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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Cabras , Ovinos , Prevalência , Fezes
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925935

RESUMO

Small ruminant production facets like decision-making, ownership, labour allocation, access to- and control over assets are gendered. This study investigates intra-household gender dynamics and practices around sheep and goat production among smallholder farmers in South East region of Kenya. A quantitative study was conducted on 358 dual-headed (married) households to generate gender-disaggregated data on ownership, decision-making and labour allocation around small ruminant production. Qualitative data was collected through focused group discussions to bring out the community perspectives. From the findings, the average number of small ruminants owned by the households as reported by men was slightly higher than women. The average number of small ruminants solely owned by men was significantly higher than by women. Men reported a relatively higher number of jointly owned small ruminants compared to women. More women than men reported that they could give as a gift, sell-off and slaughter jointly owned small ruminants without consulting their spouses. Small ruminants were considered the most important livestock asset in supporting a household's livelihood by relatively more women than men. Men had more decision-making autonomy over jointly owned small ruminants compared to women. Production tasks around small ruminants such as feeding, watering, selling milk and cleaning housing structures were mostly performed by the women. Qualitative data identified men as the de facto owners of small ruminants with a higher power position in making the important production decisions. The study offers three implications on the design of livestock interventions to empower women, the interventions should ensure that; 1) women are not just owners of livestock assets but also share power and decision-making rights in all aspects of production, 2) production labour is shared equitably between men and women and, 3) women access benefits from livestock production even when animals are owned by men.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Características da Família , Animais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Cabras , Humanos , Quênia , Gado , Ruminantes , Ovinos
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 245, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917026

RESUMO

The impact of brucellosis on public health and economy is unquestionable in developing countries such as the case of Algeria. This study aimed to provide further understanding of epidemiological status of brucellosis in small ruminant flocks in the southeast of Algeria. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among small ruminant flocks (n = 51) in El Oued district using simple random sampling strategy. The serum samples collected from 612 sheep and goats (sheep = 280, goats = 332) were screened for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) in parallel on all the serum samples. The seropositive serum samples of both tests were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A structured questionnaire regarding animal, herd, and farm management was prepared and completed in parallel to sampling. Association between variables and Brucella spp. seropositivity status of herds was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis using simple and binary logistic regression. Estimated true herd prevalence was 27.95% (95% CI, 17.18-42.01), and true individual prevalence was 3.98% (95% CI, 2.51-6.03). Seropositive herds were detected in bordering areas and regions with the highest livestock density. Occurrence of abortions in herds (p = 0.03) increased at least five times (5) the odds of being seropositive (OR, 6.25; 95% CI, 1.20-32.46). Poultry presence in farms revealed to be a protective factor (p = 0.01) (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.61). The high-level seroprevalence quantified in this study in small ruminant flocks reflects the persistent animal infection endemicity and the high risk of human exposure.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13239, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918371

RESUMO

The study aims to determine the selected miRNAs expression in milk somatic cells (MSC) and blood leukocytes (BL) of SRLV-seronegative (SRLV-SN) and SRLV-seropositive (SRLV-SP) goats. A functional in silico analysis of their target genes was also conducted. MiR-93-5p and miR-30e-5p were expressed only in BL, while miR-144 was expressed only in MSC, regardless of SRLV infection. In the SRLV-SP goats, higher miR-214-3p and miR-221-5p levels were found in the MSC than in the BL. Only miR-30e-5p was influenced by the lactation stage in BL in both groups, while only miR-93-5p was altered in BL of SRLV-SN goats. The target gene protein products exhibited contradictory functions, protecting the host from virus on the one hand and assisting viruses in their life cycle on the other. The differential expression of the miRNAs observed between the MSC and BL of SRLV-SP goats may suggest that the local immune response to the infection in the udder differs from the systemic response, and acts independently. Some miRNAs demonstrated different expression between lactation stages. It may be influenced by the metabolic burden occurring in early lactation and its peak. Some of the studied miRNAs may influence viral infection by regulating the expression of their target genes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , MicroRNAs , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/genética , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo , Cabras/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ruminantes/genética
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 33: 100753, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820726

RESUMO

Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose an increased health and productivity risk to livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Information regarding TBPs infecting small ruminants in Kano metropolis is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens of economic importance from sheep and goats in Kano, Nigeria using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 346 blood DNA samples were collected from small ruminants and analyzed for TBPs using PCR and sequencing. Risk of infection was determined for age, sex, breed and animal species. Our results indicate the absence of piroplasmids (Babesia/Theileria) and Rickettsia spp. infections. The overall prevalence for Anaplasma spp. was 9.25% (32/346) with a higher prevalence in goats 13.59% (25/184) compared with sheep 4.32% (7/162). With respect to age of animals, goats >4 years had the highest prevalence of 32.45% (11/37) which differs significantly (P = 0.0059) compared with other age categories. Cross breed goats had a prevalence of 15.63% (5/32) compared with Kano brown breed 14.08 (20/142). Sex significant difference (P = 0.029) was observed in the goats with females having the highest prevalence 20.89% (14/67) compared with males 9.40% (11/117). Furthermore, with regards to sheep, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with respect to age and breed. Finally, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed with the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. due to Body condition score (BCS) in both sheep and goats. Conclusively, the occurrence of TBPs in small ruminants is low. Continuous efforts in tick control must be sustained to ensure high productive yield and reduced disease burden associated with TBPs of sheep and goats in Kano metropolis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Infecções por Rickettsia , Theileria , Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Theileria/genética , Carrapatos/microbiologia
6.
Meat Sci ; 192: 108911, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868072

RESUMO

Giraffe numbers grow exponentially when farmed, necessitating periodic culling. This study quantified the effect of sex and muscle on the physical quality characteristics of eight giraffe muscles. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was the only parameter to be affected by an interaction between sex and muscle (P < 0.001), although the interaction for the CIE L* values tended towards significance (P = 0.054). Cooking loss (male = 41.6 ± 0.35%; female = 40.7 ± 0.33%; P = 0.024) and CIE L* values (male = 38.8 ± 0.23; female = 37.3 ± 0.27; P = 0.039) were both affected by sex. Muscle had an effect on all physical parameters. The ultimate pH of all muscles was 5.5-5.9; the average WBSF of <43 N for all muscles indicates giraffe meat in this study is tender. This study shows that yield and physical characteristics of giraffe meat are favourable, and the results may be useful for the marketing of giraffe meat.


Assuntos
Girafas , Animais , Culinária , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ruminantes
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 87: 101853, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797931

RESUMO

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, which causes abortions in domestic ruminants. This study aims to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever among ewes and investigate the associated risk factors in the Ain Defla region (north-central Algeria). Blood samples from 184 ewes were randomly collected from 45 sheep flocks. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against C. burnetii using an ELISA test. Seroprevalence was 24.9% and 66.7% at the animal and flock levels respectively. Univariate analysis at the animal level indicated three factors significantly associated with C. burnetii seropositivity: presence of pigeons in farms (χ2 = 9.689; p = 0.008), abortion in ewes (χ2 = 11.209; p = 0.001), and abortion history in the flock (χ2 = 7.744; p = 0.005). Therefore, C. burnetii infection plays a major role in abortions in the sheep populations under study, and the presence of pigeons in farms plays a role in disease transmission.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Doenças das Cabras , Febre Q , Doenças dos Ovinos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Feminino , Cabras , Gravidez , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2108471119, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867765

RESUMO

Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) possess specialized locomotor morphology, namely elongate and gracile distal limbs. While this contributes to their overall height and enhances feeding behavior, we propose that the combination of long limb segments and modest muscle lever arms results in low effective mechanical advantage (EMA, the ratio of in-lever to out-lever moment arms), when compared with other cursorial mammals. To test this, we used a combination of experimentally measured kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs), musculoskeletal modeling, and inverse dynamics to calculate giraffe forelimb EMA during walking. Giraffes walk with an EMA of 0.34 (±0.05 SD), with no evident association with speed within their walking gait. Giraffe EMA was about four times lower than expectations extrapolated from other mammals, ranging from 0.03 to 297 kg, and this provides further evidence that EMA plateaus or even diminishes in mammals exceeding horse size. We further tested the idea that limb segment length is a factor which determines EMA, by modeling the GRF and muscle moment arms in the extinct giraffid Sivatherium giganteum and the other extant giraffid, Okapia johnstoni. Giraffa and Okapia shared similar EMA, despite a four to sixfold difference in body mass (Okapia EMA = 0.38). In contrast, Sivatherium, sharing a similar body mass with Giraffa, had greater EMA (0.59), which we propose reflects behavioral differences, such as a somewhat increased capability for athletic performance. Our modeling approach suggests that limb length is a determinant of GRF moment arm magnitude and that unless muscle moment arms scale isometrically with limb length, tall mammals are prone to low EMA.


Assuntos
Girafas , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Extremidades , Marcha , Girafas/anatomia & histologia , Cavalos , Ruminantes , Caminhada/fisiologia
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(29): 8994-9006, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849131

RESUMO

In the present study, the different lipidomes between human milk and ruminant milk were compared. The 471, 376, 467, and 87 differential lipids were identified in human versus cow, goat, sheep, and camel groups, respectively. According to multivariate statistical analysis, lipids in human and camel milk were closer but differed from other milk. The distributions of long-chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids of triglycerides (TGs), the proportions of functional TGs (OPO, OPL, and PPO), and many kinds of phospholipids (PLs) (PS, PI, GD, GM3, and Cer) in human milk were similar to those in camel milk. The similar structure of TGs and proportion of PLs in human milk to camel milk might contribute to their similar digestion and bioactivity properties. Camel milk could be considered as a new resource of lipid base for infant formula. Minor PLs should also be considered for designing formula. Our results provide a new sight for humanized lipids in infant formula.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Leite , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Leite/química , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Triglicerídeos/análise
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12299, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853918

RESUMO

The local farmers of Central Punjab, Pakistan have been using indigenous grasses as vital components of ruminant diets, but little is reported about their nutritional potential. Hence this study investigated nutritive potential of a selection of ethnobotanically important fodder grasses. Multiple nutritional parameters (proximate components, fibre fractions), secondary metabolites (phenolics, tannins) and in vitro digestibility values were determined. Furthermore, the legitimacy of ethnobotanical knowledge of local inhabitants about these grasses was also verified. The results suggested that majority (77%) of these grasses can be regarded as good quality fodders because of their high protein (169 g/kg) and good digestibility (457 g/kg) with moderate fibre (≤ 602 g/kg), lignin (≤ 50 g/kg) and secondary metabolites (total phenols ≤ 87 g/kg, total tannins ≤ 78 g/kg, condensed tannins ≤ 61 g/kg). Pearson correlation between nutritional parameters indicated that in vitro digestibility values were positively correlated with crude proteins (IVDMD, r = + 0.83 and IVOMD, r = + 0.83 respectively) and negatively correlated with fibre (NDF, r = - 0.91), ADF, r = - 0.84 and ADL, r = - 0.82) contents. Moreover, a positive relationship was identified between ethnobotanical knowledge and laboratory findings for studied grasses. Spearman correlation test showed that ranking of grasses based on ethnobotanical preferences were highly correlated (r values) with the laboratory results for CP (0.85), NDF (- 0.76), ADF (- 0.72) and ADL (- 0.62). The resilient complementarities between ethnobotanical preferences and nutritive analysis authenticate farmer's traditional knowledge, which needed to be aligned with the corresponding scientific data. Farmers can use these findings for appropriate fodder selection and development of precise supplements for feeding ruminants within a sustainable and economically viable livestock industry for food security.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Poaceae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Paquistão , Ruminantes , Taninos
11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(8): 8153-8161, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776394

RESUMO

In livestock sector, dairy animals alone produce 18% of the total greenhouse gas emissions globally as methane (CH4). This Enteric methane is the largest component of total carbon footprints produced by livestock production system and its reduction is today's new challenge to make livestock farming sustainable for earth's environment. The production of enteric methane in ruminants is a complex phenomena involving different host factors like host genotype, rumen microbiome, host physiology along with dietary factors. Efforts have been made to reduce methane emissions largely through nutritional interventions and dietary supplements, but permanent reductions can be obtained through genetic means by selecting and breeding of low methane emitting animals. From genome-wide association studies, many important genomic QTL regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in shaping the composition of the ruminal microbiome and thus their carbon footprints have been recognised, implying that methane emission traits are quantitative traits. The major bottleneck in implementation of reduced methane emission traits in the breeding programs is wide variation at phenotypic level, lack of precise methane measurements at individual level. Overall, the heritability for CH4 production traits is moderate, and it can be used in breeding programmes to target changes in microbial composition to reduce CH4 emission in the dairy industry for far-reaching environmental benefits at the cost of a minor reduction in genetic gain in production traits.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gado/genética , Metano , Microbiota/genética , Rúmen , Ruminantes/genética
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(28): 8631-8644, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792578

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common cardiovascular disease (CVD). Currently, it is widely believed that R-TFA and I-TFA may cause different biological effects. In the present study, we aim to elucidate the effect of mixed R-TFA derived from butter on the development of AS in high-fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice and find the possible mechanism. It was shown that butter-derived R-TFA promoted dyslipidemia, reduced thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters, and induced aortic lipid deposition and atherosclerotic lesions in high-fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice. Meanwhile, butter-derived R-TFA affected the serum lipid profile of high-fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice and the lipid metabolism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Through lipidomic techniques, we found that butter-derived R-TFA had a significant effect on the glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that butter-derived R-TFA does not alleviate but promotes atherosclerotic lesions in high-fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice and that the glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway plays a major role in this pro-atherosclerotic effect.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos trans , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Manteiga , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Células Endoteliais , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Ruminantes , Ácidos Graxos trans/administração & dosagem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805592

RESUMO

Beach sand may act as a reservoir for numerous microorganisms, including enteric pathogens. Several of these pathogens originate in human or animal feces, which may pose a public health risk. In August 2019, high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were detected in the sand of the Azorean beach Prainha, Terceira Island, Portugal. Remediation measures were promptly implemented, including sand removal and the spraying of chlorine to restore the sand quality. To determine the source of the fecal contamination, during the first campaign, supratidal sand samples were collected from several sites along the beach, followed by microbial source tracking (MST) analyses of Bacteroides marker genes for five animal species, including humans. Some of the sampling sites revealed the presence of marker genes from dogs, seagulls, and ruminants. Making use of the information on biological sources originating partially from dogs, the municipality enforced restrictive measures for dog-walking at the beach. Subsequent sampling campaigns detected low FIB contamination due to the mitigation and remediation measures that were undertaken. This is the first case study where the MST approach was used to determine the contamination sources in the supratidal sand of a coastal beach. Our results show that MST can be an essential tool to determine sources of fecal contamination in the sand. This study shows the importance of holistic management of beaches that should go beyond water quality monitoring for FIB, putting forth evidence for beach sand monitoring.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Praias/normas , Areia/microbiologia , Poluição da Água , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Charadriiformes , Cães , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Portugal , Ruminantes , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
14.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 109, 2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B and K2 vitamins, essential nutrients in host metabolism, can be synthesized by the rumen microbiome in ruminants and subsequently absorbed by the host. However, the B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis by the whole gastrointestinal microbiome and their abundances in different dietary strategies are largely unknown. Here, we reanalyzed our previous large-scale metagenomic data on the gastrointestinal microbiome of seven ruminant species and recruited 17,425 nonredundant microbial genomes from published datasets to gain a comprehensive understanding of the microbe-mediated B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis in ruminants. RESULTS: We identified 1,135,807 genes and 167 enzymes involved in B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis. Our results indicated that the total abundances of B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis were dominant in the stomach microbiome, while the biosynthesis of thiamine, niacin, and pyridoxine was more abundant in the large intestine. By examining 17,425 nonredundant genomes, we identified 2366 high-quality genomes that were predicted to de novo biosynthesize at least one vitamin. Genomic analysis suggested that only 2.7% of these genomes can synthesize five or more vitamins, and nearly half of genomes can synthesize only one vitamin. Moreover, we found that most genomes possessed cobalamin transporters or cobalamin-dependent enzymes to consume cobalamin directly, and only a few microbial genomes possessed a complete cobalamin biosynthesis pathway. Based on these genomic data, we examined the effect of the high-grain (HG) diet on the vitamin biosynthesis of the rumen microbiome of dairy cattle. We revealed that most vitamin biosynthesis was enhanced in the HG group, while only cobalamin synthesis was inhibited in the HG group, indicating that dietary fiber is vital for cobalamin biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: We primarily provided a gene catalog and 2366 microbial genomes involved in B and K2 vitamin biosynthesis in ruminants. Our findings demonstrated the regional heterogeneity and dietary effect of vitamin biosynthetic potential in the ruminant gastrointestinal microbiome and interpreted the biosynthesis mechanisms of these microbes and their physiological adaptability. This study expands our understanding of microbe-mediated vitamin biosynthesis in ruminants and may provide novel targets for manipulation to improve the production of these essential vitamins. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Vitaminas
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 292, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Q fever is one of the most important zoonotic diseases caused by Coxiella burnetii. Although Q fever is an endemic disease in Iran, epidemiological data on C. burnetii infection are not yet complete in reservoirs and vectors in some parts of Iran. This survey investigated C. burnetii infection in small ruminants (sheep and goat blood samples) and their ticks in western Iran (Kurdistan province) in 2020. The presence of C. burnetii DNA was identified in these samples by targeting the IS1111 gene using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. RESULTS: Out of 250 blood samples (232 sheep and 18 goats), C. burnetii was detected in two samples (0.8%) belonging to the sheep (0.9%). In addition, 34 of 244 collected ticks (13.9%) from infested animals (244) were positive for C. burnetii infection. The highest prevalence of infection was found in Dermacentor marginatus (18.3%) and Haemaphysalis concinna (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that ticks could have a possible role in the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Doenças das Cabras , Febre Q , Doenças dos Ovinos , Carrapatos , Animais , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
16.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 60, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906709

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) belong to the Retroviridae family and can cause various diseases. One of the most impacting diseases is visna-maedi, a complex disease characterized by long latencies and chronic progressive inflammatory events affecting the nervous system, lungs, mammary gland, and articular joints. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs408593969, c.103G>A, missense mutation E35K) in the ovine transmembrane protein gene 154 (TMEM154) was identified as protective against small ruminant lentivirus infection in different herds worldwide. However, there is evidence in the scientific literature of a breed-specificity of this protective effect and, furthermore, there are still limited studies regarding the association between the animal genotype and the infecting virus genotype. Thus, the aim of this study was to further investigate the association between the animal genotype for the suggested protective mutation and the infecting virus genotype, in three different sheep breeds reared in northern Italy. The results obtained only partially confirmed the data available in the literature, as the protective effect was confirmed only for SRLV genotype A clusters, while other genotypes (namely B and E) infected AA and GA animals. Further studies with an experimental infection of specific virus genotypes in hosts with specific genotypes are required to confirm the larger number of cases the results obtained in this study.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Genótipo , Cabras , Lentivirus/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico
17.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891438

RESUMO

The hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related bovine hepacivirus (BovHepV) can cause acute as well as persistent infections in cattle. The true clinical relevance of the virus is not yet known. As reliable antibody detection methods are lacking and prevalence studies have only been conducted in cattle and few countries to date, the true distribution, genetic diversity, and host range is probably greatly underestimated. In this study, we applied several RT-PCR methods and a nano-luciferase-based immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay to analyze bovine serum samples from Bulgaria as well as wild ruminant sera from Germany and the Czech Republic. Using these methods, BovHepV infections were confirmed in Bulgarian cattle, with viral genomes detected in 6.9% and serological reactions against the BovHepV NS3 helicase domain in 10% of bovine serum samples. Genetic analysis demonstrated co-circulation of highly diverse BovHepV strains in Bulgarian cattle, and three novel BovHepV subtypes within the genotype 1 could be defined. Furthermore, application of a nested RT-PCR led to the first description of a BovHepV variant (genotype 2) in a wild ruminant species. The results of this study significantly enhance our knowledge of BovHepV distribution, genetic diversity, and host range.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Animais , Bovinos , Genômica , Hepacivirus/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Ruminantes
18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(5): 101992, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777304

RESUMO

The genus Anaplasma comprises eight bacterial species that are obligate intracellular pathogens that affect human and animal health. The zoonotic species A. phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever in ruminants, and of granulocytic anaplasmosis in horses, dogs, and humans. Recently, novel strains related to A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum-like 1/Japanese variant and A. phagocytophilum-like 2/Chinese variant) have been identified. The aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and phylogeny of A. phagocytophilum and related stains in small ruminants and ticks in China based on sequences of the 16S rRNA combined restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and groEL genes. PCR-RFLP and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of A. phagocytophilum-like 1 and 2 variants in sampled animals from China, with prevalence rates of 22.6% (303/1338) and 0.7% (10/1338), respectively. Only A. phagocytophilum-like 1 DNA was found in Haemaphysalis longicornis. The phylogeny based on the groEL gene showed inclusion of A. phagocytophilum-like 1 and some A. phagocytophilum-like 2 strains in two unique clades distinct from, but related to, Japanese and Chinese strains of related A. phagocytophilum, respectively. One noteworthy result was that the SSAP2f/SSAP2r primers detected Ehrlichia spp. strains. Moreover, the A. phagocytophilum-like 1 and 2 strains should be considered in the differential diagnosis of caprine and ovine anaplasmosis. Further investigations should be conducted to provide additional epidemiological information about A. phagocytophilum and A. phagocytophilum-like variants in animals and ticks.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Anaplasmose , Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cães , Cabras/microbiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Carrapatos/microbiologia
19.
Animal ; 16 Suppl 3: 100574, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778349
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11170, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778516

RESUMO

A laccase-producing hyper performer, Schizophyllum commune, a white-rot fungus, was evaluated for its ability to selectively degrade lignin of diverse crop residues in vitro. Relative analysis of crop residue treatment using laccase obtained from immobilized cells demonstrated degradation of 30-40% in finger millet straw and sorghum stover, 27-32% in paddy straw, 21% in wheat straw, and 26% in maize straw, while 20% lignin degradation was observed when purified and recombinant laccase was used. Further investigations into in vitro dry matter digestibility studies gave promising results recording digestibility of 54-59% in finger millet straw 33-36% in paddy straw and wheat straw, 16% in maize straw for laccase obtained from cell immobilization method, whereas 14% digestibility was observed when purified and recombinant laccase was used. Sorghum stover recorded digestibility of 13-15% across all straws treated with laccase. The results obtained elucidated the positive influence of laccase treatment on lignin degradation and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The present research gave encouraging figures confirming the production of laccase using the cell immobilization method to be an efficient production method commensurate with purified and recombinant laccase under conditions of submerged cultivation, proclaiming a cost-effective, environmentally safe green technology for effectual lignin depolymerization.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Schizophyllum , Animais , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
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