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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2931, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575566

RESUMO

Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is an essential metabolic enzyme across all domains of life for the production of glutathione, cysteine, and hydrogen sulfide. Appended to the conserved catalytic domain of human CBS is a regulatory domain that modulates activity by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and promotes oligomerisation. Here we show using cryo-electron microscopy that full-length human CBS in the basal and SAM-bound activated states polymerises as filaments mediated by a conserved regulatory domain loop. In the basal state, CBS regulatory domains sterically block the catalytic domain active site, resulting in a low-activity filament with three CBS dimers per turn. This steric block is removed when in the activated state, one SAM molecule binds to the regulatory domain, forming a high-activity filament with two CBS dimers per turn. These large conformational changes result in a central filament of SAM-stabilised regulatory domains at the core, decorated with highly flexible catalytic domains. Polymerisation stabilises CBS and reduces thermal denaturation. In PC-3 cells, we observed nutrient-responsive CBS filamentation that disassembles when methionine is depleted and reversed in the presence of SAM. Together our findings extend our understanding of CBS enzyme regulation, and open new avenues for investigating the pathogenic mechanism and therapeutic opportunities for CBS-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Cistationina beta-Sintase , Metionina , Humanos , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(4): e0308623, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441472

RESUMO

All organisms utilize S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a key co-substrate for the methylation of biological molecules, the synthesis of polyamines, and radical SAM reactions. When these processes occur, 5'-deoxy-nucleosides are formed as byproducts such as S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), and 5'-deoxyadenosine (5dAdo). A prevalent pathway found in bacteria for the metabolism of MTA and 5dAdo is the dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) shunt, which converts these compounds into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 2-methylthioacetaldehyde or acetaldehyde, respectively. Previous work in other organisms has shown that the DHAP shunt can enable methionine synthesis from MTA or serve as an MTA and 5dAdo detoxification pathway. Rather, the DHAP shunt in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, when introduced into E. coli K-12, enables the use of 5dAdo and MTA as a carbon source for growth. When MTA is the substrate, the sulfur component is not significantly recycled back to methionine but rather accumulates as 2-methylthioethanol, which is slowly oxidized non-enzymatically under aerobic conditions. The DHAP shunt in ATCC 25922 is active under oxic and anoxic conditions. Growth using 5-deoxy-d-ribose was observed during aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration with Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), but not during fermentation or respiration with nitrate. This suggests the DHAP shunt may only be relevant for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli lineages with the DHAP shunt that inhabit oxic or TMAO-rich extraintestinal environments. This reveals a heretofore overlooked role of the DHAP shunt in carbon and energy metabolism from ubiquitous SAM utilization byproducts and suggests a similar role may occur in other pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria with the DHAP shunt. IMPORTANCE: The acquisition and utilization of organic compounds that serve as growth substrates are essential for Escherichia coli to grow and multiply. Ubiquitous enzymatic reactions involving S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a co-substrate by all organisms result in the formation of the 5'-deoxy-nucleoside byproducts, 5'-methylthioadenosine and 5'-deoxyadenosine. All E. coli possess a conserved nucleosidase that cleaves these 5'-deoxy-nucleosides into 5-deoxy-pentose sugars for adenine salvage. The DHAP shunt pathway is found in some extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, but its function in E. coli possessing it has remained unknown. This study reveals that the DHAP shunt enables the utilization of 5'-deoxy-nucleosides and 5-deoxy-pentose sugars as growth substrates in E. coli strains with the pathway during aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration with TMAO, but not fermentative growth. This provides an insight into the diversity of sugar compounds accessible by E. coli with the DHAP shunt and suggests that the DHAP shunt is primarily relevant in oxic or TMAO-rich extraintestinal environments.


Assuntos
Desoxiadenosinas , Escherichia coli , Metilaminas , S-Adenosilmetionina , Tionucleosídeos , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fosfato de Di-Hidroxiacetona , Metionina/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Pentoses , Carbono , Açúcares
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 243: 116097, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489960

RESUMO

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a noninvasive index of vascular aging. However, the metabolic profile underlying vascular aging has not yet been fully elucidated. The current study aimed to identify circulating markers of vascular aging as assessed by baPWV and to elucidate its mechanism from a metabolomic perspective in older adults. A total of 60 and 61 Chinese male participants aged ≥80 years were recruited to the metabolome and validation cohorts, respectively. The baPWV of participants was measured using an automatic waveform analyzer. Plasma metabolic profile was investigated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) regression modeling established the association between metabolic profile and baPWV to determine important metabolites predictive of vascular aging. Additionally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to validate the metabolites in plasma and culture media of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. OPLS modeling identified 14 and 22 metabolites inversely and positively associated with baPWV, respectively. These 36 biomarkers were significantly enriched in seven metabolite sets, especially in cysteine and methionine metabolism (p <0.05). Notably, among metabolites involved in cysteine and methionine metabolism, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) level was inversely related to baPWV, with a significant correlation coefficient in the OPLS model (p <0.05). Furthermore, the relationship between SAM and vascular aging was reconfirmed in an independent cohort and at the cellular level in vitro. SAM was independently associated with baPWV after adjustments for clinical covariates (ß = -0.448, p <0.001) in the validation cohort. In summary, plasma metabolomics identified an inverse correlation between SAM and baPWV in older males. SAM has the potential to be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for vascular aging.


Assuntos
Índice Tornozelo-Braço , S-Adenosilmetionina , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Cisteína , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Fatores de Risco
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2774: 259-267, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441770

RESUMO

S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a critical metabolite involved in numerous cellular processes, including DNA methylation and gene expression regulation. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of SAM within living cells is essential for deciphering its roles in maintaining cell homeostasis and in disease development. Here, we describe a protocol based on a recently reported SAM sensor exploiting a fluorogenic RNA and an RNA three-way junction for visualizing SAM dynamics in cultured mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Corantes , Metilação de DNA , Animais , Diagnóstico por Imagem , RNA , S-Adenosilmetionina , Mamíferos
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2517, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514639

RESUMO

Animals sense and respond to nutrient availability in their environments, a task coordinated in part by the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1 regulates growth in response to nutrients and, in mammals, senses specific amino acids through specialized sensors that bind the GATOR1/2 signaling hub. Given that animals can occupy diverse niches, we hypothesized that the pathway might evolve distinct sensors in different metazoan phyla. Whether such customization occurs, and how the mTORC1 pathway might capture new inputs, is unknown. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster protein Unmet expectations (CG11596) as a species-restricted methionine sensor that directly binds the fly GATOR2 complex in a fashion antagonized by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). We find that in Dipterans GATOR2 rapidly evolved the capacity to bind Unmet and to thereby repurpose a previously independent methyltransferase as a SAM sensor. Thus, the modular architecture of the mTORC1 pathway allows it to co-opt preexisting enzymes to expand its nutrient sensing capabilities, revealing a mechanism for conferring evolvability on an otherwise conserved system.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Animais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina , Nutrientes , Mamíferos/metabolismo
6.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 380, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548921

RESUMO

S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) reversibly cleaves S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, the product of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation reactions. The conversion of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine into adenosine and L-homocysteine plays an important role in the regulation of the methyl cycle. An alternative metabolic route for S-adenosyl-L-methionine regeneration in the extremophiles Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Thermotoga maritima has been identified, featuring the deamination of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine to S-inosyl-L-homocysteine. Herein, we report the structural characterisation of different archaeal SAHHs together with a biochemical analysis of various SAHHs from all three domains of life. Homologues deriving from the Euryarchaeota phylum show a higher conversion rate with S-inosyl-L-homocysteine compared to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Crystal structures of SAHH originating from Pyrococcus furiosus in complex with SLH and inosine as ligands, show architectural flexibility in the active site and offer deeper insights into the binding mode of hypoxanthine-containing substrates. Altogether, the findings of our study support the understanding of an alternative metabolic route for S-adenosyl-L-methionine and offer insights into the evolutionary progression and diversification of SAHHs involved in methyl and purine salvage pathways.


Assuntos
Archaea , S-Adenosilmetionina , S-Adenosilmetionina/química , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Archaea/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Metionina , Homocisteína
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 131: 111837, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471365

RESUMO

S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was a methyl donor for modifying histones, which had crucial roles in lipid accumulation, tissue injury, and immune responses. SAM fluctuation might be linked to variations in histone methylation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of whether the SAM diet influenced the immune response via histone modification remained obscure. In this study, we utilized the Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to investigate the role of SAM diet in innate immunity. We found that 50 µM SAM increased resistance to Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 by reducing the bacterial burden in the intestine. Furthermore, through the genetic screening in C. elegans, we found that SAM functioned in germline to enhance innate immunity via an H3K4 methyltransferase complex to upregulate the immune response genes, including irg-1 and T24B8.5. Intriguingly, SAM also protected mice from P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by reducing the bacterial burden in lung. These findings provided insight into the mechanisms of molecular connections among SAM diet, histone modifications and innate immunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Histonas , Animais , Camundongos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , S-Adenosilmetionina , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Dieta
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(10): 6493-6505, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426440

RESUMO

PylB is a radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzyme predicted to convert l-lysine into (3R)-3-methyl-d-ornithine, a precursor in the biosynthesis of the 22nd proteogenic amino acid pyrrolysine. This protein highly resembles that of the radical SAM tyrosine and tryptophan lyases, which activate their substrate by abstracting a H atom from the amino-nitrogen position. Here, combining in vitro assays, analytical methods, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and theoretical methods, we demonstrated that instead, PylB activates its substrate by abstracting a H atom from the Cγ position of l-lysine to afford the radical-based ß-scission. Strikingly, we also showed that PylB catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting (3R)-3-methyl-d-ornithine into l-lysine and using catalytic amounts of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. Finally, we identified significant in vitro production of 5'-thioadenosine, an unexpected shunt product that we propose to result from the quenching of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical species by the nearby [Fe4S4] cluster.


Assuntos
Metionina , Ornitina/análogos & derivados , S-Adenosilmetionina , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Lisina , Racemetionina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(10): 6544-6556, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426740

RESUMO

Pyrrolysine, the 22nd amino acid encoded by the natural genetic code, is essential for methanogenic archaea to catabolize methylamines into methane. The structure of pyrrolysine consists of a methylated pyrroline carboxylate that is linked to the ε-amino group of the l-lysine via an amide bond. The biosynthesis of pyrrolysine requires three enzymes: PylB, PylC, and PylD. PylB is a radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzyme and catalyzes the first biosynthetic step, the isomerization of l-lysine into methylornithine. PylC catalyzes an ATP-dependent ligation of methylornithine and a second l-lysine to form l-lysine-Nε-methylornithine. The last biosynthetic step is catalyzed by PylD via oxidation of the PylC product to form pyrrolysine. While enzymatic reactions of PylC and PylD have been well characterized by X-ray crystallography and in vitro studies, mechanistic understanding of PylB is still relatively limited. Here, we report the first in vitro activity of PylB to form methylornithine via the isomerization of l-lysine. We also identify a lysyl C4 radical intermediate that is trapped, with its electronic structure and geometric structure well characterized by EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy. In addition, we demonstrate that SAM functions as a catalytic cofactor in PylB catalysis rather than canonically as a cosubstrate. This work provides detailed mechanistic evidence for elucidating the carbon backbone rearrangement reaction catalyzed by PylB during the biosynthesis of pyrrolysine.


Assuntos
Lisina , Lisina/análogos & derivados , S-Adenosilmetionina , Lisina/química , Código Genético , Amidas/metabolismo
10.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470714

RESUMO

The complex of methyltransferase-like proteins 3 and 14 (METTL3-14) is the major enzyme that deposits N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications on messenger RNA (mRNA) in humans. METTL3-14 plays key roles in various biological processes through its methyltransferase (MTase) activity. However, little is known about its substrate recognition and methyl transfer mechanism from its cofactor and methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Here, we study the MTase mechanism of METTL3-14 by a combined experimental and multiscale simulation approach using bisubstrate analogues (BAs), conjugates of a SAM-like moiety connected to the N6-atom of adenosine. Molecular dynamics simulations based on crystal structures of METTL3-14 with BAs suggest that the Y406 side chain of METTL3 is involved in the recruitment of adenosine and release of m6A. A crystal structure with a BA representing the transition state of methyl transfer shows a direct involvement of the METTL3 side chains E481 and K513 in adenosine binding which is supported by mutational analysis. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) free energy calculations indicate that methyl transfer occurs without prior deprotonation of adenosine-N6. Furthermore, the QM/MM calculations provide further support for the role of electrostatic contributions of E481 and K513 to catalysis. The multidisciplinary approach used here sheds light on the (co)substrate binding mechanism, catalytic step, and (co)product release, and suggests that the latter step is rate-limiting for METTL3. The atomistic information on the substrate binding and methyl transfer reaction of METTL3 can be useful for understanding the mechanisms of other RNA MTases and for the design of transition state analogues as their inhibitors.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases , RNA , Humanos , RNA/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina , Catálise
11.
Biotechnol J ; 19(3): e2300650, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479990

RESUMO

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a substrate for many enzyme-catalyzed reactions and provides methyl groups in numerous biological methylations, and thus has vast applications in the agriculture and medical field. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered as a platform with significant potential for producing SAM, but the current production has room for improvement. Thus, a method that consists of a series of metabolic engineering strategies was established in this study. These strategies included enhancing SAM synthesis, increasing ATP supply, down-regulating SAM metabolism, and down-regulating competing pathway. After combinatorial metabolic engineering, Bayesian optimization was conducted on the obtained strain C262P6S to optimize the fermentation medium. A final yield of 2972.8 mg·L-1 at 36 h with 29.7% of the L-Met conversion rate in the shake flask was achieved, which was 26.3 times higher than that of its parent strain and the highest reported production in the shake flask to date. This paper establishes a feasible foundation for the construction of SAM-producing strains using metabolic engineering strategies and demonstrates the effectiveness of Bayesian optimization in optimizing fermentation medium to enhance the generation of SAM.


Assuntos
Metionina , S-Adenosilmetionina , Metionina/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Fermentação , Racemetionina/metabolismo
12.
Epigenetics ; 19(1): 2318516, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484284

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, are proposed mechanisms explaining the impact of parental exposures to foetal development and lifelong health. Micronutrients including folate, choline, and vitamin B12 provide methyl groups for the one-carbon metabolism and subsequent DNA methylation processes. Placental DNA methylation changes in response to one-carbon moieties hold potential targets to improve obstetrical care. We conducted a systematic review on the associations between one-carbon metabolism and human placental DNA methylation. We included 22 studies. Findings from clinical studies with minimal ErasmusAGE quality score 5/10 (n = 15) and in vitro studies (n = 3) are summarized for different one-carbon moieties. Next, results are discussed per study approach: (1) global DNA methylation (n = 9), (2) genome-wide analyses (n = 4), and (3) gene specific (n = 14). Generally, one-carbon moieties were not associated with global methylation, although conflicting outcomes were reported specifically for choline. Using genome-wide approaches, few differentially methylated sites associated with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), or dietary patterns. Most studies taking a gene-specific approach indicated site-specific relationships depending on studied moiety and genomic region, specifically in genes involved in growth and development including LEP, NR3C1, CRH, and PlGF; however, overlap between studies was low. Therefore, we recommend to further investigate the impact of an optimized one-carbon metabolism on DNA methylation and lifelong health.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Placenta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Placenta/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ácido Fólico , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Colina/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
13.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540746

RESUMO

Amino acid restriction induces cellular stress and cells often respond via the induction of autophagy. Autophagy or 'self-eating' enables the recycling of proteins and provides the essential amino acids needed for cell survival. Of the naturally occurring amino acids, methionine restriction has pleiotropic effects on cells because methionine also contributes to the intracellular methyl pools required for epigenetic controls as well as polyamine biosynthesis. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis of four diastereomers of a methionine depletion agent and demonstrate how controlled methionine efflux from cells significantly reduces intracellular methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH), and polyamine levels. We also demonstrate that human pancreatic cancer cells respond via a lipid signaling pathway to induce autophagy. The methionine depletion agent causes the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) to preferentially work in reverse and export the cell's methionine (and leucine) stores. The four diastereomers of the lead methionine/leucine depletion agent were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to (a) efflux 3H-leucine from cells, (b) dock to LAT1 in silico, (c) modulate intracellular SAM, SAH, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) pools, and (d) induce the formation of the autophagy-associated LC3-II marker. The ability to modulate the intracellular concentration of methionine regardless of exogenous methionine supply provides new molecular tools to better understand cancer response pathways. This information can then be used to design improved therapeutics that target downstream methionine-dependent processes like polyamines.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Metionina , Humanos , Leucina/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Racemetionina
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6915, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519576

RESUMO

Neuronal aging may be, in part, related to a change in DNA methylation. Thus, methyl donors, like folate and methionine, may play a role in cognitive changes associated to neuronal aging. To test the role of these metabolites, we performed stereotaxic microinjection of these molecules into the dentate gyrus (DG) of aged mice (an average age of 21 month). Folate, but not S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM), enhances cognition in aged mice. In the presence of folate, we observed partial rejuvenation of DG cells, characterized by the expression of juvenile genes or reorganization of extracellular matrix. Here, we have also tried to identify the mechanism independent of DNA methylation, that involve folate effects on cognition. Our analyses indicated that folate binds to folate receptor α (FRα) and, upon folate binding, FRα is transported to cell nucleus, where it is acting as transcription factor for expressing genes like SOX2 or GluN2B. In this work, we report that a FRα binding peptide also replicates the folate effect on cognition, in aged mice. Our data suggest that such effect is not sex-dependent. Thus, we propose the use of this peptide to improve cognition since it lacks of folate-mediated side effects. The use of synthetic FRα binding peptides emerge as a future strategy for the study of brain rejuvenation.


Assuntos
Receptor 1 de Folato , Rejuvenescimento , Animais , Camundongos , Cognição , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Metionina , Peptídeos/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(8): 5550-5559, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364824

RESUMO

OspD is a radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) peptide epimerase that converts an isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) of the OspA substrate to d-amino acids during biosynthesis of the ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural product landornamide A. OspD is proposed to carry out this reaction via α-carbon (Cα) H-atom abstraction to form a peptidyl Cα radical that is stereospecifically quenched by hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from a conserved cysteine (Cys). Here we use site-directed mutagenesis, freeze-quench trapping, isotopic labeling, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to provide new insights into the OspD catalytic mechanism including the direct observation of the substrate peptide Cα radical intermediate. The putative quenching Cys334 was changed to serine to generate an OspD C334S variant impaired in HAT quenching. The reaction of reduced OspD C334S with SAM and OspA freeze-quenched at 15 s exhibits a doublet EPR signal characteristic of a Cα radical coupled to a single ß-H. Using isotopologues of OspA deuterated at either Ile or Val, or both Ile and Val, reveals that the initial Cα radical intermediate forms exclusively on the Ile of OspA. Time-dependent freeze quench coupled with EPR spectroscopy provided evidence for loss of the Ile Cα radical concomitant with gain of a Val Cα radical, directly demonstrating the N-to-C directionality of epimerization by OspD. These results provide direct evidence for the aforementioned OspD-catalyzed peptide epimerization mechanism via a central Cα radical intermediate during RiPP maturation of OspA, a mechanism that may extend to other proteusin peptide epimerases.


Assuntos
Metionina , S-Adenosilmetionina , S-Adenosilmetionina/química , Carbono , Peptídeos/química , Aminoácidos , Racemetionina , Valina
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(8): 3846-3871, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372640

RESUMO

Methylated natural products are widely spread in nature. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is the secondary abundant cofactor and the primary methyl donor, which confer natural products with structural and functional diversification. The increasing demand for SAM-dependent natural products (SdNPs) has motivated the development of microbial cell factories (MCFs) for sustainable and efficient SdNP production. Insufficient and unsustainable SAM availability hinders the improvement of SdNP MCF performance. From the perspective of developing MCF, this review summarized recent understanding of de novo SAM biosynthesis and its regulatory mechanism. SAM is just the methyl mediator but not the original methyl source. Effective and sustainable methyl source supply is critical for efficient SdNP production. We compared and discussed the innate and relatively less explored alternative methyl sources and identified the one involving cheap one-carbon compound as more promising. The SAM biosynthesis is synergistically regulated on multilevels and is tightly connected with ATP and NAD(P)H pools. We also covered the recent advancement of metabolic engineering in improving intracellular SAM availability and SdNP production. Dynamic regulation is a promising strategy to achieve accurate and dynamic fine-tuning of intracellular SAM pool size. Finally, we discussed the design and engineering constraints underlying construction of SAM-responsive genetic circuits and envisioned their future applications in developing SdNP MCFs.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , S-Adenosilmetionina , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 241: 115991, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301577

RESUMO

In this study there were utilized a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-FTIR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method to develop quantitative models for determining the concentration of ademetionine in commercial tablets. The established and validated models were specifically designed for a commercial product containing ademetionine 1,4-butandiesulfonate. The coefficient of determination for the developed model was 0.999. Relative standard deviation (RSD) does not exceed 1.6% for repeatability and intermediate accuracy, which meets the international ICH and AOAC requirements for the method performance. The validation results effectively confirmed that this method is suitable and meets the current requirements for analytical methods in drug quality control. Consequently, this approach can be used for routine ademetionine analysis in pharmaceutical products and has the potential to be applied to other active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in drug quality control.


Assuntos
S-Adenosilmetionina , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Comprimidos , Controle de Qualidade
18.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 100: 117633, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342078

RESUMO

The methionine adenosyltransferase MAT2A catalyzes the synthesis ofthe methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and thereby regulates critical aspects of metabolism and transcription. Aberrant MAT2A function can lead to metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming of cancer cells, and MAT2A has been shown to promote survival of MTAP-deficient tumors, a genetic alteration that occurs in âˆ¼ 13 % of all tumors. Thus, MAT2A holds great promise as a novel anticancer target. Here, we report a novel series of MAT2A inhibitors generated by a fragment growing approach from AZ-28, a low-molecular weight MAT2A inhibitor with promising pre-clinical properties. X-ray co-crystal structure revealed that compound 7 fully occupies the allosteric pocket of MAT2A as a single molecule mimicking MAT2B. By introducing additional backbone interactions and rigidifying the requisite linker extensions, we generated compound 8, which exhibited single digit nanomolar enzymatic and sub-micromolar cellular inhibitory potency for MAT2A.


Assuntos
Metionina Adenosiltransferase , Neoplasias , Humanos , Sítio Alostérico , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/metabolismo , Mutação , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo
19.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 137(4): 268-273, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310037

RESUMO

Hineka is a type of off-flavor of sake and is attributed to the presence of several compounds, including a major one called dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The production of the main precursor of DMTS involves yeast methionine salvage pathway. The DMTS-producing potential (DMTS-pp) of sake brewed using the Km67 strain, a non-Kyokai sake yeast, is lower than that of sake brewed using Kyokai yeast; however, the detailed mechanism is unclear. We focused on S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and aimed to elucidate the mechanism that prevents DMTS production in sake brewed using the Km67 strain. We revealed that SAM is involved in DMTS production in sake, and that the conversion of SAM to the DMTS precursor occurs through an enzymatic reaction rather than a chemical reaction. Based on previous reports on ADO1 and MDE1 genes, sake brewing tests were performed using the Km67 Δmde1, Δado1, and Δmde1Δado1 strains. A comparison of the SAM content of pressed sake cakes and DMTS-pp of sake produced using the Km67 Δado1 strain showed an increase in both SAM content and DMTS-pp compared to those produced using the parent strain. However, the Km67 Δmde1Δado1 strain showed little increase in DMTS-pp compared to the Km67 Δmde1 strain, despite an increase in SAM content. These results suggest that SAM accumulation in yeast plays a role in the production of DMTS in sake through the methionine salvage pathway. Moreover, the low SAM-accumulation characteristic of the Km67 strain contributes to low DMTS production in sake.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sulfetos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Odorantes/análise , Fermentação , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 171: 108238, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422961

RESUMO

Due to the inherent flexibility of prompting, foundation models have emerged as the predominant force in the fields of natural language processing and computer vision. The recent introduction of the Segment Anything Model (SAM) signifies a noteworthy expansion of the prompt-driven paradigm into the domain of image segmentation, thereby introducing a plethora of previously unexplored capabilities. However, the viability of its application to medical image segmentation remains uncertain, given the substantial distinctions between natural and medical images. In this work, we provide a comprehensive overview of recent endeavors aimed at extending the efficacy of SAM to medical image segmentation tasks, encompassing both empirical benchmarking and methodological adaptations. Additionally, we explore potential avenues for future research directions in SAM's role within medical image segmentation. While direct application of SAM to medical image segmentation does not yield satisfactory performance on multi-modal and multi-target medical datasets so far, numerous insights gleaned from these efforts serve as valuable guidance for shaping the trajectory of foundational models in the realm of medical image analysis. To support ongoing research endeavors, we maintain an active repository that contains an up-to-date paper list and a succinct summary of open-source projects at https://github.com/YichiZhang98/SAM4MIS.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , S-Adenosilmetionina , Incerteza , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
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