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1.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e7, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949427

RESUMO

Wild animals, sharing pathogens with domestic animals, play a crucial role in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Sampling from wild animals poses significant challenges, yet it is vital for inclusion in disease surveillance and monitoring programmes. Often, mass surveillance involves serological screenings using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, typically validated only for domestic animals. This study assessed the diagnostic specificity of commercially available ELISA tests on 342 wild ruminant serum samples and 100 from wild boars. We evaluated three tests for foot-and-mouth disease: two for Peste des petits ruminants, two for Rift Valley fever and one for Capripox virus. Diagnostic specificity was calculated using the formula True Negative/(False Positive + True Negative). Cohen's kappa coefficient measured agreement between tests. Results showed high specificity and agreement across all tests. Specificity for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) ranged from 93.89% for Prionics to 100% for IDEXX, with IDvet showing 99.6%. The highest agreement was between FMD IDvet and IDEXX at 97.1%. Rift Valley fever (RVF) tests, Ingezim and IDvet, achieved specificities of 100% and 98.83%, respectively. The optimal specificity was attained by retesting single reactors and inactivating the complement.Contribution: Commercially available ELISA kits are specific for foot-and-mouth disease and similar transboundary animal diseases and can be used for highly specific wild animal testing.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Febre do Vale de Rift/diagnóstico , Febre do Vale de Rift/sangue , Sus scrofa , Ruminantes , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
2.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(4): e13090, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979720

RESUMO

Sella turcica is an important anatomical structure that contains the pituitary gland. Changes observed on the sella turcica facilitate the identification of diseases such as Down syndrome, Seckel syndrome and tuberculum sellae meningioma in humans. Therefore, studies in this region are critical for a better understanding of sella turcica. The crania of six adult male tuj sheep, five adult male hair goats and five adult male gazelles were used in the study. Cross-sectional images of the cranium were captured using computed tomography. Cross-sectional images were used to model the sella turcica region in 3D, and the region was analysed morphologically and morphometrically. It was observed in the study that fossa hypophysialis, dorsum sella and processus clinoideus caudalis were clearly observed on the sella turcica. The processus clinoideus caudalis in some animals was not split into two. In morphometric analysis, the sella turcica length and sella turcica height (rostral border) parameters were statistically significant between the groups (p < 0.05). Consequently, this study morphological and morphometric examinations were carried out on the sella turcica of different ruminant species, and the differences between the groups were discussed. This study is expected to contribute to the very limited number of related studies, taxonomy and clinical studies in this field.


Assuntos
Cabras , Sela Túrcica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Sela Túrcica/anatomia & histologia , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Antílopes/anatomia & histologia , Ruminantes/anatomia & histologia
3.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(216): 20240278, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955228

RESUMO

The wildlife and livestock interface is vital for wildlife conservation and habitat management. Infectious diseases maintained by domestic species may impact threatened species such as Asian bovids, as they share natural resources and habitats. To predict the population impact of infectious diseases with different traits, we used stochastic mathematical models to simulate the population dynamics over 100 years for 100 times in a model gaur (Bos gaurus) population with and without disease. We simulated repeated introductions from a reservoir, such as domestic cattle. We selected six bovine infectious diseases; anthrax, bovine tuberculosis, haemorrhagic septicaemia, lumpy skin disease, foot and mouth disease and brucellosis, all of which have caused outbreaks in wildlife populations. From a starting population of 300, the disease-free population increased by an average of 228% over 100 years. Brucellosis with frequency-dependent transmission showed the highest average population declines (-97%), with population extinction occurring 16% of the time. Foot and mouth disease with frequency-dependent transmission showed the lowest impact, with an average population increase of 200%. Overall, acute infections with very high or low fatality had the lowest impact, whereas chronic infections produced the greatest population decline. These results may help disease management and surveillance strategies support wildlife conservation.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16007, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992147

RESUMO

This study addresses the effect of using animal excreta on the nutritional content of forages, focusing on macro- and micro-element concentrations (nitrogen; N, phosphorus; P, sulphur; S, copper; Cu, zinc; Zn, manganese; Mn, selenium; Se) from animal feed to excreta, soil, and plants. Data were collected from pot and field trials using separate applications of sheep or cattle urine and faeces. Key findings indicate that soil organic carbon (SOC) and the type of excreta significantly influences nutrient uptake by forages, with varied responses among the seven elements defined above. Although urine contributes fewer micronutrients compared to faeces (as applied at a natural volume/mass basis, respectively), it notably improves forage yield and micronutrient accumulation, thus potentially delivering positive consequences at the farm level regarding economic performance and soil fertility when swards upon clayey soil types receive said urine in temperate agro-climatic regions (i.e., South West England in the current context). In contrast, faeces application in isolation hinders Se and Mn uptake, once again potentially delivering unintended consequences such as micronutrient deficiencies in areas of high faeces deposition. As it is unlikely that (b)ovine grazing fields will receive either urine or faeces in isolation, we also explored combined applications of both excreta types which demonstrates synergistic effects on N, Cu, and Zn uptake, with either synergistic or dilution effects being observed for P and S, depending largely on SOC levels. Additionally, interactions between excreta types can result in dilution or antagonistic effects on Mn and Se uptake. Notably, high SOC combined with faeces reduces Mn and Se in forages, raising concerns for grazed ruminant systems under certain biotic situations, e.g., due to insufficient soil Se levels typically observed in UK pastures for livestock growth. These findings underscore the importance of considering SOC and excreta nutritional composition when designing forage management to optimize nutrient uptake. It should be noted that these findings have potential ramifications for broader studies of sustainable agriculture through system-scale analyses, as the granularity of results reported herein elucidate gaps in knowledge which could affect, both positively and negatively, the interpretation of model-based environmental impact assessments of cattle and sheep production (e.g., in the case of increased yields [beneficial] or the requirement of additional synthetic supplementation [detrimental]).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fezes , Solo , Urina , Animais , Fezes/química , Bovinos , Solo/química , Ovinos , Urina/química , Ração Animal/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/urina , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/urina , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0294853, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950318

RESUMO

Feral populations of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) occur in Texas bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) habitat and pose several conceptual ecological threats to bighorn sheep re-establishment efforts. The potential threat of disease transmission from aoudad to bighorn sheep may exacerbate these issues, but the host competency of aoudad and subsequent pathophysiology and transmissibility of pneumonic pathogens involved in the bighorn sheep respiratory disease complex is largely unknown. Because the largest population-limiting diseases of bighorn sheep involve pathogens causing bronchopneumonia, we evaluated the host competency of aoudad for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Pasteurellaceae. Specifically, we described the shedding dynamics, pathogen carriage, seroconversion, clinical patterns, and pathological effects of experimental infection among wild aoudad held in captivity. We found that aoudad are competent hosts capable of maintaining and intraspecifically transmitting Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae and can shed the bacteria for 53 days after exposure. Aoudad developed limited clinical signs and pathological findings ranged from mild chronic lymphohistiocytic bronchointerstitial pneumonia to severe and acute suppurative pneumonia, similarly, observed in bighorn sheep infected with Mycoplasma spp. and Pasteurellaceae bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, as expected, clinical signs and lesions were often more severe in aoudad inoculated with a combination of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae as compared to aoudad inoculated with only Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. There may be evidence of interindividual susceptibility, pathogenicity, and/or transmissibility, indicated by individual aoudad maintaining varying severities of chronic infection who may be carriers continuously shedding pathogens. This is the first study to date to demonstrate that aoudad are a conceptual disease transmission threat to sympatric bighorn sheep populations due to their host competency and intraspecific transmission capabilities.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , Pasteurellaceae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Animais , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pasteurellaceae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Ovinos , Carneiro da Montanha/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/transmissão , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Feminino
6.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836500

RESUMO

Gut microbes play a crucial role in transforming primary bile acids (BAs) into secondary forms, which influence systemic metabolic processes. The rumen, a distinctive and critical microbial habitat in ruminants, boasts a diverse array of microbial species with multifaceted metabolic capabilities. There remains a gap in our understanding of BA metabolism within this ecosystem. Herein, through the analysis of 9371 metagenome-assembled genomes and 329 cultured organisms from the rumen, we identified two enzymes integral to BA metabolism: 3-dehydro-bile acid delta4,6-reductase (baiN) and the bile acid:Na + symporter family (BASS). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were employed by introducing exogenous BAs. We revealed a transformation of BAs in rumen and found an enzyme cluster, including L-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. This cluster, distinct from the previously known BA-inducible operon responsible for 7α-dehydroxylation, suggests a previously unrecognized pathway potentially converting primary BAs into secondary BAs. Moreover, our in vivo experiments indicated that microbial BA administration in the rumen can modulate amino acid and lipid metabolism, with systemic impacts underscored by core secondary BAs and their metabolites. Our study provides insights into the rumen microbiome's role in BA metabolism, revealing a complex microbial pathway for BA biotransformation and its subsequent effect on host metabolic pathways, including those for glucose, amino acids, and lipids. This research not only advances our understanding of microbial BA metabolism but also underscores its wider implications for metabolic regulation, offering opportunities for improving animal and potentially human health.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rúmen , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Metagenoma , Bovinos , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
7.
Acta Vet Hung ; 72(2): 133-139, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900584

RESUMO

This study investigated the sero-epidemiology of bluetongue in ruminants in North-Western Pakistan. A total of 3,173 serum samples were collected from small (n = 1,651) and large (n = 1,522) ruminants being reared by farmers in 14 districts. Antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected using competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence of BTV antibodies was 65%. A significant association (P < 0.05) between the prevalence of BTV antibodies and the risk factors including sex, species, age, area, husbandry practices and breed was shown by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, the seroprevalence was 6.5 (95% CL = 3.7-11.4), 5.9 (95% CL = 3.8-9.4) and 2.4 (95% CL = 1.5-3.7) times higher in buffaloes, cattle and goats than sheep, respectively. The seroprevalence was 1.4 (95% CL = 1.1-1.7) times higher in local breeds than in cross/exotic breeds. The seroprevalence was 1.6 (95% CL = 1.1 to 2.3) times higher in sedentary animals than in nomadic animals. The seroprevalence was significantly associated with age. Further work is required to determine the BTV serotypes prevalent in the study area for effective control of the disease.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue , Bluetongue , Doenças das Cabras , Animais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Ovinos , Cabras , Bovinos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ruminantes/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Prevalência
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(27): 15357-15365, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941278

RESUMO

The prohibition of processed animal proteins (PAPs) has been relaxed gradually since 2007. The official control method for PAPs in feedingstuff, a combination of light microscopy (LM) followed by PCR, is no longer sufficient. Thus, a targeted LC-MS/MS method was developed, which enables a tissue-specific distinction between egg and dairy products, gelatine, and PAPs derived from blood or muscle tissue of the species ruminants, pigs, poultry, and fish. Tissue-specific proteins were analyzed after tryptic digestion to peptides with high-resolution ESI-QTOF-MS. A targeted method was developed based on untargeted proteomics approaches and the selection of specific peptides (45 unique peptides in total). Proficiency testing of blank and spiked samples revealed excellent results for trueness and selectivity. Furthermore, sensitivity was achieved at a level of 0.1% (w/w) for assessed peptides. Summing up, the developed method seems to be suitable for routine analysis after verification by ring trials.


Assuntos
Peixes , Aves Domésticas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Suínos , Ruminantes , Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Laticínios/análise , Carne/análise , Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida
9.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13974, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924221

RESUMO

In recent years, agricultural by-products have generated increasing interest as ruminant feed. In a completely randomized design with five experimental treatments, this in vitro study investigated the nutritional value of citrus pulp and onion peel as alternative feed for ruminants and their effects on rumen fermentation, digestibility, and gas production. The first group was the control (50% grass hay/50% concentrate mixture). The other four treatments represented citrus pulp and onion peel at inclusion levels of 10 and 20%, replacing the expensive, high-quality feed ingredients such as the concentrate mixture. The chemical composition showed that citrus pulp is an energy-rich material that could be included up to 20% to replace part of the concentrate in a mixed diet without any adverse impacts on rumen fermentation parameters. The onion peels were rich in fiber and minerals. Their inclusion in the diet of over 10% had detrimental effects on rumen fermentation. The inclusion of either citrus pulp or onion peel in the diet did not have the potential to reduce enteric methane production. In conclusion, citrus pulp showed promising results as a new feed for ruminants. It was effective when included in up to 20% of a ruminant diet, replacing the concentrate mixture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Citrus , Dieta , Digestão , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Rúmen , Ruminantes , Animais , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Metano/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Cebolas , Técnicas In Vitro , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo
10.
J Helminthol ; 98: e45, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828717

RESUMO

This review summarises studies on distribution, diversity, and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in wild ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. The results showed that 109 gastrointestinal tract (GIT) helminth species or species complexes were recorded in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. South Africa reported the highest number of species because most studies were carried out in this country. Eighty-eight nematode species or species complexes were recorded from 30 wild ruminant species across eight countries. The genus Trichostrongylus recorded the highest number of species and utilised the highest number of wild ruminant species, and along with Haemonchus spp., was the most widely distributed geographically. Fifteen trematode species or species complexes were reported from seven countries. The genus Paramphistomum recorded the highest number of species, and Calicophoron calicophoron was the most commonly occurring species in sub-Saharan African countries and infected the highest number of hosts. Six cestode species or species complexes from one family were documented from 14 wild hosts in seven countries. Moniezia spp. were the most commonly distributed in terms of host range and geographically. Impala were infected by the highest number of nematodes, whilst Nyala were infected by the highest number of trematode species. Greater kudu and Impala harbored the largest number of cestodes. The prevalence amongst the three GIT helminths taxa ranged between 1.4% and 100% for nematodes, 0.8% and 100% for trematodes, and 1.4% and 50% for cestodes. There is still limited information on the distribution and diversity of GIT helminths in wild ruminants in most sub-Saharan African countries.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Ruminantes , Animais , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842428

RESUMO

In a previous study characterizing Campylobacter strains deficient in selenium metabolism, 50 strains were found to be similar to, but distinct from, the selenonegative species Campylobacter lanienae. Initial characterization based on multilocus sequence typing and the phylogeny of a set of 20 core genes determined that these strains form three putative taxa within the selenonegative cluster. A polyphasic study was undertaken here to further clarify their taxonomic position within the genus. The 50 selenonegative strains underwent phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and an expanded set of 330 core genes. Standard phenotypic testing was also performed. All strains were microaerobic and anaerobic, Gram-negative, spiral or curved cells with some displaying coccoid morphologies. Strains were motile, oxidase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase positive, urease negative, and reduced nitrate. Strains within each clade had unique phenotypic profiles that distinguished them from other members of the genus. Core genome phylogeny clearly placed the 50 strains into three clades. Pairwise average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were all below the recommended cut-offs for species delineation with respect to C. lanienae and other related Campylobacter species. The data presented here clearly show that these strains represent three novel species within the genus, for which the names Campylobacter devanensis sp. nov. (type strain RM3662T=LMG 33097T=NCTC 15074T), Campylobacter porcelli sp. nov. (type strain RM6137T=LMG 33098T=CCUG 77054T=NCTC 15075T) and Campylobacter vicugnae sp. nov. (type strain RM12175T=LMG 33099T=CCUG 77055T=NCTC 15076T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Campylobacter , DNA Bacteriano , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Suínos , Ruminantes/microbiologia
12.
Theriogenology ; 225: 16-32, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788626

RESUMO

The challenges posed by climate change and increasing world population are stimulating renewed efforts for improving the sustainability of animal production. To meet such challenges, the contribution of genomic selection approaches, in combination with assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), to spreading and preserving animal genetics is essential. The largest increase in genetic gain can be achieved by shortening the generation interval. This review provides an overview of the current status and progress of advanced ARTs that could be applied to reduce the generation time in both female and male of domestic ruminants. In females, the use of juvenile in vitro embryo transfer (JIVET) enables to generate offspring after the transfer of in vitro produced embryos derived from oocytes of prepubertal genetically superior donors reducing the generational interval and acceleration genetic gain. The current challenge is increasing in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from prepubertal derived oocytes which is still low and variable. The two main factors limiting IVEP success are the intrinsic quality of prepubertal oocytes and the culture systems for in vitro maturation (IVM). In males, advancements in ARTs are providing new strategies to in vitro propagate spermatogonia and differentiate them into mature sperm or even to recapitulate the whole process of spermatogenesis from embryonic stem cells. Moreover, the successful use of immature cells, such as round spermatids, for intracytoplasmic injection (ROSI) and IVEP could allow to complete the entire process in few months. However, these approaches have been successfully applied to human and mouse whereas only a few studies have been published in ruminants and results are still controversial. This is also dependent on the efficiency of ROSI that is limited by the current isolation and selection protocols of round spermatids. In conclusion, the current efforts for improving these reproductive methodologies could lead toward a significant reduction of the generational interval in livestock animals that could have a considerable impact on agriculture sustainability.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Ruminantes , Animais , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Trends Parasitol ; 40(6): 511-526, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760257

RESUMO

Helminth infections in grazing ruminants are a major issue for livestock farming globally, but are unavoidable in outdoor grazing systems and must be effectively managed to avoid deleterious effects to animal health, and productivity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are transforming our understanding of the genetic basis of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and epidemiological studies of ruminant gastrointestinal parasites. They also have the potential to not only help develop and validate molecular diagnostic tests but to be directly used in routine diagnostics integrating species-specific identification and AR into a single test. Here, we review how these developments have opened the pathway for the development of multi-AR and multispecies identification in a single test, with widespread implications for sustainable livestock farming for the future.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ruminantes , Animais , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Helmintos/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 329: 110187, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728835

RESUMO

This guideline is aimed at those who are involved in the assessment of anthelmintic efficacy in ruminant livestock species (bovine, ovine and caprine). The intent is to provide a framework that can be adopted worldwide for the testing of anthelmintics in ruminants, such that studies carried out in different countries can be compared and thereby unnecessary duplication can be reduced. Recommendations are made for the selection, housing and feeding of study animals, the type of studies required, the method used to conduct those studies, the assessment of results and the standards for defining anthelmintic efficacy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Cabras , Ruminantes , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Ovinos , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia
15.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(6): 1191-1198, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802495

RESUMO

Eastern Africa is home to the largest terrestrial migrations on Earth. Though these migratory systems have been well studied for decades, little is known of their antiquity and evolutionary history. Serially sampled strontium stable isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) from tooth enamel can be used to track migration in mammals. Here we analyse 87Sr/86Sr for 79 bovid and equid individuals representing 18 species from four localities in Kenya to characterize prehistoric migratory systems during the Last Glacial Period (115-11.7 ka). Of the species analysed, 16 lack definitive evidence for migration, including blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) and plains zebra (Equus quagga), which are long-distance migrants today in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem and historically in the Athi-Kapiti Plains. Only two species, the extinct wildebeests Rusingoryx atopocranion and Megalotragus sp., were migratory. These findings suggest a possible alternative narrative about ecosystem dynamics during the Last Glacial Period and shed light on the behaviour of both extant and extinct species at this time. In particular, these results indicate that migratory behaviour in extant species either emerged during the Holocene or was more spatiotemporally constrained in the past. Our results contribute to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the structure and function of geologically recent large mammal communities in eastern Africa differed considerably from those observed in the present day.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Herbivoria , Quênia , Animais , Equidae/fisiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Fósseis , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise
16.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 71(5): 568-577, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella, is a zoonotic disease with several mammalian reservoir hosts. In Somalia, a country heavily reliant on livestock, zoonotic diseases pose significant public health and economic challenges. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed aiming to verify the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in Somalia. This study investigated the occurrence and molecular characterization of Bartonella in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius, Linnaeus, 1758), cattle, sheep, and goats from Somalia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 530 blood samples were collected from various animals (155 dromedary, 199 goat, 131 cattle, and 45 sheep) in Benadir and Lower Shabelle regions. DNA was extracted for molecular analysis, and a qPCR assay targeting the NADH dehydrogenase gamma subunit (nuoG) gene was used for Bartonella screening. Positive samples were also subjected to PCR assays targeting seven molecular markers including: nuoG, citrate synthase gene (gltA), RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB), riboflavin synthase gene (ribC), 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL), cell division protein gene (ftsZ), and pap31 and qPCR targeting the 16-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) followed by Sanger sequencing, BLASTn and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Out of 530 tested animals, 5.1% were positive for Bartonella spp. by the nuoG qPCR assay. Goats showed the highest Bartonella occurrence (17/199, 8.5%), followed by sheep (6/44, 6.8%), cattle (4/131, 3.1%), and dromedary (1/155, 1.9%). Goats, sheep, and cattle had higher odds of infection compared to dromedary. Among nuoG qPCR-positive samples, 11.1%, 14.8%, 11.1%, and 25.9% were positive in PCR assays based on nuoG, gltA, and pap31 genes, and in the qPCR based on the ITS region, respectively. On the other hand, nuoG qPCR-positive samples were negative in the PCR assays targeting the ribC, rpoB, ftsZ, and groEL genes. While Bartonella bovis sequences were detected in cattle (nuoG and ITS) and goats (gltA), Bartonella henselae ITS sequences were detected in dromedary, goat, and sheep. Phylogenetic analysis placed gltA Bartonella sequence from a goat in the same clade of B. bovis. CONCLUSION: The present study showed, for the first time, molecular evidence of Bartonella spp. in dromedary and ruminants from Somalia and B. henselae in sheep and goats globally. These findings contribute valuable insights into Bartonella spp. occurrence in Somali livestock, highlighting the need for comprehensive surveillance and control measures under the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Camelus , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Camelus/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética
17.
Chemosphere ; 359: 142320, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735490

RESUMO

Population declines were documented in multiple ruminant species in Montana and surrounding states starting in 1995. While weather, food sources, and predation certainly contributed, the declines were often attributed, at least partly, to unexplained factors. Use of teratogenic agrichemicals, notably neonicotinoid insecticides, fungicides, and glyphosate-based herbicides, massively increased regionally in 1994-96. The question explored in this review is whether this vastly increased use of these teratogenic pesticides might have contributed to observed population declines. We provide references and data documenting that specific developmental malformations on vertebrates can be associated with exposure to one or more of these agrichemicals. These pesticides are known to disrupt thyroid and other hormonal functions, mitochondrial functions, and biomineralization, all of which are particularly harmful to developing fetuses. Exposures can manifest as impaired embryonic development of craniofacial features, internal and reproductive organs, and musculoskeletal/integumental systems, often resulting in reproductive failure or weakened neonates. This paper reviews: a) studies of ruminant populations in the region, especially elk and white-tailed deer, prior to and after 1994; b) published and new data on underdeveloped facial bones in regional ruminants; c) published and new data on reproductive abnormalities in live and necropsied animals before and after 1994; and d) studies documenting the effects of exposures to three of the most applied teratogenic chemicals. While answers to the question posed above are complex and insufficient evidence is available for definitive answers, this review provides ideas for further consideration.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Ruminantes , Teratogênicos , Animais , Teratogênicos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Cervos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , Glifosato
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(26): 37943-37962, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772996

RESUMO

Ruminal fermentation is a natural process involving beneficial microorganisms that contribute to the production of valuable products and efficient nutrient conversion. However, it also leads to the emission of greenhouse gases, which have detrimental effects on the environment and animal productivity. Phytobiotic additives have emerged as a potential solution to these challenges, offering benefits in terms of rumen fermentation modulation, pollution reduction, and improved animal health and performance. This updated review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the specific benefits of phytobiotic additives in ruminant nutrition by summarizing existing studies. Phytobiotic additives, rich in secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and essential oils, have demonstrated biological properties that positively influence rumen fermentation and enhance animal health and productivity. These additives contribute to environmental protection by effectively reducing nitrogen excretion and methane emissions from ruminants. Furthermore, they inhibit microbial respiration and nitrification in soil, thereby minimizing nitrous oxide emissions. In addition to their environmental impact, phytobiotic additives improve rumen manipulation, leading to increased ruminant productivity and improved quality of animal products. Their multifaceted properties, including anthelmintic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory effects, further contribute to the health and well-being of both animals and humans. The potential synergistic effects of combining phytobiotic additives with probiotics are also explored, highlighting the need for further research in this area. In conclusion, phytobiotic additives show great promise as sustainable and effective solutions for improving ruminant nutrition and addressing environmental challenges.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Rúmen , Ruminantes , Animais , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Metano
19.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793568

RESUMO

The hepatitis E virus is a serious health concern worldwide, with 20 million cases each year. Growing numbers of autochthonous HEV infections in industrialized nations are brought on via the zoonotic transmission of HEV genotypes 3 and 4. Pigs and wild boars are the main animal reservoirs of HEV and play the primary role in HEV transmission. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat and close contact with infected animals are the most common causes of hepatitis E infection in industrialized countries. However, during the past few years, mounting data describing HEV distribution has led experts to believe that additional animals, particularly domestic ruminant species (cow, goat, sheep, deer, buffalo, and yak), may also play a role in the spreading of HEV. Up to now, there have not been enough studies focused on HEV infections associated with animal milk and the impact that they could have on the epidemiology of HEV. This critical analysis discusses the role of domestic ruminants in zoonotic HEV transmissions. More specifically, we focus on concerns related to milk safety, the role of mixed farming in cross-species HEV infections, and what potential consequences these may have on public health.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Leite , Ruminantes , Zoonoses , Animais , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Leite/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Humanos , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Ovinos/virologia , Genótipo
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1379798, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756777

RESUMO

Introduction: Cryptosporidiosis is a poorly controlled zoonosis caused by an intestinal parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, with a high prevalence in livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats). Young animals are particularly susceptible to this infection due to the immaturity of their intestinal immune system. In a neonatal mouse model, we previously demonstrated the importance of the innate immunity and particularly of type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1) among mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) in controlling the acute phase of C. parvum infection. These immune populations are well described in mice and humans, but their fine characterization in the intestine of young ruminants remained to be further explored. Methods: Immune cells of the small intestinal Peyer's patches and of the distal jejunum were isolated from naive lambs and calves at different ages. This was followed by their fine characterization by flow cytometry and transcriptomic analyses (q-RT-PCR and single cell RNAseq (lamb cells)). Newborn animals were infected with C. parvum, clinical signs and parasite burden were quantified, and isolated MP cells were characterized by flow cytometry in comparison with age matched control animals. Results: Here, we identified one population of macrophages and three subsets of cDC (cDC1, cDC2, and a minor cDC subset with migratory properties) in the intestine of lamb and calf by phenotypic and targeted gene expression analyses. Unsupervised single-cell transcriptomic analysis confirmed the identification of these four intestinal MP subpopulations in lamb, while highlighting a deeper diversity of cell subsets among monocytic and dendritic cells. We demonstrated a weak proportion of cDC1 in the intestine of highly susceptible newborn lambs together with an increase of these cells within the first days of life and in response to the infection. Discussion: Considering cDC1 importance for efficient parasite control in the mouse model, one may speculate that the cDC1/cDC2 ratio plays also a key role for the efficient control of C. parvum in young ruminants. In this study, we established the first fine characterization of intestinal MP subsets in young lambs and calves providing new insights for comparative immunology of the intestinal MP system across species and for future investigations on host-Cryptosporidium interactions in target species.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Homeostase , Animais , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/imunologia , Ovinos , Bovinos , Homeostase/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/parasitologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/parasitologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/parasitologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ruminantes/imunologia
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