such as Chrysanthenone monoterpene ketone and Caryophyllene sesquiterpene, while, in the case of Artemisia, the GC/MS showed that Artemisia ketone, Camphor, ß -phellandrene monoterpenes andα-Bisabolol sesquiterpenewere the major oil components; salinity decreased Camphor and ß -phellandrene content and increased artemisia ketone and α-Bisabolol oil content. About 11 new oil constituents were detected such as ( +)-2-Bornanone and Sesquisabinene hydrate. Mineral ions (N, K+, Ca+2, P, and Mg+2) uptake by R. officinalis and A. monosperma decreased in plants grown under salinity, while Na content increased compared to corresponding controls. Results demonstrated that both plants could tolerate the high salinity level in natural Western Coastal region soil which promoted more production of valuable secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial effect of R. officinalis L. and A. monosperma L. leaf methanolic extracts, results showed that R. officinalis extracts had an inhibitory response against all tested gram-positive and negative bacteria, in addition to the yeast (Candida albicans), whereas there was no any inhibitory effect concerning A. monosperma L extract on the tested species.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Artemisia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Cânfora/farmacologia , Egito , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108452, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442624

RESUMO

Delayed growth period and nature of woody stems are challenges for the urgent economic needs of rosemary plant culturing in the winter season. Different concentrations of biofertilizer initiated from Spirulina maxima, marine Lactobacillus plantarum, molasses and industrial organic waste (IOW) were subjected to freshly cut cuttings of the Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) plant to study the impact of this biofertilizer on the growth performance of the plant. The present work explored the potential of this biofertilizer in concentrations of 0.5%-1% and achieved a significant impact on the growth parameters and biochemical constituents of R. officinalis, a 27-day-old plant. The development of adventitious roots was earlier within one week, particularly at 0.5% and 1%. It can be concluded that the application of this biofertilizer at the lower concentrations enhanced the production of bioactive substances such as phytohormones (auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellins), carbohydrates, and vitamins; moreover, through controlling a range of physiological and biochemical processes, it can promote the intake of nutrients. Thus, this biofertilizer (Spirulina maxima, marine Lactobacillus plantarum, molasses and IOW) at a concentration of 1% is the recommended dose for application to agriculture sustainability.


Assuntos
Rosmarinus , Spirulina , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5798, 2024 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461314

RESUMO

In this research, palladium (II) and platinum (II), as well as their bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized using medicinal plants in an eco-friendly manner. Rosemary and Ginseng extracts were chosen due to their promising anticancer potential. The synthesized nanoparticles underwent characterization through FT-IR spectroscopy, DLS, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TEM techniques. Once the expected structures were confirmed, the performance of these nanoparticles, which exhibited an optimal size, was evaluated as potential anticancer agents through in vitro method on colon cancer cell lines (Ls180, SW480). MTT assay studies showed that the synthesized nanoparticles induced cell death. Moreover, real-time PCR was employed to investigate autophagy markers and the effect of nanoparticles on the apoptosis process, demonstrating a significant effect of the synthesized compounds in this regard.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Panax , Rosmarinus , Paládio/química , Platina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338370

RESUMO

The objective of this study was the optimization of the extraction process and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the bioactive metabolites: 12-O-methylcarnosic acid (12MCA), carnosic acid (CA), carnosol (CS), 7-O-methyl-epi-rosmanol (7MER) and rosmanol (RO) in infusions, decoctions, turbulent flow extracts, tinctures and oleolites from three Salvia species: Salvia officinalis L. (common sage, SO), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage, SF) and Salvia rosmarinus Spenn (syn Rosmarinus officinalis L.) (rosemary, SR), using Quantitative Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-qNMR). Regarding the aqueous extracts, decoctions appeared to be richer sources of the studied metabolites than infusions among the three plants. For SR, the turbulent flow extraction under heating was the most efficient one. The optimum time for the preparation of decoctions was found to be 5 min for SF and SO and 15 min for SR. It is noteworthy that SR tinctures were not stable in time due to decomposition of the abietane-type diterpenes CA and CS because of the polar solvent used for their preparation. Contrary to this finding, the oleolites of SR appeared to be very stable. Olive oil as a solvent for extraction was very protective for the contained abietane-type diterpenes. A preliminary stability study on the effect of the storage time of the SF on the abietane-type diterpenes content showed that the total quantity of abietanes decreased by 16.51% and 40.79% after 12 and 36 months, respectively. The results of this investigation also demonstrated that 1H-qNMR is very useful for the analysis of sensitive metabolites, like abietane-type diterpenes, that can be influenced by solvents used in chromatographic analysis.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Rosmarinus , Salvia , Abietanos/química , Rosmarinus/química , Salvia/química , Grécia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes , Diterpenos/análise
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110639, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417281

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most hazardous mycotoxins for humans and livestock that mainly produced by members of the genus Aspergillus in a variety of food commodities. In this study, the effect of S. rosmarinus, T. fruticulosum, and T. caucasicum essential oils (EOs) was studied on fungal growth, AFB1 production and aflR gene expression in toxigenic A. flavus IPI 247. The AFB1 producer A. flavus strain was cultured in YES medium in presence of various two-fold concentrations of the plant EOs (62.5-500 µg/mL) for 4 days at 28 °C. EO composition of plants was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The amount of fungal growth, ergosterol content of fungal mycelia and AFB1 content of EO-treated and non-treated controls were measured. The expression of aflR gene was evaluated using Real-time PCR in the fungus exposed to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of EOs. The main constituents of the oils analyzed by GC/MS analysis were elemicin (33.80 %) and 2,3-dihydro farnesol (33.19 %) in T. caucasicum, 1,8-cineole (17.87 %), trans-caryophyllene (11.14 %), α and ẞ-pinene (10.92 and 8.83 %) in S. rosmarinus, and camphor (17.65 %), bornyl acetate (15.08 %), borneol (12.48 %) and camphene (11.72 %) in T. fruticulosum. The results showed that plant EOs at the concentration of 500 µg/mL suppressed significantly the fungal growth by 35.24-71.70 %, while mycelial ergosterol content and AFB1 production were inhibited meaningfully by 36.20-65.51 % and 20.61-89.16 %. T. caucasicum was the most effective plant, while T. fruticulosum showed the lowest effectiveness on fungal growth and AFB1 production. The expression of aflR in T. caucasicum and S. rosmarinus -treated fungus was significantly down-regulated by 2.85 and 2.12 folds, respectively, while it did not change in T. fruticulosum-treated A. flavus compared to non-treated controls. Our findings on the inhibitory activity of T. caucasicum and S. rosmarinus EOs toward A. flavus growth and AFB1 production could promise these plants as good candidates to control fungal contamination of agricultural crops and food commodities and subsequent contamination by AFB1. Down-regulation of aflR as the key regulatory gene in AF biosynthesis pathway warrants the use of these plants in AF control programs. Further studies to evaluate the inhibitory activity of studied plants EOs in food model systems are recommended.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Salvia , Tripleurospermum , Humanos , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1 , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Tripleurospermum/genética , Expressão Gênica , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
7.
Fitoterapia ; 174: 105866, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378134

RESUMO

A total of 12 abietane diterpenoids were isolated and identified from Rosmarinus officinalis in which 6 ones were undescribed compounds. Their structures were illuminated by the HRESIMS, NMR, and ECD methods and named as rosmarinusin Q-V (1-6). It worthy mentioned that rosmarinusin Q was a novel abietane diterpenoid with 6/6/5 skeleton whose C ring was an α,ß-unsaturated five-element ketone. All the compounds and four compounds (13-16) reported in our previous paper were evaluated their anti-neuroinflammatory activities on the LPS-induced BV2 cells. Compounds 5, 8, 9, 11, and 15 displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity at the concentration of 10, 20, and 40 µM respectively. These results confirmed that R. officinalis contained abundant abietane diterpenoids and these compounds showed potential values of anti-neuroinflammation which could be developed as neuroprotective agents for the treatment of nerve damage caused by inflammation.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Rosmarinus , Abietanos/farmacologia , Abietanos/química , Rosmarinus/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química
8.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(4): e202302077, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388803

RESUMO

The chemical composition of 71 oil samples from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L., harvested in three provinces: Naâma (Western Algeria), Béchar and Adrar (Algerian Sahara), was investigated by GC-FID, GC/MS and 13CNMR. In total, 52 compounds were identified accounting for 88.8 % to 99.9 % of the total composition. The chemical composition of the oils was largely dominated by monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole (9.7-70.2 %), camphor (0.3-31.0 %) being the major compounds followed by borneol (0.3-21.0 %), α-pinene (4.5-14.5 %), ß-pinene (0.1-12.0 %), linalool (0.7-9.9 %) and verbenone (up to 11.1 %) which was present only in the samples harvested in Adrar. All compositions (71 samples) were submitted to statistical analysis. Combination of hierarchical clustering dendrogram and principal component analysis suggested the existence of three groups (one of these being subdivided into two sub-groups) which were distinguished on the basis of 1,8-cineole, camphor and verbenone contents. Four essential oil samples, containing 1,8-cineole and/or camphor as main components, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity against lipoxygenase, with IC50 values in the range 93 to 155 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Eucaliptol , Cânfora , Rosmarinus/química , África do Norte , Folhas de Planta
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(7): 4465-4472, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimizing food oxidation remains a challenge in several environments. The addition of rosemary extract (150 mg kg-1) and lyophilized parsley (7.1 g kg-1) at equivalent antioxidant activity (5550 µg Trolox equivalents kg-1) to meat patties was assessed in terms of their effect during microwave cooking and after being subjected to an in vitro digestion process. RESULTS: Regardless of the use of antioxidants, cooking caused a decrease of the fat content as compared to raw samples, without noticing statistical differences in the fatty acid distribution between raw and cooked samples [44%, 47% and 6.8%, of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), respectively]. However, the bioaccessible lipid fraction obtained after digestion was less saturated (around 34% SFA) and more unsaturated (35% MUFA +30% PUFA). Cooking caused, in all types of samples, an increased lipid [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and protein (carbonyls) oxidation values. The increase of TBARS during in vitro digestion was around 7 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) kg-1 for control and samples with parsley and 4.8 mg MDA kg-1 with rosemary. The addition of parsley, and particularly of rosemary, significantly increased the antioxidant activity (DPPH) of cooked and digested microwaved meat patties. CONCLUSION: Whereas rosemary was effective in minimizing protein oxidation during cooking and digestion as compared to control samples, parsley could only limit it during digestion. Lipid oxidation was only limited by rosemary during in vitro digestion. © 2024 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Rosmarinus , Antioxidantes/química , Rosmarinus/química , Petroselinum/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne/análise , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Digestão
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(4): 2193-2201, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254316

RESUMO

Lamiaceae herbs such as rosemary have excellent antioxidant properties, and lipidic diterpenoid constituents, such as carnosol, are known as characteristic components to exhibit strong antioxidant activity. This study investigates the effect of thiol compounds on the antioxidant properties of diterpenoid polyphenols. The results concerning the antioxidant activity of polyphenols in the presence of thiol showed that two polyphenols, namely, carnosol and isorosmanol, enhanced antioxidant capacity against the radical-induced oxidation of lipids. Further examination of the mechanism revealed that both polyphenols exhibit excellent catalytic antioxidant activity by using the thiol group as a reduction source. Using density functional theory calculations, we attempted to explain why only these two polyphenols exhibit catalytic antioxidant properties. The calculation results and the assumed reaction mechanism suggested that the orthoquinones produced in the antioxidant reactions of carnosol and isorosmanol are more unstable than the others and that the regioselectivity of their reactions with thiols contributes to their catalytic antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Diterpenos , Rosmarinus , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Cisteína , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Lipídeos
11.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 20, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178178

RESUMO

Zinc selenide nanoparticles (ZnSe) are semiconductor metals of zinc and selenium. ZnSe NPs are advantageous for biomedical and bio-imaging applications due to their low toxicity. ZnSe NPs can be used as a therapeutic agent by synthesizing those using biologically safe methods. As a novel facet of these NPs, plant-based ZnSe NPs were fabricated from an aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO extract). Physiochemical analyses such as UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and TEM Imaging, XRD and DLS-Zeta potential analyses confirmed the biological fabrication of RO-ZnSe NPs. Additionally, Ro-ZnSe NPs were investigated for their bioactivity. There was an apparent peak in the UV-visible spectrum at 398 nm to confirm the presence of ZnSe NPs. FTIR analysis confirmed RO-extract participation in ZnSe NPs synthesis by identifying putative functional groups associated with biomolecules. TEM and SEM analyses revealed that RO-ZnSe NPs have spherical shapes in the range of 90-100 nm. According to XRD and EDX analysis, RO-ZnSe NPs had a crystallite size of 42.13 nm and contain Se and Zn (1:2 ratio). These NPs demonstrated approximately 90.6% antioxidant and antibacterial activity against a range of bacterial strains at 100 µg/ml. Antibiofilm activity was greatest against Candida glabrata and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100 g/ml. Accordingly, the IC50 values for anticancer activity against HTB-9, SW742, and HF cell lines were 14.16, 8.03, and 35.35 g/ml, respectively. In light of the multiple applications for ZnSe NPs, our research indicates they may be an excellent option for biological and therapeutic purposes in treating cancers and infections. Therefore, additional research is required to determine their efficacy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Rosmarinus , Óxido de Zinco , Óxido de Zinco/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
J Therm Biol ; 119: 103791, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281316

RESUMO

The growing interest in countering the adverse effects of heat stress in poultry using phytogenic feed additives has garnered considerable attention in recent times, this research sought to examine the impact of rosemary leaves extract (RLE) and oregano leaves extract (OLE) on the growth performance, physiological responses, and hepatic mRNA expression of heat shock proteins in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. A total of 150 male Indian River chicks, aged one day, were randomly allocated into five equally sized groups, each consisting of six replicates. The initial group was designated as the control and was provided with the basal diet. The second and third groups (R1 and R2) were administered the basal diet enriched with 50 and 100 mg/kg of rosemary leaves extract (RLE), respectively. The fourth and fifth groups (O1 and O2) were fed the basal diet supplemented with 50 and 100 mg/kg of oregano leaves extract (OLE), respectively. These chicks were reared in a controlled environmental chamber maintained at a temperature of 32±2 °C and relative humidity of 50 ± 5 %. Ferruginol was the leading component in RLE, whereas thymol was the prevalent constituent in OLE. RLE and OLE both have high DPPH• and ABTS•+ antioxidant potential. Among the experimental groups, the fourth group (O1) showed the heaviest live body weight and the lowest feed conversion ratio, indicating improved growth performance. There was a significant reduction in plasma total lipids and LDL-cholesterol levels within the R2 and O2 groups, respectively. Enhanced total antioxidant capacity and an improvement in the T3 hormone were observed in the R1 and R2 groups. In the second and fourth groups, the mRNA expression of hsp70 and 90A were both found to be significantly downregulated, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 50 mg/kg of oregano leaves extract (OLE) to the diets of heat-stressed broilers resulted in improved hepatic heat shock proteins, along with certain physiological responses, ultimately contributing to enhanced growth performance.


Assuntos
Origanum , Rosmarinus , Animais , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(1): e13273, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284599

RESUMO

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most famous spice plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family as a remarkably beautiful horticultural plant and economically agricultural crop. The essential oil of rosemary has been enthusiastically welcome in the whole world for hundreds of years. Now, it is wildly prevailing as a promising functional food additive for human health. More importantly, due to its significant aroma, food, and nutritional value, rosemary also plays an essential role in the food/feed additive and food packaging industries. Modern industrial development and fundamental scientific research have extensively revealed its unique phytochemical constituents with biologically meaningful activities, which closely related to diverse human health functions. In this review, we provide a comprehensively systematic perspective on rosemary by summarizing the structures of various pharmacological and nutritional components, biologically functional activities and their molecular regulatory networks required in food developments, and the recent advances in their applications in the food industry. Finally, the temporary limitations and future research trends regarding the development of rosemary components are also discussed and prospected. Hence, the review covering the fundamental research advances and developing prospects of rosemary is a desirable demand to facilitate their better understanding, and it will also serve as a reference to provide many insights for the future promotion of the research and development of functional foods related to rosemary.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Aditivos Alimentares , Alimento Funcional , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Plantas
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 38(5): 879-884, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37004998

RESUMO

The use of various herbs and their compounds has been a strategy widely used in the fight against various human diseases. For example, rosmarinic acid, a bioactive phenolic compound commonly found in Rosemary plants (Rosmarinus officinalis Labiatae), has multiple therapeutic benefits in different diseases, such as cancer. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate in silico and in vitro the inhibition potential of the enzyme Elastase from the porcine pancreas by rosmarinic acid isolated from the plant species R. officinalis Linn. Through Molecular Docking, the mechanism of action was investigated. In addition, rosmarinic acid presented a range of 5-60 µg/mL and significantly inhibited Elastase. At 60 µg/mL, there was an inhibition of 55% on the enzymatic activity. The results demonstrate the inhibition of Elastase by rosmarinic acid, which can lead to the development of new enzyme inhibitors that can be an inspiration for developing various drugs, including anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Rosmarinus , Humanos , Elastase Pancreática , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 38(5): 796-806, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37074231

RESUMO

Antibiotics have become increasingly ineffective in the face of bacterial resistance, particularly in hospitals. Interestingly, there is high demand for bioprospecting of secondary metabolites, particularly for treating multidrug-resistant clinical diseases. In fact, Rosemary has been used for its antiseptic properties dating back to antiquity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil against multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial pathogens. Results showed promising antibacterial activity against seven bacteria: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia odorifera, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Aeromonas hydrophila with MIC values of 35.7, 17.85, 71.4, 8.9, 17.8, 285.7, 35.7 µg/ml respectively and MBC values of 142.8, 71.4, 285.7, 35.7, 71.4, 571.5,71.4 µg/ml respectively. This study suggests that Rosmarinus essential oil can be used as a therapeutic agent in the fight against a wide range of multi-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
Pharmacology ; 109(1): 10-21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For centuries, Salvia rosmarinus Spenn has been applied as folk medicine to cure different diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, and antitumor effects. To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting a protective effect on airway inflammation and remodeling, we assessed the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of an aqueous spray-dried extract of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. (rosemary) in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic rat model. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into normal control (control), asthma, asthma+rosemary extract (RE) (13 mg/kg), asthma+RE (50 mg/kg), and asthma+budesonide groups. After 50 days, animals were anesthetized, and then blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues were collected for subsequent serological and pathological studies. Histopathology of lung tissues was evaluated by H&E staining. The oxidative stress parameters and airway inflammation factors in BALF and lung tissue were explored. RESULTS: Using thin layer chromatography, the presence of rosmarinic acid was confirmed in aqueous extract of rosemary. Furthermore, RE markedly decreased immunoglobulin E levels (50 mg/kg; p < 0.001 vs. asthma group) and inflammatory cytokines (50 mg/kg; p < 0.001 vs. asthma group) and increased antioxidant enzymes (50 mg/kg, p < 0.001 vs. asthma group). Furthermore, RE at a concentration of 50 mg/kg obviously reduced the number of inflammatory cells, goblet cells, and pathological changes compared to the asthma group. CONCLUSION: The results showed that RE administration might prevent or alleviate allergic asthma-related pathological change, probably via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Asma , Rosmarinus , Salvia , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/patologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Estresse Oxidativo , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
17.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 26(2): 250-262, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37469110

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the symbiotic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizae (Funneliformis mosseae) and the ability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) to mitigate urban traffic pollution. A factorial experiment with three replications and three factors (inoculated/non-inoculated with G. mosseae, traffic volume, and pot type) was conducted in Shiraz, a metropolis in south-central Iran. Inoculation with F. mosseae led to a 33% increase in root weight and a 20% increase in root length under a traffic volume of 4,200 Vehicles/H. Additionally, as traffic volume increased, stem length and dry weight of the entire plant inoculated with the fungus increased by 8.33% and 29.53%, respectively. The presence of fungus in the rosemary plant decreased the accumulation of Cd and increased the accumulation of Pb by 12.82% and 55.82%, respectively under traffic conditions of 4,200 Vehicles/H. The transfer factor (TF) of Cd and Pb in rosemary plant inoculated under these traffic conditions decreased by 25.74% and 25.24%, respectively. These findings indicate that mycorrhiza-inoculated rosemary plants can thrive in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils, effectively remediating heavy metals, particularly Pb, with a TF >1.


To our knowledge, the phytoremediation potential of rosemary in synchronization with Funneliformis mosseae in traffic conditions has not been evaluated previously. This study tries to identify the effect of rosemary-F. mosseae symbiosis on Cd and Pb phytoremediation under traffic conditions. Also, we investigated the concentration of these heavy metals in soil and different parts of the plant.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Rosmarinus , Poluentes do Solo , Simbiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Chumbo , Raízes de Plantas
18.
Food Chem ; 435: 137540, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778266

RESUMO

Carnosic (CA) and rosmarinic (RA) acids are the primary phenolic acids in hydrophilic rosemary extracts. Their combination exhibits high antioxidant activity and can be explored in several applications. This study aimed to develop an extraction procedure using bio-based solvents to recover two rosemary extracts, one rich in CA and the other in RA. By using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and a pool of 34 solvents, we evaluated nominal power (W), extraction time (min), and solvent water percentage (% H2O) regarding yield and selectivity. The authors propose a sequential UAE procedure validated by applying ethanol 99.5 % (v/v), 240 W, and 5 min to recover a rich fraction of 24.0 mgCA.gbiomass-1; followed by a second step using AmAc:LA (1:2 M ratio), 20 % H2O (m/m), 320 W, and 5 min that resulted in 8.4 mgRA.gbiomass-1. Our results indicate that modulating the solvent composition and process temperature is critical to increasing extraction yields and selectivity.


Assuntos
Rosmarinus , Solventes , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes , 60556
19.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 24(9): 623-631, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38152933

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of the current study was to assess and compare the impact of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) with rosmarinic acid (RA) on the viability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental pulp stem cells were isolated and characterized using flow cytometry. The cells were treated with (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL) concentrations for TAP and Ca(OH)2 and (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µM) concentrations for RA. Cell viability was evaluated after 3 days, with cell proliferation further analyzed over 3, 5, and 7 days utilizing the MTT assay. The optical density (OD) was quantified at 570 nm, subsequently enabling the determination of corrected OD and cell viability. ANOVA followed by the post hoc Tuckey test evaluated the statistical significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Following the cell viability test, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL of TAP and Ca(OH)2 showed no significant difference for DPSCs compared to the control group. While dosages of 1 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, and 5 mg/mL significantly reduced cell viability (p < 0.05). However, 6.25 µM and 12.5 µM concentrations of RA showed a significant increase in cell viability compared to untreated cells, 25 µM and 50 µM concentrations showed no significant difference compared to untreated cells while 100 µM concentration showed a decrease in cell viability (p < 0.05). Moreover, RA at a concentration of 12.5 µM exhibited a significant enhancement in cell proliferation rates after 5 and 7 days. CONCLUSION: Rosmarinic acid showed a significant increase in cell viability when used at 6.25 and 12.5 µM concentrations compared to TAP and CA(OH)2. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The assessment of cytotoxicity associated with bioactive compounds like RA, which processes antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, holds importance. This evaluation could pave the way for novel intracanal medicaments that enhance the regenerative potential of DPSCs.


Assuntos
Rosmarinus , Óxido de Zinco , Polpa Dentária , Cavidade Pulpar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Células-Tronco
20.
Molecules ; 28(22)2023 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005236

RESUMO

In dead biological tissues such as human hair, the ability of antioxidants to minimise autoxidation is determined by their chemical reactions with reactive oxygen species. In order to improve our understanding of factors determining such antioxidant properties, the mechanistic chemistry of four phenolic antioxidants found in tea and rosemary extracts (epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, rosmarinic and carnosic acids) has been investigated. The degradation of N-acetyl alanine by photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals was used as a model system. A relatively high concentration of the antioxidants (0.1 equivalent with respect to the substrate) tested the ability of the antioxidants to intercept both initiating hydroxyl radicals (preventive action) and propagating peroxyl radicals (chain-breaking action). LC-MS data showed the formation of hydroxylated derivatives, quinones and hydroperoxides of the antioxidants. The structure of the assignment was aided by deuterium exchange experiments. Tea polyphenolics (epicatechin and epigallocatechin gallate) outperformed the rosemary compounds in preventing substrate degradation and were particularly effective in capturing the initiating radicals. Carnosic acid was suggested to act mostly as a chain-breaking antioxidant. All of the antioxidants except for rosmarinic acid generated hydroperoxides which was tentatively ascribed to the insufficient lability of the benzylic C-H bond of rosmarinic acid.


Assuntos
Catequina , Rosmarinus , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Radical Hidroxila , Rosmarinus/química , Catequina/química , Oxirredução , Chá/química
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