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1.
J Helminthol ; 98: e45, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828717

RESUMO

This review summarises studies on distribution, diversity, and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in wild ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. The results showed that 109 gastrointestinal tract (GIT) helminth species or species complexes were recorded in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. South Africa reported the highest number of species because most studies were carried out in this country. Eighty-eight nematode species or species complexes were recorded from 30 wild ruminant species across eight countries. The genus Trichostrongylus recorded the highest number of species and utilised the highest number of wild ruminant species, and along with Haemonchus spp., was the most widely distributed geographically. Fifteen trematode species or species complexes were reported from seven countries. The genus Paramphistomum recorded the highest number of species, and Calicophoron calicophoron was the most commonly occurring species in sub-Saharan African countries and infected the highest number of hosts. Six cestode species or species complexes from one family were documented from 14 wild hosts in seven countries. Moniezia spp. were the most commonly distributed in terms of host range and geographically. Impala were infected by the highest number of nematodes, whilst Nyala were infected by the highest number of trematode species. Greater kudu and Impala harbored the largest number of cestodes. The prevalence amongst the three GIT helminths taxa ranged between 1.4% and 100% for nematodes, 0.8% and 100% for trematodes, and 1.4% and 50% for cestodes. There is still limited information on the distribution and diversity of GIT helminths in wild ruminants in most sub-Saharan African countries.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Ruminantes , Animais , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842428

RESUMO

In a previous study characterizing Campylobacter strains deficient in selenium metabolism, 50 strains were found to be similar to, but distinct from, the selenonegative species Campylobacter lanienae. Initial characterization based on multilocus sequence typing and the phylogeny of a set of 20 core genes determined that these strains form three putative taxa within the selenonegative cluster. A polyphasic study was undertaken here to further clarify their taxonomic position within the genus. The 50 selenonegative strains underwent phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and an expanded set of 330 core genes. Standard phenotypic testing was also performed. All strains were microaerobic and anaerobic, Gram-negative, spiral or curved cells with some displaying coccoid morphologies. Strains were motile, oxidase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase positive, urease negative, and reduced nitrate. Strains within each clade had unique phenotypic profiles that distinguished them from other members of the genus. Core genome phylogeny clearly placed the 50 strains into three clades. Pairwise average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were all below the recommended cut-offs for species delineation with respect to C. lanienae and other related Campylobacter species. The data presented here clearly show that these strains represent three novel species within the genus, for which the names Campylobacter devanensis sp. nov. (type strain RM3662T=LMG 33097T=NCTC 15074T), Campylobacter porcelli sp. nov. (type strain RM6137T=LMG 33098T=CCUG 77054T=NCTC 15075T) and Campylobacter vicugnae sp. nov. (type strain RM12175T=LMG 33099T=CCUG 77055T=NCTC 15076T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Campylobacter , DNA Bacteriano , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Suínos , Ruminantes/microbiologia
3.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 82, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rumen microbiome enables ruminants to digest otherwise indigestible feedstuffs, thereby facilitating the production of high-quality protein, albeit with suboptimal efficiency and producing methane. Despite extensive research delineating associations between the rumen microbiome and ruminant production traits, the functional roles of the pervasive and diverse rumen virome remain to be determined. RESULTS: Leveraging a recent comprehensive rumen virome database, this study analyzes virus-microbe linkages, at both species and strain levels, across 551 rumen metagenomes, elucidating patterns of microbial and viral diversity, co-occurrence, and virus-microbe interactions. Additionally, this study assesses the potential role of rumen viruses in microbial diversification by analyzing prophages found in rumen metagenome-assembled genomes. Employing CRISPR-Cas spacer-based matching and virus-microbe co-occurrence network analysis, this study suggests that the viruses in the rumen may regulate microbes at strain and community levels through both antagonistic and mutualistic interactions. Moreover, this study establishes that the rumen virome demonstrates responsiveness to dietary shifts and associations with key animal production traits, including feed efficiency, lactation performance, weight gain, and methane emissions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a substantive framework for further investigations to unravel the functional roles of the virome in the rumen in shaping the microbiome and influencing overall animal production performance. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Rúmen , Vírus , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/virologia , Animais , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Viroma , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Metano/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 197, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741097

RESUMO

The occurrence of trematodes among ruminants and their snail vectors is a major concern across various agro-ecological regions of Ethiopia. Trematodes pose significant threats to animals, causing considerable economic losses and impacting public health. In this study, we have investigated 784 ruminant fecal samples, and 520 abattoir samples, alongside the collection and identification of snail vectors from various agro-ecological regions. Fecal examinations revealed Fasciola, Paramphistomum and Schistosoma species infected 20.5% (95% CI: 17.6, 23.8), 11.7% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.2), and 6.3% (95% CI: 4.1, 9.1) of the animals, respectively. The overall prevalence of trematodes among ruminants was 28.8% (95% CI: 25.7, 32.1%), with 6.0% (95% CI: 4.3, 7.7) showing mixed infections. Fasciola was more prevalent in Asela (26%) compared to Batu (19%) and Hawassa (11.5%), while a higher proportion of animals in Batu were infected with Paramphistomum. Schistosoma eggs were detected only in Batu (12.5%), but not in other areas. Sheep and cattle exhibited higher infection rates with Fasciola, Paramphistoma, and Schistosoma compared to goats. Significant associations were observed between trematode infections and risk factors including agro-ecology, animal species, body condition score, and deworming practices. About 20.8% and 22.7% of the slaughtered animals harbored Fasciola and Paramphistomum flukes, respectively, with a higher prevalence in Asela and Hawassa abattoirs compared to Batu abattoir. Additionally, a total of 278 snails were collected from the study areas and identified as lymnae natalensis, lymnae trancatula, Biomphalaria pffiferi, Biomphlaria sudanica, and Bulinus globosus. In conclusion, the study highlights the widespread occurrence of trematode infections, emphasizing the need for feasible control measures to mitigate their economic and public health impacts.


Assuntos
Fezes , Caramujos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Caramujos/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/classificação , Matadouros , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/parasitologia
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1379798, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756777

RESUMO

Introduction: Cryptosporidiosis is a poorly controlled zoonosis caused by an intestinal parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, with a high prevalence in livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats). Young animals are particularly susceptible to this infection due to the immaturity of their intestinal immune system. In a neonatal mouse model, we previously demonstrated the importance of the innate immunity and particularly of type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1) among mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) in controlling the acute phase of C. parvum infection. These immune populations are well described in mice and humans, but their fine characterization in the intestine of young ruminants remained to be further explored. Methods: Immune cells of the small intestinal Peyer's patches and of the distal jejunum were isolated from naive lambs and calves at different ages. This was followed by their fine characterization by flow cytometry and transcriptomic analyses (q-RT-PCR and single cell RNAseq (lamb cells)). Newborn animals were infected with C. parvum, clinical signs and parasite burden were quantified, and isolated MP cells were characterized by flow cytometry in comparison with age matched control animals. Results: Here, we identified one population of macrophages and three subsets of cDC (cDC1, cDC2, and a minor cDC subset with migratory properties) in the intestine of lamb and calf by phenotypic and targeted gene expression analyses. Unsupervised single-cell transcriptomic analysis confirmed the identification of these four intestinal MP subpopulations in lamb, while highlighting a deeper diversity of cell subsets among monocytic and dendritic cells. We demonstrated a weak proportion of cDC1 in the intestine of highly susceptible newborn lambs together with an increase of these cells within the first days of life and in response to the infection. Discussion: Considering cDC1 importance for efficient parasite control in the mouse model, one may speculate that the cDC1/cDC2 ratio plays also a key role for the efficient control of C. parvum in young ruminants. In this study, we established the first fine characterization of intestinal MP subsets in young lambs and calves providing new insights for comparative immunology of the intestinal MP system across species and for future investigations on host-Cryptosporidium interactions in target species.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Homeostase , Animais , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/imunologia , Ovinos , Bovinos , Homeostase/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/parasitologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/parasitologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/parasitologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ruminantes/imunologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 123(5): 210, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743097

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica is a widespread parasite that causes neglected disease in livestock worldwide. Its high transmissibility and dispersion are attributed to its ability to infect intermediate snail hosts and adapt to various mammalian definitive hosts. This study investigated the variation and population dynamics of F. gigantica in cattle, sheep, and goats from three states in Sudan. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes were sequenced successfully to examine intra and interspecific differences. ND1 exhibited higher diversity than COI, with 15 haplotypes and 10 haplotypes, respectively. Both genes had high haplotype diversity but low nucleotide diversity, with 21 and 11 polymorphic sites for ND1 and COI, respectively. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests revealed that F. gigantica from different host species was in a state of population expansion. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees and median networks revealed that F. gigantica in Sudan and other African countries had host-specific and country-specific lineages for both genes. The study also indicated that F. gigantica-infected small ruminants were evolutionarily distant, suggesting deep and historical interspecies adaptation.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Fasciola , Fasciolíase , Variação Genética , Cabras , Haplótipos , NADH Desidrogenase , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Fasciola/genética , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Bovinos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(6): 1191-1198, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802495

RESUMO

Eastern Africa is home to the largest terrestrial migrations on Earth. Though these migratory systems have been well studied for decades, little is known of their antiquity and evolutionary history. Serially sampled strontium stable isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) from tooth enamel can be used to track migration in mammals. Here we analyse 87Sr/86Sr for 79 bovid and equid individuals representing 18 species from four localities in Kenya to characterize prehistoric migratory systems during the Last Glacial Period (115-11.7 ka). Of the species analysed, 16 lack definitive evidence for migration, including blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) and plains zebra (Equus quagga), which are long-distance migrants today in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem and historically in the Athi-Kapiti Plains. Only two species, the extinct wildebeests Rusingoryx atopocranion and Megalotragus sp., were migratory. These findings suggest a possible alternative narrative about ecosystem dynamics during the Last Glacial Period and shed light on the behaviour of both extant and extinct species at this time. In particular, these results indicate that migratory behaviour in extant species either emerged during the Holocene or was more spatiotemporally constrained in the past. Our results contribute to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the structure and function of geologically recent large mammal communities in eastern Africa differed considerably from those observed in the present day.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Herbivoria , Quênia , Animais , Equidae/fisiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Fósseis , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise
8.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793568

RESUMO

The hepatitis E virus is a serious health concern worldwide, with 20 million cases each year. Growing numbers of autochthonous HEV infections in industrialized nations are brought on via the zoonotic transmission of HEV genotypes 3 and 4. Pigs and wild boars are the main animal reservoirs of HEV and play the primary role in HEV transmission. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat and close contact with infected animals are the most common causes of hepatitis E infection in industrialized countries. However, during the past few years, mounting data describing HEV distribution has led experts to believe that additional animals, particularly domestic ruminant species (cow, goat, sheep, deer, buffalo, and yak), may also play a role in the spreading of HEV. Up to now, there have not been enough studies focused on HEV infections associated with animal milk and the impact that they could have on the epidemiology of HEV. This critical analysis discusses the role of domestic ruminants in zoonotic HEV transmissions. More specifically, we focus on concerns related to milk safety, the role of mixed farming in cross-species HEV infections, and what potential consequences these may have on public health.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Leite , Ruminantes , Zoonoses , Animais , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Leite/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Humanos , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Ovinos/virologia , Genótipo
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302185, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805421

RESUMO

In this investigation, we explore the harnessing of bamboo shoot residues (BSR) as a viable source for ruminant feed through fungal treatment, with the overarching objective of elevating feed quality and optimizing bamboo shoot utilization. The white-rot fungi (Wr.fungi), Aspergillus niger (A.niger), and its co-cultures (A.niger&Wr.fungi) were employed to ferment BSR. And the impact of different fermentation methods and culture time on the chemical composition (Crude protein Ash, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibers), enzyme activity (Cellulase, Laccase, Filter paperase and Lignin peroxidase activities), and rumen digestibility in vitro were assessed. The findings reveal a nota ble 30.39% increase in crude protein in fermented BSR, accompanied by respective decreases of 13.02% and 17.31% in acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fibre content. Enzyme activities experienced augmentation post-fermentation with A.niger&Wr.fungi. Specifically, the peak Cellulase, Laccase, and Lignin peroxidase activities for BSR with Wr.fungi treatment reached 748.4 U/g, 156.92 U/g, and 291.61 U/g, respectively, on the sixth day of fermentation. Concurrently, NH3-N concentration exhibited an upward trend with prolonged fermentation time. Total volatile fatty acids registered a decline, and the Acetate/Propionate ratio reached its nadir after 6 days of fermentation under the A.niger&Wr.fungi treatment. These outcomes furnish a theoretical foundation for the development of ruminant feeds treated via fungal co-culture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fermentação , Ruminantes , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Rúmen/microbiologia , Fungos/metabolismo
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 265: 107469, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705081

RESUMO

The first parity, or first pregnancy, of ruminant females has negative effects on offspring during fetal, perinatal, and pre-weaning periods which ultimately lead to diminished pre-weaning productivity. Offspring born to primiparous ruminant females can have decreased fetal and pre-weaning growth, resulting in lower body weights at birth and weaning in cattle, sheep, and goats. Moreover, mortality is greater during both neonatal and pre-weaning periods. Insults during these critical developmental windows likely also have long-term consequences on first-parity offspring through developmental programming, but less research has been done to investigate effects in the post-weaning period. Many potential physiological, metabolic, and behavioral mechanisms exist for the outcomes of dam primiparity. Although competition for nutrient partitioning between maternal and fetal growth or lactation is often cited as a major contributor, we hypothesize that the most important mechanism causing most first-parity outcomes is the relative physiological inexperience of reproductive tissues such as the uterus and mammary gland during the first pregnancy and lactation, or a "first use theory" of tissues. More research is necessary to explore these areas, as well as if primiparous dams respond differently to stressors than multiparous dams, and if stress during the first parity affects subsequent parities.


Assuntos
Paridade , Ruminantes , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 173015, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710388

RESUMO

Seaweeds or marine algae exhibit diverse morphologies, sizes, colors, and chemical compositions, encompassing various species, including red, green, and brown seaweeds. Several seaweeds have received increased research attention and application in animal feeding investigations, particularly in ruminant livestock, due to their higher yield and convenient harvestability at present. Recent endeavors encompassing both in vitro and in vivo experiments have indicated that many seaweeds, particularly red seaweed (Asparagopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata), contain plant secondary compounds, such as halogenated compounds and phlorotannins, with the potential to reduce enteric ruminal methane (CH4) emissions by up to 99 % when integrated into ruminant diets. This review provides an encompassing exploration of the existing body of knowledge concerning seaweeds and their impact on rumen fermentation, the toxicity of ruminal microbes, the health of animals, animal performance, and enteric ruminal CH4 emissions in both in vitro and in vivo settings among ruminants. By attaining a deeper comprehension of the implications of seaweed supplementation on rumen fermentation, animal productivity, and ruminal CH4 emissions, we could lay the groundwork for devising innovative strategies. These strategies aim to simultaneously achieve environmental benefits, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enhance animal efficiency, and develop aquaculture and seaweed production systems, ensuring a high-quality and consistent supply chain. Nevertheless, future research is essential to elucidate the extent of the effect and gain insight into the mode of action.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Metano , Rúmen , Ruminantes , Alga Marinha , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Fermentação
12.
Chemosphere ; 359: 142320, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735490

RESUMO

Population declines were documented in multiple ruminant species in Montana and surrounding states starting in 1995. While weather, food sources, and predation certainly contributed, the declines were often attributed, at least partly, to unexplained factors. Use of teratogenic agrichemicals, notably neonicotinoid insecticides, fungicides, and glyphosate-based herbicides, massively increased regionally in 1994-96. The question explored in this review is whether this vastly increased use of these teratogenic pesticides might have contributed to observed population declines. We provide references and data documenting that specific developmental malformations on vertebrates can be associated with exposure to one or more of these agrichemicals. These pesticides are known to disrupt thyroid and other hormonal functions, mitochondrial functions, and biomineralization, all of which are particularly harmful to developing fetuses. Exposures can manifest as impaired embryonic development of craniofacial features, internal and reproductive organs, and musculoskeletal/integumental systems, often resulting in reproductive failure or weakened neonates. This paper reviews: a) studies of ruminant populations in the region, especially elk and white-tailed deer, prior to and after 1994; b) published and new data on underdeveloped facial bones in regional ruminants; c) published and new data on reproductive abnormalities in live and necropsied animals before and after 1994; and d) studies documenting the effects of exposures to three of the most applied teratogenic chemicals. While answers to the question posed above are complex and insufficient evidence is available for definitive answers, this review provides ideas for further consideration.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Ruminantes , Teratogênicos , Animais , Teratogênicos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Cervos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , Glifosato
13.
Theriogenology ; 225: 16-32, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788626

RESUMO

The challenges posed by climate change and increasing world population are stimulating renewed efforts for improving the sustainability of animal production. To meet such challenges, the contribution of genomic selection approaches, in combination with assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), to spreading and preserving animal genetics is essential. The largest increase in genetic gain can be achieved by shortening the generation interval. This review provides an overview of the current status and progress of advanced ARTs that could be applied to reduce the generation time in both female and male of domestic ruminants. In females, the use of juvenile in vitro embryo transfer (JIVET) enables to generate offspring after the transfer of in vitro produced embryos derived from oocytes of prepubertal genetically superior donors reducing the generational interval and acceleration genetic gain. The current challenge is increasing in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from prepubertal derived oocytes which is still low and variable. The two main factors limiting IVEP success are the intrinsic quality of prepubertal oocytes and the culture systems for in vitro maturation (IVM). In males, advancements in ARTs are providing new strategies to in vitro propagate spermatogonia and differentiate them into mature sperm or even to recapitulate the whole process of spermatogenesis from embryonic stem cells. Moreover, the successful use of immature cells, such as round spermatids, for intracytoplasmic injection (ROSI) and IVEP could allow to complete the entire process in few months. However, these approaches have been successfully applied to human and mouse whereas only a few studies have been published in ruminants and results are still controversial. This is also dependent on the efficiency of ROSI that is limited by the current isolation and selection protocols of round spermatids. In conclusion, the current efforts for improving these reproductive methodologies could lead toward a significant reduction of the generational interval in livestock animals that could have a considerable impact on agriculture sustainability.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Ruminantes , Animais , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Trends Parasitol ; 40(6): 511-526, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760257

RESUMO

Helminth infections in grazing ruminants are a major issue for livestock farming globally, but are unavoidable in outdoor grazing systems and must be effectively managed to avoid deleterious effects to animal health, and productivity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are transforming our understanding of the genetic basis of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and epidemiological studies of ruminant gastrointestinal parasites. They also have the potential to not only help develop and validate molecular diagnostic tests but to be directly used in routine diagnostics integrating species-specific identification and AR into a single test. Here, we review how these developments have opened the pathway for the development of multi-AR and multispecies identification in a single test, with widespread implications for sustainable livestock farming for the future.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ruminantes , Animais , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Helmintos/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética
15.
Animal ; 18(4): 101134, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593679

RESUMO

Animal nutritionists continue to investigate new strategies to combat the challenge of methane emissions from ruminants. Medicinal plants (MPs) are known to be beneficial to animal health and exert functional roles in livestock due to their phytogenic compounds with antimicrobial, immunostimulatory, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Some MP has been reported to be anti-methanogenic and can effectively lower ruminants' enteric methane emissions. This review overviews trends in MP utilization in ruminants, their bioactivity and their effectiveness in lowering enteric methane production. It highlights the MP regulatory mechanism and the gaps that must be critically addressed to improve its efficacy. MP could reduce enteric methane production by up to 8-50% by regulating the rumen fermentation pathway, directing hydrogen toward propionogenesis, and modifying rumen diversity, structure, and population of the methanogens and protozoa. Yet, factors such as palatability, extraction techniques, and economic implications must be further considered to exploit their potential fully.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 69, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ruminants are important livestock animals that have a unique digestive system comprising multiple stomach compartments. Despite significant progress in the study of microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) sites of ruminants, we still lack an understanding of the viral community of ruminants. Here, we surveyed its viral ecology using 2333 samples from 10 sites along the GIT of 8 ruminant species. RESULTS: We present the Unified Ruminant Phage Catalogue (URPC), a comprehensive survey of phages in the GITs of ruminants including 64,922 non-redundant phage genomes. We characterized the distributions of the phage genomes in different ruminants and GIT sites and found that most phages were organism-specific. We revealed that ~ 60% of the ruminant phages were lytic, which was the highest as compared with those in all other environments and certainly will facilitate their applications in microbial interventions. To further facilitate the future applications of the phages, we also constructed a comprehensive virus-bacteria/archaea interaction network and identified dozens of phages that may have lytic effects on methanogenic archaea. CONCLUSIONS: The URPC dataset represents a useful resource for future microbial interventions to improve ruminant production and ecological environmental qualities. Phages have great potential for controlling pathogenic bacterial/archaeal species and reducing methane emissions. Our findings provide insights into the virome ecology research of the ruminant GIT and offer a starting point for future research on phage therapy in ruminants. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Microbiota , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/genética , Archaea , Ruminantes
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302455, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683822

RESUMO

Dicrocoelium lancet flukes cause significant production loss in ruminant livestock. Although co-infection with multiple Dicrocoelium species within a host is common, techniques for studying the composition of these complex parasite communities are lacking. The pathogenicity, epidemiology, and therapeutic susceptibility of different helminth species vary, and little is known about the interactions that take place between co-infecting species and their hosts. Here, we describe the first applicationof metabarcoding deep amplicon sequencing method to studythe Dicrocoelium species in sheep and goats. First, rDNA ITS-2 sequences of four Dicrocoelium species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Dicrocoelium hospes, Dicrocoelium orientalis, and Dicrocoelium chinensis) were extracted from the NCBI public database. Phylogenetic analysis revealed separate clades of Dicrocoelium species; hence, molecular differentiation between each species is possible in co-infections. Second, 202 flukes belonging to seventeen host populations (morphologically verified as belonging to the Dicrocoelium genus) were evaluated to determine the deep amplicon sequencing read threshold of an individual fluke for each of the four species. The accuracy of the method in proportional quantification of samples collected from single hosts was further assessed. Overall, 198 (98.01%) flukes were confirmed as D. dendriticum and 1.98% produced no reads. The comparison of genetic distances between rDNA ITS-2 revealed 86% to 98% identity between the Dicrocoelium species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a distinct clustering of species, apart from D. orientalis and D. chinensis, which sit very close to each other in a single large clade whereas D. hospes and D. dendriticum are separated into their own clade. In conclusion each sample was identified as D. dendriticum based on the proportion of MiSeq reads and validated the presence of this group of parasites in the Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. The metabarcoding deep amplicon sequencing technology and bioinformatics pathway have several potential applications, including species interactions during co-infections, identifying the host and geographical distribution of Dicrocoelium in livestock, drug therapy response evaluation and understanding of the emergence and spread of drug resistance.


Assuntos
Dicrocelíase , Dicrocoelium , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Dicrocoelium/genética , Dicrocoelium/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Dicrocelíase/parasitologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia
18.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 423, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684895

RESUMO

Snow is a major, climate-sensitive feature of the Earth's surface and catalyst of fundamentally important ecosystem processes. Understanding how snow influences sentinel species in rapidly changing mountain ecosystems is particularly critical. Whereas effects of snow on food availability, energy expenditure, and predation are well documented, we report how avalanches exert major impacts on an ecologically significant mountain ungulate - the coastal Alaskan mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Using long-term GPS data and field observations across four populations (421 individuals over 17 years), we show that avalanches caused 23-65% of all mortality, depending on area. Deaths varied seasonally and were directly linked to spatial movement patterns and avalanche terrain use. Population-level avalanche mortality, 61% of which comprised reproductively important prime-aged individuals, averaged 8% annually and exceeded 22% when avalanche conditions were severe. Our findings reveal a widespread but previously undescribed pathway by which snow can elicit major population-level impacts and shape demographic characteristics of slow-growing populations of mountain-adapted animals.


Assuntos
Avalanche , Neve , Animais , Ecossistema , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Dinâmica Populacional , Alaska , Clima , Mudança Climática , Masculino
19.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1441, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coxiellosis is a neglected zoonosis for occupationally exposed people in many parts of the world. Sheep and goats are two important small ruminants that act as reservoirs for human contamination; however, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the epidemiological aspects of coxiellosis in sheep and goats at regional and global levels. The aim of this study was to systematically review the available articles on seroprevalence of coxiellosis in sheep and goats and estimate the overall seroprevalence in different regions. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was performed in five electronic repositories for articles published until December 2021. Relevant data were extracted from the selected articles based on the inclusion criteria. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to analyse the data. Results are presented as the prevalence of seropositivity as a percentage and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The global pooled seroprevalence of coxiellosis in sheep was 17.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.59%-19.17%). Overall, the regional level pooled prevalence estimates in sheep ranged from 15.04% (95% CI: 7.68%-22.40%) to 19.14% (95% CI: 15.51%-22.77%), depending on region. The global pooled seroprevalence of coxiellosis in goats was 22.60% (95% CI: 19.54%-25.66%). Overall, the regional level pooled prevalence estimates in goats ranged from 6.33% (95% CI: 2.96%-9.71%) to 55.13% (95% CI: 49.61%-60.65%), depending on the region. The prevalence estimates also varied significantly in both sheep and goats depending on age, sex, and rearing systems of the animals (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of coxiellosis in both sheep and goats is considerable. Routine monitoring of the sheep and goat populations is needed to prevent spillover infection in other livestock and humans.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos , Humanos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ruminantes , Cabras , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Gado , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
20.
Acta Trop ; 255: 107235, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688445

RESUMO

Coxiellosis in animals is caused by the zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii. Although the disease is of public health importance it remains underdiagnosed and underreported. The cross- sectional study was aimed to estimate the occurrence of the disease in livestock of study area and also to identify the risk factors associated with the disease in animals. Blood, serum, and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 200 ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats), across various farms in Karnataka, India. These samples were then screened using ELISA and PCR (com1 and IS1111). A questionnaire was administered to the farm owners to collect the risk factor-related information. About 5.26 % cattle, 12.3 % sheep, and 12.5 % goats were positive by ELISA. By PCR, 9.47 % cattle, 9.3 % sheep, and 10 % goats were positive. Overall, the occurrence of 14.73 %, 18.46 % and 17.5 % was estimated in cattle, sheep and goat, respectively. PCR targeting the IS1111 gene detected higher number of samples as positive as compared to the com1 gene PCR. Higher number of vaginal swab samples were detected as positive as compared to blood. History of reproductive disorders (OR: 4.30; 95 %CI:1.95- 9.46), abortion (OR: 30.94; 95 %CI:6.30- 151.84) and repeat breeding (OR:11.36; 95 %CI:4.16- 30.99) were significantly associated with coxiellosis (p < 0.005). Multivariable analysis by logistic regression model analysis suggested retained abortion, repeat breeding and rearing of animal in semi-intensive system as factors significantly associated with the infection. Cultural identification of the PCR positive samples were cultured using embryonated egg propagation and cell culture techniques and positivity was confirmed in six samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the com1 and IS1111 gene revealed clustering based on similar geographic locations. The study estimated the occurrence of the disease in the study area and identified the potential risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Febre Q , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Febre Q/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Cabras/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vagina/microbiologia
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